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HUMAN REPRODUCTION
Implantation, Pregnancy and embryonic development,
Parturition and Lactation
# IMPLANTATION: -
• process in which the embryo becomes embedded into the wall of uterus.
• Cleavage: -
• The mitotic division starts as the zygote moves through the isthmus of the oviduct called cleavage
towards the uterus and forms 2, 4, 8, 16 daughter cells called blastomeres.
• Morula: -
• The embryo with 8 to 16 blastomeres is called a morula.
• Blastocyst: -
• The morula continues to divide and transforms into blastocyst as it moves further into the uterus.
• The blastomeres become arranged along the periphery leaving central cavity called blastocoel.
• The blastomeres in the blastocyst are arranged into an outer layer called trophoblast and an inner group
of cells attached to trophoblast called the inner cell mass.
.
• Implantation: -
• The trophoblast layer then gets attached to the endometrium.
• the endometrial cells divide rapidly and covers the blastocyst.
• the blastocyst becomes embedded in the endometrium of the uterus. This is called
implantation and it leads to pregnancy.
Transport of ovum, fertilisation and passage of growing embryo through
fallopian tube
PREGNANCY AND EMBRYONIC
DEVELOPMENT
• The trophoblasts differentiates into two layers; the outer layer secretes enzymes to dissolve the endometrium of uterus.
• The inner layer grows out finger like projections called chorionic villi into the uterine stroma; they are surrounded by the
uterine tissue and maternal blood vessels.
• The chorionic villi and uterine tissue become interdigitated with each other and jointly form a structural and functional
unit between developing embryo (foetus) and maternal body called placenta.
• The placenta facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and also removal of carbon dioxide and
excretory/waste materials produced by the embryo.
• The placenta is connected to the embryo through an umbilical cord which helps in the transport of substances to and
from the embryo.
• Placenta also acts as an endocrine tissue and produces several hormones like human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG),
human placental lactogen (hPL), estrogens, progestogens, etc. In the later phase of pregnancy, a hormone called relaxin
is also secreted by the ovary.
• Immediately after implantation, the inner cell mass (embryo) differentiates into an
outer layer called ectoderm and an inner layer called endoderm.
• A mesoderm soon appears between the ectoderm and the endoderm.
• These three layers give rise to all tissues (organs) in adults.
• The inner cell mass contains certain cells called stem cells which have the potency to
give rise to all the tissues and organs.
• The human pregnancy lasts 9 months.
• In human beings, after one month of pregnancy, the embryo’s heart is formed. The
first sign of growing foetus may be noticed by listening to the heart sound carefully
through the stethoscope.
• By the end of the second month of pregnancy, the foetus develops limbs and digits.
The human foetus within the uterus
• By the end of 12 weeks (first trimester), most of the major organ systems are formed,
for example, the limbs and external genital organs are well-developed.
• The first movements of the foetus and appearance of hair on the head are usually
observed during the fifth month.
• By the end of 24 weeks (second trimester), the body is covered with fine hair, eye-lids
separate, and eyelashes are formed.
• By the end of eight months of pregnancy, the testes (in Male foetus) descend into the
scrotum.
• By the end of nine months of pregnancy, the foetus is fully developed and is ready for
delivery.
PARTURITION: -
• The average duration of human pregnancy is about 9 months which is called the gestation period.
• A fully distended uterus, with the completely developed foetus initiates the secretion of certain hormones.
• Ovary secretes relaxin that facilitates parturition by softening the connective tissue of symphysis of
pubica.
• The fully developed foetus and the placenta which induce mild uterine contractions called foetal ejection
reflex.
• This triggers release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary.
• Oxytocin acts on the uterine muscle and causes stronger uterine contractions, which in turn stimulates
further secretion of oxytocin.
• The stimulatory reflex between the uterine contraction and oxytocin secretion continues resulting in
stronger and stronger contractions.
• This leads to expulsion of the baby out of the uterus through the birth canal – parturition.
• Soon after the infant is delivered, the placenta is also expelled out of the uterus.
LACTATION: -
• The mammary glands of the female undergo differentiation during pregnancy under
the influence of hormones like prolactin(hPL) and progesterone.
• They starts producing milk towards the end of pregnancy by the process called
lactation.
• This helps the mother in feeding the new born.
• The milk produced during the initial few days of lactation is called colostrum which
contains several antibodies (IgA) absolutely essential to develop resistance for the
new-born babies.
• Breast-feeding during the initial period of infant growth is recommended by doctors
for bringing up a healthy baby.
THANKS…….

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3. human reproduction implantation, pregnancy and embryonic development, parturition and lactation

  • 1. HUMAN REPRODUCTION Implantation, Pregnancy and embryonic development, Parturition and Lactation
  • 2. # IMPLANTATION: - • process in which the embryo becomes embedded into the wall of uterus. • Cleavage: - • The mitotic division starts as the zygote moves through the isthmus of the oviduct called cleavage towards the uterus and forms 2, 4, 8, 16 daughter cells called blastomeres. • Morula: - • The embryo with 8 to 16 blastomeres is called a morula. • Blastocyst: - • The morula continues to divide and transforms into blastocyst as it moves further into the uterus. • The blastomeres become arranged along the periphery leaving central cavity called blastocoel. • The blastomeres in the blastocyst are arranged into an outer layer called trophoblast and an inner group of cells attached to trophoblast called the inner cell mass.
  • 3. . • Implantation: - • The trophoblast layer then gets attached to the endometrium. • the endometrial cells divide rapidly and covers the blastocyst. • the blastocyst becomes embedded in the endometrium of the uterus. This is called implantation and it leads to pregnancy.
  • 4. Transport of ovum, fertilisation and passage of growing embryo through fallopian tube
  • 5. PREGNANCY AND EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT • The trophoblasts differentiates into two layers; the outer layer secretes enzymes to dissolve the endometrium of uterus. • The inner layer grows out finger like projections called chorionic villi into the uterine stroma; they are surrounded by the uterine tissue and maternal blood vessels. • The chorionic villi and uterine tissue become interdigitated with each other and jointly form a structural and functional unit between developing embryo (foetus) and maternal body called placenta. • The placenta facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and also removal of carbon dioxide and excretory/waste materials produced by the embryo. • The placenta is connected to the embryo through an umbilical cord which helps in the transport of substances to and from the embryo. • Placenta also acts as an endocrine tissue and produces several hormones like human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), estrogens, progestogens, etc. In the later phase of pregnancy, a hormone called relaxin is also secreted by the ovary.
  • 6. • Immediately after implantation, the inner cell mass (embryo) differentiates into an outer layer called ectoderm and an inner layer called endoderm. • A mesoderm soon appears between the ectoderm and the endoderm. • These three layers give rise to all tissues (organs) in adults. • The inner cell mass contains certain cells called stem cells which have the potency to give rise to all the tissues and organs. • The human pregnancy lasts 9 months. • In human beings, after one month of pregnancy, the embryo’s heart is formed. The first sign of growing foetus may be noticed by listening to the heart sound carefully through the stethoscope. • By the end of the second month of pregnancy, the foetus develops limbs and digits.
  • 7. The human foetus within the uterus
  • 8. • By the end of 12 weeks (first trimester), most of the major organ systems are formed, for example, the limbs and external genital organs are well-developed. • The first movements of the foetus and appearance of hair on the head are usually observed during the fifth month. • By the end of 24 weeks (second trimester), the body is covered with fine hair, eye-lids separate, and eyelashes are formed. • By the end of eight months of pregnancy, the testes (in Male foetus) descend into the scrotum. • By the end of nine months of pregnancy, the foetus is fully developed and is ready for delivery.
  • 9. PARTURITION: - • The average duration of human pregnancy is about 9 months which is called the gestation period. • A fully distended uterus, with the completely developed foetus initiates the secretion of certain hormones. • Ovary secretes relaxin that facilitates parturition by softening the connective tissue of symphysis of pubica. • The fully developed foetus and the placenta which induce mild uterine contractions called foetal ejection reflex. • This triggers release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. • Oxytocin acts on the uterine muscle and causes stronger uterine contractions, which in turn stimulates further secretion of oxytocin. • The stimulatory reflex between the uterine contraction and oxytocin secretion continues resulting in stronger and stronger contractions. • This leads to expulsion of the baby out of the uterus through the birth canal – parturition. • Soon after the infant is delivered, the placenta is also expelled out of the uterus.
  • 10. LACTATION: - • The mammary glands of the female undergo differentiation during pregnancy under the influence of hormones like prolactin(hPL) and progesterone. • They starts producing milk towards the end of pregnancy by the process called lactation. • This helps the mother in feeding the new born. • The milk produced during the initial few days of lactation is called colostrum which contains several antibodies (IgA) absolutely essential to develop resistance for the new-born babies. • Breast-feeding during the initial period of infant growth is recommended by doctors for bringing up a healthy baby.