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The Respiratory System
• Basic functions of the respiratory system
• Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) – movement of air in and out of the lungs
• Inhalation (inspiration) draws gases into the lungs.
• Exhalation (expiration) forces gases out of the lungs.
• Gas Conditioning – as gases pass through the nasal cavity and paransal
sinuses, inhaled air becomes turbulent. The gases in the air are
• warmed to body temperature
• humidified
• cleaned of particulate matter
• Gas Exchange - respiration
• Supplies body with oxygen
• Disposes of carbon dioxide
• Produces Sounds
• Protects respiratory surfaces
• Site for olfactory sensation
Respiration
• Respiration – four distinct processes must happen
• Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of
the lungs
• External respiration – gas exchange between the
lungs and the blood
• Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between the lungs and tissues
• Internal respiration – gas exchange between
systemic blood vessels and tissues
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
• Respiratory organs
• Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
• Pharynx, larynx, and trachea
• Bronchi and smaller branches
• Lungs and alveoli
Organs of the Respiratory System
Figure 21.1
Respiratory System
• Consists of
• Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and
other muscles that promote ventilation
• Respiratory zone – site of external
respiration – respiratory bronchioles,
alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and
alveoli.
• Conducting zones
• Provides rigid conduits for air to
reach the sites of gas exchange
• Includes nose, nasal cavity,
pharynx, trachea
• Air passages undergo 23 orders of
branching in the lungs
The Nose
• Provides an airway for
respiration
• Moistens and warms air
• Filters inhaled air
• Resonating chamber for
speech
• Houses olfactory receptors
• Skin is thin – contains
many sebaceous glands
The Nasal Cavity
• External nares – nostrils
• Divided by – nasal septum
• Vestibule - anterior opening
• Continuous with nasopharynx
• Two types of mucous membrane
• Olfactory mucosa - Near roof of
nasal cavity, houses olfactory
(smell) receptors
• Respiratory mucosa - Lines nasal
cavity
• Epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated
columnar
• Goblet cells within epithelium
• Underlying layer of lamina propria
has glands that contribute to the
mucus layer and blood vessels that
warm the air.
• Cilia move contaminated mucus
posteriorly
Nasal Cavity
Nasal Conchae
• 3 paired bony projections
along the lateral walls of the
nasal cavity
• Superior and middle nasal
conchae - part of the ethmoid
bone
• Inferior nasal conchae -
separate bone
• Function - Particulate matter
deflected to mucus-coated
surfaces
The Paranasal Sinuses
Figure 7.11a, b
The Pharynx
• Funnel-shaped passageway
• Connects nasal cavity and
mouth
• Shared by the digestive and
respiratory systems
• Divided into three sections
by location
• Nasopharynx – superior
portion,
• Oropharynx – continuous
with the oral cavity
• Laryngopharynx – between
the hyoid bone and the
esophagus
• Type of mucosal lining
changes along its length
The Nasopharynx
• Superior to the point
where food enters
• Only an air passageway
• Closed off during
swallowing
• Epithelium consists of
ciliated pseudostratified
epithelium that moves
mucus
The Oropharynx
• Arch-like entranceway –
fauces
• Extends from soft palate to
the epiglottis
• Epithelium - stratified
squamous epithelium
• Two types of tonsils in the
oropharynx
• Palatine tonsils – in the
lateral walls of the fauces
• Lingual tonsils – covers
the posterior surface of the
tongue
The Laryngopharynx
• Passageway for both
food and air
• Epithelium - stratified
squamous epithelium
• Continuous with the
esophagus and larynx
The Larynx
• Prevent food and drink from entering the trachea
• Passageway for air
• Produces Sound
• It connects the pharynx to the trachea
• Epithelium of the larynx
• Stratified squamous – superior portion
• Pseudostratified ciliated columnar – inferior portion
Nine Cartilages of the Larynx
• Thyroid cartilage - shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence
(Adam’s apple)
• Three pairs of small cartilages
• Arytenoid cartilages
• Corniculate cartilages
• Cuneiform cartilages
• Epiglottis - tips inferiorly during swallowing
The Larynx
• Vocal ligaments of the
larynx
• Vocal folds (true vocal
cords) - act in sound
production
• Vestibular folds (false
vocal cords) - no role in
sound production
• Voice production
• Length of the vocal folds
changes with pitch
• Loudness depends on the
force of air across the
vocal folds
The Trachea
• Descends into the mediastinum
• C-shaped cartilage rings keep airway open
• Carina - marks where trachea divides into two primary
bronchi
• Epithelium - pseudostratified ciliated columnar
The Trachea
Figure 21.7a, b
Bronchi in the Conducting Zone
• Bronchial tree - extensively
branching respiratory
passageways
• Primary bronchi (main
bronchi)
• Largest bronchi
• Right main bronchi - wider
and shorter than the left
• Secondary (lobar) bronchi
• Three on the right
• Two on the left
• Tertiary (segmental) bronchi -
branch into each lung segment
• Bronchioles - little bronchi,
less than 1 mm in diameter
• Terminal bronchioles - less
than 0.5 mm in diameter
Tissue Composition of Conducting Zone
• Changes along pathway
• Supportive connective tissues change
• C-shaped rings – trachea, primary bronchi
• Replaced by cartilage plates, secondary & tertiary bronchi
• Epithelium changes
• First, pseudostratified ciliated columnar – trachea
• Replaced by simple columnar - bronchi
• Then simple cuboidal epithelium - bronchioles and
terminal bronchioles
• Smooth muscle becomes important at the bronchioles -
controlled by the ANS (bronchoconstriction and
bronchodilation).
Lobes and Surfaces of the lungs
• Right lung has three lobes
• Left lung has two lobes
• Concavity on medial surface = cardiac notch
• Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus
The Pleurae
• A double-layered sac surrounding each lung
• Parietal pleura
• Visceral pleura
• Pleural cavity - potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
• Pleurae help divide the thoracic cavity
• Central mediastinum
• Two lateral pleural compartments
Structures of the Respiratory Zone
• Consists of air-exchanging structures
• Respiratory bronchioles – branch from terminal
bronchioles
• Lead to alveolar ducts
• Lead to alveolar sacs
Structures of the Respiratory Zone
Figure 21.9b
Features Of Alveoli
Figure 21.10b
• Alveoli cell types
• Type I cells site of gas exchangeand
• Type II cells - secrete surfactant
• Macrophages
• Surrounded by basal laminae and elastic fibers
• Interconnect by way of alveolar pores
• Internal surfaces - site for free movement of alveolar macrophages

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2304 respiratory

  • 1. The Respiratory System • Basic functions of the respiratory system • Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) – movement of air in and out of the lungs • Inhalation (inspiration) draws gases into the lungs. • Exhalation (expiration) forces gases out of the lungs. • Gas Conditioning – as gases pass through the nasal cavity and paransal sinuses, inhaled air becomes turbulent. The gases in the air are • warmed to body temperature • humidified • cleaned of particulate matter • Gas Exchange - respiration • Supplies body with oxygen • Disposes of carbon dioxide • Produces Sounds • Protects respiratory surfaces • Site for olfactory sensation
  • 2. Respiration • Respiration – four distinct processes must happen • Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs • External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood • Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues • Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
  • 3. Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Respiratory organs • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses • Pharynx, larynx, and trachea • Bronchi and smaller branches • Lungs and alveoli
  • 4. Organs of the Respiratory System Figure 21.1
  • 5. Respiratory System • Consists of • Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation • Respiratory zone – site of external respiration – respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. • Conducting zones • Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange • Includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea • Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching in the lungs
  • 6. The Nose • Provides an airway for respiration • Moistens and warms air • Filters inhaled air • Resonating chamber for speech • Houses olfactory receptors • Skin is thin – contains many sebaceous glands
  • 7. The Nasal Cavity • External nares – nostrils • Divided by – nasal septum • Vestibule - anterior opening • Continuous with nasopharynx • Two types of mucous membrane • Olfactory mucosa - Near roof of nasal cavity, houses olfactory (smell) receptors • Respiratory mucosa - Lines nasal cavity • Epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated columnar • Goblet cells within epithelium • Underlying layer of lamina propria has glands that contribute to the mucus layer and blood vessels that warm the air. • Cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly
  • 9. Nasal Conchae • 3 paired bony projections along the lateral walls of the nasal cavity • Superior and middle nasal conchae - part of the ethmoid bone • Inferior nasal conchae - separate bone • Function - Particulate matter deflected to mucus-coated surfaces
  • 11. The Pharynx • Funnel-shaped passageway • Connects nasal cavity and mouth • Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems • Divided into three sections by location • Nasopharynx – superior portion, • Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity • Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and the esophagus • Type of mucosal lining changes along its length
  • 12. The Nasopharynx • Superior to the point where food enters • Only an air passageway • Closed off during swallowing • Epithelium consists of ciliated pseudostratified epithelium that moves mucus
  • 13. The Oropharynx • Arch-like entranceway – fauces • Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis • Epithelium - stratified squamous epithelium • Two types of tonsils in the oropharynx • Palatine tonsils – in the lateral walls of the fauces • Lingual tonsils – covers the posterior surface of the tongue
  • 14. The Laryngopharynx • Passageway for both food and air • Epithelium - stratified squamous epithelium • Continuous with the esophagus and larynx
  • 15. The Larynx • Prevent food and drink from entering the trachea • Passageway for air • Produces Sound • It connects the pharynx to the trachea • Epithelium of the larynx • Stratified squamous – superior portion • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar – inferior portion
  • 16. Nine Cartilages of the Larynx • Thyroid cartilage - shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) • Three pairs of small cartilages • Arytenoid cartilages • Corniculate cartilages • Cuneiform cartilages • Epiglottis - tips inferiorly during swallowing
  • 17. The Larynx • Vocal ligaments of the larynx • Vocal folds (true vocal cords) - act in sound production • Vestibular folds (false vocal cords) - no role in sound production • Voice production • Length of the vocal folds changes with pitch • Loudness depends on the force of air across the vocal folds
  • 18. The Trachea • Descends into the mediastinum • C-shaped cartilage rings keep airway open • Carina - marks where trachea divides into two primary bronchi • Epithelium - pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  • 20. Bronchi in the Conducting Zone • Bronchial tree - extensively branching respiratory passageways • Primary bronchi (main bronchi) • Largest bronchi • Right main bronchi - wider and shorter than the left • Secondary (lobar) bronchi • Three on the right • Two on the left • Tertiary (segmental) bronchi - branch into each lung segment • Bronchioles - little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter • Terminal bronchioles - less than 0.5 mm in diameter
  • 21. Tissue Composition of Conducting Zone • Changes along pathway • Supportive connective tissues change • C-shaped rings – trachea, primary bronchi • Replaced by cartilage plates, secondary & tertiary bronchi • Epithelium changes • First, pseudostratified ciliated columnar – trachea • Replaced by simple columnar - bronchi • Then simple cuboidal epithelium - bronchioles and terminal bronchioles • Smooth muscle becomes important at the bronchioles - controlled by the ANS (bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation).
  • 22. Lobes and Surfaces of the lungs • Right lung has three lobes • Left lung has two lobes • Concavity on medial surface = cardiac notch • Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus
  • 23. The Pleurae • A double-layered sac surrounding each lung • Parietal pleura • Visceral pleura • Pleural cavity - potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae • Pleurae help divide the thoracic cavity • Central mediastinum • Two lateral pleural compartments
  • 24. Structures of the Respiratory Zone • Consists of air-exchanging structures • Respiratory bronchioles – branch from terminal bronchioles • Lead to alveolar ducts • Lead to alveolar sacs
  • 25. Structures of the Respiratory Zone Figure 21.9b
  • 26. Features Of Alveoli Figure 21.10b • Alveoli cell types • Type I cells site of gas exchangeand • Type II cells - secrete surfactant • Macrophages • Surrounded by basal laminae and elastic fibers • Interconnect by way of alveolar pores • Internal surfaces - site for free movement of alveolar macrophages