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QUALITY ADJUSTMENT
AND
SAMPLING/GRADING
OVERVIEW
Risk Management Agency
What is Quality Adjustment?
 Some policies/endorsements provide for a
reduction in the production to count when the
quality of the appraised and/or harvested
production is reduced due to insurable causes.
 The quantity of mature production is reduced
when it meets the requirements stated in the crop
policy/endorsement (Special Provisions if
applicable). This adjusted production to count is
used for indemnity and Actual Production History
(APH) purposes.
Who can Determine Quality for
Crop Insurance?
 Grain grader licensed under the United States Grain
Standards Act or the United States Warehouse Act
(USWA).
 Grain grader licensed under State law and employed by a
warehouse operator who has a storage agreement with the
Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).
 Grain grader not licensed under State law, but who is
employed by a warehouse operator who has a commodity
storage agreement with the CCC and is in compliance
with State law regarding warehouses.
Who can Determine Quality for
Crop Insurance?
 For substances or conditions injurious to human
or animal health, samples must be analyzed by a
laboratory that:
 Is a disinterested third party;
 Performs quantitative tests that are certified by
Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS); and
 Is a recognized commercial, governmental, or
university testing laboratory.
Sampling and Grading on a Per-
Conveyance Basis
 Grades from blended samples, by unit, for non-mycotoxin
quality adjustment from both USWA licensed warehouses
and warehouses holding a storage agreement with CCC
may be accepted only if all of the following apply:
The commodity is sold on the same basis as the
blended samples used to determine the grading factors
for quality adjustment.
Proof of the sale, sale amount and grades, or signed
certification of pending sale from the buyer including
the quantity and quality is provided and is acceptable
to the approved insurance provider.
The blended sample is representative of all the loads
for which it applies and it is determined acceptable by
the approved insurance provider.
Pre 1995 Quality Adjustment
Procedure
 Reflective of current market price
Actual value of grain ÷ local market price = QA factor
 Subject to price manipulation, fraud, waste, and
abuse
Price was found to be manipulated in some cases
based on supply and demand, or availability of
insurance.
Price not always reflective of true value or sales price
of the grain.
1995 – Current Quality
Adjustment Procedure:
 Easy to administer
Predetermined factors published on the Special Provisions.
 Not subject to price manipulation, fraud, waste, and
abuse
QA factor determined from charts (unless amount of damage
is off chart).
 Not always reflective of current local market price
Factors are based on a ten year average. Current years value
and discounts are not considered (unless amount of damage is
off chart).
QA factor can come from the SPOI charts even if local
elevators are rejecting grain at the same level of damage.
Crops having Quality Adjustment
Charts in the Special Provisions
Barley Canola
Corn Flax
Grain Sorghum Oats
Rye Safflowers
Soybeans Sunflowers (Oil)
Wheat Sunflowers (Confectionary))
How were the charts developed?
 Risk Management Agency (RMA) used Farm
Service Agency (FSA) loan discount data and
national average loan rates for the past 10 years.
 This data was compiled and the average of the last
10 years was used to construct the discount
factors.
How is the Quality Adjustment
Factor (QAF) determined?
 The QAF is determined by subtracting from
1.000, the sum of all applicable pre-established
discount factors (DFs) listed in the SPOIs or
DFs derived from reductions in value (RIVs) of
the damaged grain.
 The QAF is multiplied by the number of
applicable bushels or pounds remaining after
any reduction due to excessive moisture or
foreign material (FM), in accordance with the
crop provisions.
Example of Determining QA
factor based on DF’s
 1,000 bushels of corn with kernel damage (25%)
and test weight (47 pounds) is designated as U.S.
Sample Grade.
(a) .255 (DF for kernel damage)
.059 (DF for test weight)
+ .143 (DF for Sample Grade)
.457 Total DF’s
(b)1.000 - .457 = .543 QAF
(c)1,000 bushels X .543 = 543 bushels to count
When Discount Factors (DFs) on
the SPOI are not used
 If there are no pre-established DFs, or
 There are pre-established DFs on the SPOI, and
there is at least one type/level of damage which
exceeds the pre-established DFs (amount is off
the chart), the pre-established DFs are not used to
determine the QA factor.
How are DF’s established from
Reduction in Values (RIVs)
 Divide the total RIVs by the Local Market Price
(LMP), rounded to three places.
Example of Determining QA factor
based on Reduction in Value (RIV’s)
 1,000 bushels of corn with 45 pound test weight and 12
percent kernel damage is designated as U.S. Sample
Grade. However, since the 45 pound test weight is off
the chart, RIVs are used to determine the QAF.
a) $.65 (RIV for kernel damage)
+$.85 (RIV for test weight)
$1.50 Total RIV
b) $1.50 Total RIV ÷ $2.20 (Local Market Price) =
.682 (DF)
c) 1.000 - .682 = .318 QAF
d) 1,000 X .318 = 318 bushels to count
Aflatoxin Coverage
 RMA uses three categories based on FDA
advisory levels. Based upon an approved testing
laboratory results:
0-20 ppb – No Advisory levels. Safe for human
consumption. No quality adjustment.
21-300 ppb (500 ppb in Texas) – FDA advisory
levels. RIV procedures apply. Claim settlement may
be delayed until the grain is sold (valued), used, or
destroyed.
Over 300 ppb (500 ppb in Texas) – FDA prohibits
use. Grain must be destroyed before claim
settlement.
Vomitoxin Coverage
 No advisory levels for human consumption, just
finished production.
 Minimum level for animal use is 5 ppm.
 For quality adjustment purposes, lab results
would have to be over 5 ppm.
 Quality adjustment for production containing in
excess of 5 ppm would be determined using RIVs
since there are no quality adjustment charts
contained on the SPOIs.
Mycotoxin Sampling Requirements
Mycotoxins – especially aflatoxin – can
increase in storage.
Post-harvest aflatoxin contamination can
increase during storage and if crop drying is
delayed. Insect or rodent infestations may also
facilitate mold invasion of some stored
commodities.
Holding grain for even a short time can allow
significant mold and mycotoxin development.
Insurance ends at harvest. Therefore, for crop
insurance purposes, samples must be taken
before grain storage.
Mycotoxin Sampling Requirements
RMA does not prohibit or inhibit harvest.
Samples can be taken from harvested production.
Elevators can pull samples from delivered production.
The approved insurance provider can use part of the
elevator’s retained sample or the elevator can pull an
additional sample.
For farm-stored production, producers should work
with their approved insurance provider to:
Leave at least two 10’ wide representative test strips in their
fields from which the approved insurance provider can take
representative samples, or
Have the approved insurance provider obtain samples from
harvested production before it goes into storage.
Mycotoxin Sampling Requirements
Sampling must be done before storage.
Sampling does not need to be done before
harvest.
The approved insurance provider cannot take
samples from storage but can get samples
from:
An unharvested field,
Their authorized representative strips left in an
otherwise harvested field,
Harvested production prior to storage, or
The elevator.
Milling qualities are not insured
under the Crop Provisions
 Protein and falling numbers are not considered
quality deficiencies under the Small Grains Crop
Provisions.
 Oil is not considered a quality deficiency under
the Course Grain Crop Provisions.
 Milling qualities (protein, falling numbers, oil) do
not affect the commodity’s grade.
 The premiums and discounts associated with
these factors are very volatile and would be
difficult to establish pre-determined quality
factors.
Pack factors were implemented
for 2005 crop year
 RMA uses same pack factors for insurance
purposes as FSA uses for loan purposes for:
 barley, corn, grain sorghum, hybrid corn seed, hybrid
sorghum seed, oats, popcorn, soybeans, and wheat.
 Pack factors are located in the appropriate loss
handbooks.
Conclusion of Quality Adjustment and
Sampling/Grading Overview
 Allows for insured’s grain to be discounted
equitably, even across state lines. Landlord and
tenants grain is discounted the same.
 Insured’s know up front what the QA discounts
will be.
 Not subject to price manipulation, fraud, waste
and abuse.
 Is easy to administer within current staffing
levels.
 Enables actuarially sound policy rating.
Quality Adjustment Questions
Please direct questions to:
Dave Bell 816.926.2397 or
Dave.Bell@rma.usda.gov

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2_QualityAdjustmentOverview3282006.ppt

  • 2. What is Quality Adjustment?  Some policies/endorsements provide for a reduction in the production to count when the quality of the appraised and/or harvested production is reduced due to insurable causes.  The quantity of mature production is reduced when it meets the requirements stated in the crop policy/endorsement (Special Provisions if applicable). This adjusted production to count is used for indemnity and Actual Production History (APH) purposes.
  • 3. Who can Determine Quality for Crop Insurance?  Grain grader licensed under the United States Grain Standards Act or the United States Warehouse Act (USWA).  Grain grader licensed under State law and employed by a warehouse operator who has a storage agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).  Grain grader not licensed under State law, but who is employed by a warehouse operator who has a commodity storage agreement with the CCC and is in compliance with State law regarding warehouses.
  • 4. Who can Determine Quality for Crop Insurance?  For substances or conditions injurious to human or animal health, samples must be analyzed by a laboratory that:  Is a disinterested third party;  Performs quantitative tests that are certified by Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS); and  Is a recognized commercial, governmental, or university testing laboratory.
  • 5. Sampling and Grading on a Per- Conveyance Basis  Grades from blended samples, by unit, for non-mycotoxin quality adjustment from both USWA licensed warehouses and warehouses holding a storage agreement with CCC may be accepted only if all of the following apply: The commodity is sold on the same basis as the blended samples used to determine the grading factors for quality adjustment. Proof of the sale, sale amount and grades, or signed certification of pending sale from the buyer including the quantity and quality is provided and is acceptable to the approved insurance provider. The blended sample is representative of all the loads for which it applies and it is determined acceptable by the approved insurance provider.
  • 6. Pre 1995 Quality Adjustment Procedure  Reflective of current market price Actual value of grain ÷ local market price = QA factor  Subject to price manipulation, fraud, waste, and abuse Price was found to be manipulated in some cases based on supply and demand, or availability of insurance. Price not always reflective of true value or sales price of the grain.
  • 7. 1995 – Current Quality Adjustment Procedure:  Easy to administer Predetermined factors published on the Special Provisions.  Not subject to price manipulation, fraud, waste, and abuse QA factor determined from charts (unless amount of damage is off chart).  Not always reflective of current local market price Factors are based on a ten year average. Current years value and discounts are not considered (unless amount of damage is off chart). QA factor can come from the SPOI charts even if local elevators are rejecting grain at the same level of damage.
  • 8. Crops having Quality Adjustment Charts in the Special Provisions Barley Canola Corn Flax Grain Sorghum Oats Rye Safflowers Soybeans Sunflowers (Oil) Wheat Sunflowers (Confectionary))
  • 9. How were the charts developed?  Risk Management Agency (RMA) used Farm Service Agency (FSA) loan discount data and national average loan rates for the past 10 years.  This data was compiled and the average of the last 10 years was used to construct the discount factors.
  • 10. How is the Quality Adjustment Factor (QAF) determined?  The QAF is determined by subtracting from 1.000, the sum of all applicable pre-established discount factors (DFs) listed in the SPOIs or DFs derived from reductions in value (RIVs) of the damaged grain.  The QAF is multiplied by the number of applicable bushels or pounds remaining after any reduction due to excessive moisture or foreign material (FM), in accordance with the crop provisions.
  • 11. Example of Determining QA factor based on DF’s  1,000 bushels of corn with kernel damage (25%) and test weight (47 pounds) is designated as U.S. Sample Grade. (a) .255 (DF for kernel damage) .059 (DF for test weight) + .143 (DF for Sample Grade) .457 Total DF’s (b)1.000 - .457 = .543 QAF (c)1,000 bushels X .543 = 543 bushels to count
  • 12. When Discount Factors (DFs) on the SPOI are not used  If there are no pre-established DFs, or  There are pre-established DFs on the SPOI, and there is at least one type/level of damage which exceeds the pre-established DFs (amount is off the chart), the pre-established DFs are not used to determine the QA factor.
  • 13. How are DF’s established from Reduction in Values (RIVs)  Divide the total RIVs by the Local Market Price (LMP), rounded to three places.
  • 14. Example of Determining QA factor based on Reduction in Value (RIV’s)  1,000 bushels of corn with 45 pound test weight and 12 percent kernel damage is designated as U.S. Sample Grade. However, since the 45 pound test weight is off the chart, RIVs are used to determine the QAF. a) $.65 (RIV for kernel damage) +$.85 (RIV for test weight) $1.50 Total RIV b) $1.50 Total RIV ÷ $2.20 (Local Market Price) = .682 (DF) c) 1.000 - .682 = .318 QAF d) 1,000 X .318 = 318 bushels to count
  • 15. Aflatoxin Coverage  RMA uses three categories based on FDA advisory levels. Based upon an approved testing laboratory results: 0-20 ppb – No Advisory levels. Safe for human consumption. No quality adjustment. 21-300 ppb (500 ppb in Texas) – FDA advisory levels. RIV procedures apply. Claim settlement may be delayed until the grain is sold (valued), used, or destroyed. Over 300 ppb (500 ppb in Texas) – FDA prohibits use. Grain must be destroyed before claim settlement.
  • 16. Vomitoxin Coverage  No advisory levels for human consumption, just finished production.  Minimum level for animal use is 5 ppm.  For quality adjustment purposes, lab results would have to be over 5 ppm.  Quality adjustment for production containing in excess of 5 ppm would be determined using RIVs since there are no quality adjustment charts contained on the SPOIs.
  • 17. Mycotoxin Sampling Requirements Mycotoxins – especially aflatoxin – can increase in storage. Post-harvest aflatoxin contamination can increase during storage and if crop drying is delayed. Insect or rodent infestations may also facilitate mold invasion of some stored commodities. Holding grain for even a short time can allow significant mold and mycotoxin development. Insurance ends at harvest. Therefore, for crop insurance purposes, samples must be taken before grain storage.
  • 18. Mycotoxin Sampling Requirements RMA does not prohibit or inhibit harvest. Samples can be taken from harvested production. Elevators can pull samples from delivered production. The approved insurance provider can use part of the elevator’s retained sample or the elevator can pull an additional sample. For farm-stored production, producers should work with their approved insurance provider to: Leave at least two 10’ wide representative test strips in their fields from which the approved insurance provider can take representative samples, or Have the approved insurance provider obtain samples from harvested production before it goes into storage.
  • 19. Mycotoxin Sampling Requirements Sampling must be done before storage. Sampling does not need to be done before harvest. The approved insurance provider cannot take samples from storage but can get samples from: An unharvested field, Their authorized representative strips left in an otherwise harvested field, Harvested production prior to storage, or The elevator.
  • 20. Milling qualities are not insured under the Crop Provisions  Protein and falling numbers are not considered quality deficiencies under the Small Grains Crop Provisions.  Oil is not considered a quality deficiency under the Course Grain Crop Provisions.  Milling qualities (protein, falling numbers, oil) do not affect the commodity’s grade.  The premiums and discounts associated with these factors are very volatile and would be difficult to establish pre-determined quality factors.
  • 21. Pack factors were implemented for 2005 crop year  RMA uses same pack factors for insurance purposes as FSA uses for loan purposes for:  barley, corn, grain sorghum, hybrid corn seed, hybrid sorghum seed, oats, popcorn, soybeans, and wheat.  Pack factors are located in the appropriate loss handbooks.
  • 22. Conclusion of Quality Adjustment and Sampling/Grading Overview  Allows for insured’s grain to be discounted equitably, even across state lines. Landlord and tenants grain is discounted the same.  Insured’s know up front what the QA discounts will be.  Not subject to price manipulation, fraud, waste and abuse.  Is easy to administer within current staffing levels.  Enables actuarially sound policy rating.
  • 23. Quality Adjustment Questions Please direct questions to: Dave Bell 816.926.2397 or Dave.Bell@rma.usda.gov