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The document discusses key concepts in mechanics including: 1. Free body diagrams show only the external forces acting on an object and are useful for solving dynamics problems. 2. Newton's Second Law states that acceleration is proportional to net force and inversely proportional to mass. 3. Impulse is the product of force and time and equals change in momentum, affecting how objects move after collisions or other impacts.

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11. kinetics of particles work energy method

The document provides information about work, kinetic energy, work energy principle, and conservation of energy. It defines key terms like work, kinetic energy, spring force, weight force, friction force, power, and efficiency. It explains:
- Work is the product of force and displacement in the direction of force. Work by various forces can be used to solve kinetics problems.
- Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and is defined as one-half mass times velocity squared.
- The work energy principle states that the total work done by forces on an object equals its change in kinetic energy.
- For conservative forces acting on a particle, the mechanical energy (sum of kinetic and potential energy) is

Newtons laws

This document discusses Newton's laws of motion. It provides background on Newton, an overview of his three laws, and explanations of concepts like inertial mass, gravitational mass, weight, momentum, and energy. Newton's laws state that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

Physics chapter 4 notes

This document provides an overview of Newton's laws of motion through a chapter summary. It discusses Newton's three laws, including his first law about inertia and constant velocity, his second law relating force and acceleration, and his third law about equal and opposite forces between interacting objects. It also gives examples of different types of forces like gravitational force, tension in strings, and normal forces from surfaces. Sample problems are worked through applying Newton's second law to calculate accelerations and net forces on objects.

Physics 5

This document discusses the conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under coplanar forces. It explains that while concurrent forces require only the net force to be zero, coplanar forces impose an additional condition - that the net torque must also be zero. Torque is defined as the product of a force and its perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation. The two conditions for equilibrium under coplanar forces are: 1) the net force equals zero and 2) the net torque equals zero. Examples are provided to illustrate calculating torque and demonstrating equilibrium.

AP Physics - Chapter 4 Powerpoint

This document summarizes Newton's three laws of motion. It introduces concepts like force, mass, inertia, and equilibrium. Newton's first law states that an object remains at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net force. The second law relates the net force on an object to its acceleration. The third law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. Other topics covered include weight, friction, tension and applying the laws of motion to problems involving equilibrium.

Kinetics of particle

This document contains a presentation on Newton's second law of motion. The presentation topics include the relation between force, mass and acceleration, applications of Newton's second law, equations of motion, and an introduction to kinetics of particles. The document provides definitions and explanations of key concepts such as force, mass, acceleration, momentum, impulse, and kinetics. It also includes sample problems demonstrating applications of Newton's second law and equations of motion, along with step-by-step solutions. The presentation was made by Danyal Haider and Kamran Shah and covers fundamental principles of classical mechanics.

Newton laws of motion summer 17

Newton's second law states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. It can be expressed by the equation:
F=ma, where F is the net force, m is the mass of the object, and a is the acceleration. A force of 1 Newton is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at a rate of 1 meter per second squared. Newton's third law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. The principle of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system remains constant if no external force acts on the system.

3 equilibrium of concurrent forces and

This document discusses forces and equilibrium. It defines different types of forces including contact forces like friction, tension, and normal forces, as well as non-contact forces like gravitational, magnetic, and electrostatic forces. It also covers Newton's laws of motion, equilibrium, and how to use free body diagrams to analyze forces on an object.

Applied mechanics

The document provides an overview of mechanics and engineering mechanics. It discusses key topics including types of mechanics, units of measurement, fundamental concepts like forces and moments. It also summarizes various types of force systems and the laws and methods for analyzing coplanar forces, including the parallelogram law, Varignon's theorem, and analytical and graphical methods for determining the resultant of coplanar concurrent forces.

Physics - Chapter 4

This document provides instructions for navigating a presentation on physics concepts. It outlines how to view the presentation as a slideshow and advance through it. The table of contents lists four sections that cover changes in motion, Newton's laws of motion, everyday forces, and sample problems. Force diagrams and free-body diagrams are used to represent forces acting on objects. Newton's three laws of motion relate forces, mass, and acceleration. Friction and normal forces are types of contact forces that oppose motion.

PHY300 Chapter 4 physics 5e

This document provides an overview of chapter 4 from a physics textbook. It covers Newton's laws of motion and the key concepts of forces, including gravitational forces, contact forces like normal forces and friction, and Newton's three laws. Key points introduced include the definition of a force, measuring forces with spring scales, the concept of net force, drawing free-body diagrams, and examples of applying Newton's laws to analyze forces on objects. Interactions between objects are described in terms of action-reaction force pairs as specified by Newton's third law.

2nd Law of Motion

Newton's Second Law relates force, mass, and acceleration using the equation F=ma. The equation can be rearranged to solve for force. Force is measured in Newtons, where 1 Newton is the force needed to accelerate a 1 kilogram mass at 1 meter per second squared. If acceleration is held constant and an object's mass doubles, the force needs to double to maintain the same acceleration according to the Second Law.

Chapter 4 laws of motion

This document provides a summary of key concepts from a Physics chapter on the laws of motion. It begins with an introduction to kinematics and dynamics. It then discusses Newton's three laws of motion and their importance. The document outlines different types of forces, including fundamental forces, real/pseudo forces, and conservative/non-conservative forces. It also covers work, energy, impulse, torque, equilibrium, center of mass, and center of gravity. Examples and simulations are provided to help explain various concepts related to motion and forces.

Introduction of system of coplanar forces (engineering mechanics)

This document provides an overview of engineering mechanics. It discusses three main classifications of mechanics: mechanics of deformable bodies, mechanics of fluids, and mechanics of rigid bodies. Mechanics of deformable bodies deals with how forces are distributed inside bodies and cause stresses and deformations. Mechanics of fluids concerns liquids and gases and their applications in engineering. Mechanics of rigid bodies examines bodies that do not deform under forces. The document also outlines fundamental concepts in mechanics like length, time, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It introduces important mechanical laws developed by Sir Isaac Newton like Newton's three laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation. Other topics covered include units of measurement, force, characteristics and classification of forces, and resolution

Conservation Of Momentum

The document discusses collisions and the law of conservation of momentum. It provides examples of how to use a momentum table and algebra to solve for unknown velocities in collision problems involving isolated systems where momentum is conserved. Specifically, it works through examples of a person catching a medicine ball on ice and of two people colliding on an ice rink to determine their combined velocity after collision.

Newtons laws

This document summarizes Newton's laws of motion. It describes Isaac Newton and his discoveries of the laws of motion, planetary orbits, and calculus. The three laws of motion are explained - Newton's first law of inertia, second law relating force and acceleration, and third law of equal and opposite reaction forces. Examples are provided to illustrate friction, net force, gravitational force, and applications of Newton's three laws.

Analyzing forces in equilibrium

W = mg = 0.05kg x 10N/kg = 0.5N
θ = 40°
Using resolution of forces:
Py = W sinθ
= 0.5N sin40°
= 0.33N
Px = W cosθ
= 0.5N cos40°
= 0.43N
Therefore, the magnitude of the weight parallel to the inclined plane (Px) is 0.43N.

Kinetics of a Particle : Force and Acceleration

Here are the key steps to solve this problem:
1) Draw a free body diagram of each block, showing all external forces.
2) Write the equation of motion for each block in the x and y directions: ΣFx = max, ΣFy = may
3) The tension in each cable will be the same. Substitute this into the equations of motion.
4) Solve the equations simultaneously to find the acceleration and tension.
The acceleration and tension can be determined by setting up and solving the simultaneous equations of motion for each block based on Newton's 2nd law. Friction and the coefficient of kinetic friction must be accounted for between block C and the horizontal surface.

12. kinetics of particles impulse momentum method

Learn Online Courses of Subject Engineering Mechanics of First Year Engineering. Clear the Concepts of Engineering Mechanics Through Video Lectures and PDF Notes.
https://ekeeda.com/streamdetails/subject/Engineering-Mechanics

Newton's first and second laws applications

This document discusses Newton's laws of motion and their applications. It contains examples of problems involving Newton's first law regarding inertia and an object's motion when the net force is zero. Newton's second law relating force, mass and acceleration is explained. Free body diagrams are demonstrated as a problem solving tool. Examples are provided of calculating acceleration from forces using Newton's second law for objects on an inclined plane and connected objects on pulleys. Friction forces are also discussed.

11. kinetics of particles work energy method

11. kinetics of particles work energy method

Newtons laws

Newtons laws

Physics chapter 4 notes

Physics chapter 4 notes

Physics 5

Physics 5

AP Physics - Chapter 4 Powerpoint

AP Physics - Chapter 4 Powerpoint

Kinetics of particle

Kinetics of particle

Newton laws of motion summer 17

Newton laws of motion summer 17

3 equilibrium of concurrent forces and

3 equilibrium of concurrent forces and

Applied mechanics

Applied mechanics

Physics - Chapter 4

Physics - Chapter 4

PHY300 Chapter 4 physics 5e

PHY300 Chapter 4 physics 5e

2nd Law of Motion

2nd Law of Motion

Chapter 4 laws of motion

Chapter 4 laws of motion

Introduction of system of coplanar forces (engineering mechanics)

Introduction of system of coplanar forces (engineering mechanics)

Conservation Of Momentum

Conservation Of Momentum

Newtons laws

Newtons laws

Analyzing forces in equilibrium

Analyzing forces in equilibrium

Kinetics of a Particle : Force and Acceleration

Kinetics of a Particle : Force and Acceleration

12. kinetics of particles impulse momentum method

12. kinetics of particles impulse momentum method

Newton's first and second laws applications

Newton's first and second laws applications

1.3 scalar & vector quantities

This document discusses scalar and vector quantities in physics. It defines scalars as physical quantities that have magnitude but no direction, while vectors have both magnitude and direction. Examples are given such as distance, time and mass for scalars, and displacement, velocity and force for vectors. The document then explains how to add scalar and vector quantities, noting that vectors are represented by arrows and can be added graphically by placing the arrows head to tail. It provides examples of adding vectors in the same and opposite directions. Finally, it presents a homework problem on calculating distance and displacement.

Physics 1.1 Scientific Notation

1. The document discusses scientific notation and orders of magnitude when measuring physical quantities.
2. Scientific notation is used to write numbers between 1 and 10 with exponents of 10 to indicate orders of magnitude, like 3.00x108 ms-1 for the speed of light.
3. Orders of magnitude provide an approximate comparison of quantities by ignoring insignificant digits and comparing exponents, useful when measurements span several orders.

Divergence theorem

1) Gauss's law relates the electric flux through a closed surface to the enclosed electric charge. It can be used to calculate the electric field from a charge distribution if symmetry is present.
2) The document explores if there is an inverse expression that can locally calculate the charge density from the electric field. It examines calculating the electric flux through an infinitesimally small volume element.
3) By taking the sum of the fluxes through all sides of the small volume element and equating it to the enclosed charge, it derives that the divergence of the electric field equals the charge density divided by the permittivity of free space. This allows locally calculating the charge density from the electric field.

Scalar and vector quantities

This document discusses scalar and vector quantities. It defines a scalar quantity as having only magnitude, while a vector quantity has both magnitude and direction. Examples are given of quantities that are scalar like distance and those that are vector like force. The document also discusses the concept of a resultant vector, which results from adding two or more vectors together. Three techniques for finding the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector are described: the graphical method, Pythagorean theorem, and analytical/component method. The component method involves breaking vectors into their x and y components and then adding the components.

Vector Calculus.

We discussed most of what one wishes to learn in vector calculus at the undergraduate engineering level. Its also useful for the Physics ‘honors’ and ‘pass’ students.
This was a course I delivered to engineering first years, around 9th November 2009. But I have added contents to make it more understandable, eg I added all the diagrams and many explanations only now; 14-18th Aug 2015.
More such lectures will follow soon. Eg electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves !

Physics 1.3 scalars and vectors

1. Vectors have both magnitude and direction, while scalars only have magnitude.
2. Common vector quantities include velocity and force, while common scalars include mass and time.
3. Vectors can be represented by arrows in diagrams or with signs to indicate direction in equations. The resultant vector represents the total effect of multiple vectors.

Introduction to Vectors

This document provides an introduction to vectors, including:
- Vectors have both magnitude and direction, unlike scalars which only have magnitude.
- Vectors can be added and subtracted graphically by drawing them to scale and combining the tips and tails.
- The parallelogram method can be used to add vectors at any angle by forming a parallelogram.
- Vectors can also be broken into rectangular components and added or subtracted using their x and y components rather than graphically.

Chapter 1(4)SCALAR AND VECTOR

Vectors have both magnitude and direction, represented by arrows. The sum of two vectors is obtained by placing the tail of one vector at the head of the other. If the vectors are at right angles, their dot product is zero, while their cross product is maximum. Scalar multiplication scales the magnitude but not the direction of a vector.

Vector calculus

This document discusses key concepts in vector calculus including:
1) The gradient of a scalar, which is a vector representing the directional derivative/rate of change.
2) Divergence of a vector, which measures the outward flux density at a point.
3) Divergence theorem, relating the outward flux through a closed surface to the volume integral of the divergence.
4) Curl of a vector, which measures the maximum circulation and tendency for rotation.
Formulas are provided for calculating these quantities in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems. Examples are worked through applying the concepts and formulas.

Divergence and curl

The document defines divergence and curl, two important concepts in vector calculus. It provides definitions of divergence and curl, discusses their properties and applications. Examples are given to illustrate divergence and curl, such as how they are used to describe flows and circulations in physics. The document serves as a tutorial on divergence and curl for a student.

1.3 scalar & vector quantities

1.3 scalar & vector quantities

Physics 1.1 Scientific Notation

Physics 1.1 Scientific Notation

Divergence theorem

Divergence theorem

Scalar and vector quantities

Scalar and vector quantities

Vector Calculus.

Vector Calculus.

Physics 1.3 scalars and vectors

Physics 1.3 scalars and vectors

Introduction to Vectors

Introduction to Vectors

Chapter 1(4)SCALAR AND VECTOR

Chapter 1(4)SCALAR AND VECTOR

Vector calculus

Vector calculus

Divergence and curl

Divergence and curl

Lecture15 forces

1) Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its motion. Mass is a measure of an object's inertia, with more massive objects being harder to accelerate or decelerate.
2) Newton's second law states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. This relationship can be expressed as F=ma.
3) Newton's third law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. Forces always occur in action-reaction pairs between interacting objects.

Newton s laws-class 1-intro

The document discusses Newton's laws of motion. It provides background on Aristotle and Galileo's views, introduces Newton and his three laws, and gives examples of each law in action. Key points include Newton's first law of inertia, his second law relating force, mass and acceleration, and examples of problems applying the second law.

Lecture 03 Dynamics Forces and Motion Along A Line

This document discusses forces and motion along a line. It defines force, units of force (newton, dyne, pound), and net force. It discusses physicists like Aristotle, Galileo, and Newton who contributed to understanding of force and motion. It explains Newton's three laws of motion, including inertia, acceleration proportional to force and inversely proportional to mass. It discusses concepts like mass, weight, normal force, and tension.

Forces unit phy 1

This document discusses the concept of forces in physics. It defines a force as a push or pull on an object and explains that forces are vectors that have both magnitude and direction. There are four main forces in nature: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. Dynamics and statics are introduced as areas of study related to forces and motion. Newton's three laws of motion are outlined. Common ways of measuring mass and examples of force problems are provided, including free body diagrams, friction, inclined planes, and pulleys.

Md zakaria 2

1) Forces only exist as a result of an interaction between two objects. Balanced forces do not cause a change in motion as they are equal in size and opposite in direction. Unbalanced forces always cause a change in motion as they are not equal and opposite.
2) The first law of motion states that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
3) The second law of motion states that the rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the applied force and changes in the same direction as the applied force. Mathematically, this is expressed as Force = Mass ×

Chapter 3: Newtons law of motion and its applications

This chapter discusses Newton's laws of motion and their applications. Students are expected to learn about the different types of forces acting on objects like weight, tension, normal force, and friction. They should be able to draw free body diagrams showing all the forces and determine the net or resultant force. The chapter also covers Newton's three laws of motion - the law of inertia, the second law relating force and acceleration, and the third law of action and reaction. Examples are provided to illustrate applications of these laws to situations like motion in lifts and objects on horizontal surfaces.

Laws of motion and connected masses

The document discusses key concepts in classical mechanics, including:
1. The three laws of motion - an unbalanced force causes acceleration, an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an external force, and for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
2. Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion, and is determined by its mass.
3. Force is measured in Newtons (N) and is proportional to acceleration according to the second law, F=ma.
4. Weight is the force of gravity on an object, while mass is an intrinsic property independent of gravity or motion.
5. Problems can be solved by isolating connected objects and applying

Dynamics

The document discusses key concepts in dynamics including different types of forces like normal force and friction. It explains Newton's laws of motion and how they can be applied to solve dynamics problems. Examples are provided on how to use the laws of motion to analyze inclined planes, lifts, tensions in connected objects, and other dynamics scenarios. Key concepts covered in 3 sentences or less include: Newton's laws of motion are introduced to explain how forces cause motion or changes in motion. Different types of forces like normal force, friction, and tension are defined. Examples are given on how to apply Newton's laws to solve dynamics problems involving inclined planes, connected objects, and lifts.

Force and motion

A force is any interaction that causes a change in the motion of an object. There are several key laws of motion:
1) Newton's First Law states that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
2) Newton's Second Law states that the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
3) Newton's Third Law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The document goes

Chap 3 3a to 3d

This document provides an introduction to dynamics and forces acting on particles moving in a straight line. It introduces Newton's second law of motion, F=ma, and defines key concepts like weight, tension, thrust, friction, and normal reaction. It explains how to resolve forces into horizontal and vertical components when multiple forces are acting. Examples show how to set up force diagrams and use Newton's second law to solve for acceleration, distance, and missing forces. Trigonometry is used to resolve forces acting at angles into their x- and y-direction components.

Ch2 part 2- patterns of motion

This document discusses Newton's three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation. It explains that Newton's first law states that objects remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force. The second law establishes the relationship between an object's mass, its acceleration, and the net force acting upon it. The third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. It also describes how centripetal force causes objects to travel in circular paths and defines momentum, gravitational force, and Newton's law of universal gravitation.

4_Forces.doc

1) The document summarizes key concepts from Chapter 4 of a physics textbook, including Newton's laws of motion, forces, friction, and gravitational forces.
2) Newton's laws state that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force, and that acceleration is produced when a net force acts on an object. The third law is that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
3) Other concepts covered include friction, the normal force, gravitational forces, and applications of Newton's laws to inclined planes and tension forces. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts.

"Force and motion" is a power point for the 9th grade Physics students at the...

1) A force is any push or pull that causes an object to change its motion or shape. Forces come in pairs - whenever one object exerts a force on another, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force back.
2) Newton's Second Law states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to its mass. Acceleration and net force always point in the same direction.
3) Newton's First Law says that objects at rest stay at rest and objects in motion stay in motion with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by a net unbalanced force.

Newton's laws of motion 14 april 2015

Here are the steps to solve this problem:
a) Since the buckets are at rest, the tension in each cord must balance the weight of the bucket it supports. Therefore, the tension is 3.2 kg * 9.8 m/s2 = 31.36 N
b) Applying Newton's Second Law to each bucket:
Upper bucket: Tension - Weight = Mass * Acceleration
Tension - 3.2 kg * 9.8 m/s2 = 3.2 kg * 1.6 m/s2
Tension = 31.36 N + 3.2 * 1.6 = 35.2 N
Lower bucket: Tension - Weight = Mass * Acceleration
Tension - 3.

Force and motion

A force is any push or pull that can cause an object to change its motion. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass, as described by Newton's Second Law. Newton's Third Law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

Force and motion

A force is any push or pull that can cause an object to change its motion. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass, as described by Newton's Second Law. Newton's Third Law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

"Force and motionis" a physics Power point for the 9th grade students at the...

A force is any push or pull that can cause an object to change its motion. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass, as described by Newton's Second Law. Newton's Third Law states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

Newton's 1st and 2nd law of motion mn matsuma.

Newton's laws of motion discusses relations between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body.
Attached is the slides on Newton's first and second law of motion, created by MN Matsuma.

engineering mechanics - statics and dynamics

This document provides an overview of the Engineering Mechanics course 19GES28. It covers topics that will be discussed in each unit, including basics and statics of particles, equilibrium of rigid bodies, properties of surfaces and solids, and friction and dynamics of rigid bodies. Key concepts that will be examined include Newton's laws of motion, equilibrium conditions, moments and couples, area and volume calculations, and frictional forces. The course aims to apply principles of mechanics to solve common engineering problems.

Lecture15 forces

Lecture15 forces

Newton s laws-class 1-intro

Newton s laws-class 1-intro

Lecture 03 Dynamics Forces and Motion Along A Line

Lecture 03 Dynamics Forces and Motion Along A Line

Forces unit phy 1

Forces unit phy 1

Md zakaria 2

Md zakaria 2

Chapter 3: Newtons law of motion and its applications

Chapter 3: Newtons law of motion and its applications

Laws of motion and connected masses

Laws of motion and connected masses

Dynamics

Dynamics

Force and motion

Force and motion

Chap 3 3a to 3d

Chap 3 3a to 3d

Ch2 part 2- patterns of motion

Ch2 part 2- patterns of motion

4_Forces.doc

4_Forces.doc

"Force and motion" is a power point for the 9th grade Physics students at the...

"Force and motion" is a power point for the 9th grade Physics students at the...

Newton's laws of motion 14 april 2015

Newton's laws of motion 14 april 2015

Force and motion

Force and motion

Force and motion

Force and motion

"Force and motionis" a physics Power point for the 9th grade students at the...

"Force and motionis" a physics Power point for the 9th grade students at the...

P170Fa15-11.pdf dnndndndndndndndndndnndne

P170Fa15-11.pdf dnndndndndndndndndndnndne

Newton's 1st and 2nd law of motion mn matsuma.

Newton's 1st and 2nd law of motion mn matsuma.

engineering mechanics - statics and dynamics

engineering mechanics - statics and dynamics

Differentiation in the classroom.

This document provides an overview of differentiation strategies that can be used in the classroom. It defines differentiation as accommodating differences between students so that all have the best chance of learning. There are three main types: differentiation by outcome, support, and task. Differentiation requires clearly defined learning objectives and outcomes, and backwards planning from the outcomes. The document outlines various strategies for differentiating by outcome, support, and task, emphasizing the importance of planning to avoid stigmatizing students. Teachers are then tasked with developing a differentiated lesson plan and resource to implement in their own classroom.

3.1.2 using the motor effect

This document discusses the motor effect and how it is used in electric motors and other devices. It explains that a torque is produced when a force acts on a current-carrying coil placed in a magnetic field, causing the coil to rotate. This effect is used in DC motors, which have a split-ring commutator that reverses the current to keep the motor spinning. The motor effect is also used in devices like galvanometers and loudspeakers.

3.4.1 ac motors

The document discusses different types of AC motors, including their construction and operation. It explains that AC motors have a slip-ring commutator rather than split rings, allowing the current in coils to change direction with the alternating current. Induction motors are then described in more detail, having a stator that produces a rotating magnetic field which induces eddy currents in the rotor coils, causing the rotor to spin. The rotor coils in an induction motor form a "squirrel cage" structure. Finally, examples of energy transfers in homes and industries are given, such as electrical to kinetic in motors, electrical to thermal in heating elements, and electrical to sound in speakers.

3.3.1 generators

This document discusses generators and power transmission. It explains that rotating a coil in a magnetic field induces an alternating current (AC) in the coil. AC generators use a slip ring commutator to produce an AC output as the coil cuts magnetic lines of flux. Power is transmitted at high voltages for efficiency and then stepped down before distribution. There were competing DC and AC systems, with AC winning out due to its ability to transmit power over long distances using transformers.

3.2.1 electomagnetic induction

1. Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in the 1830s when he found that moving a wire through a magnetic field generated a small electric current in the wire.
2. He determined that the changing magnetic field exerted a force on the electrons in the wire, causing them to move and generating an electromotive force (emf).
3. Faraday's law of induction states that an emf is induced in a coil of wire when there is a change in the magnetic flux through the coil. The magnitude of the induced emf depends on the rate of change of magnetic flux.

3.1.1 the motor effect

1. The document discusses the motor effect, which is the force experienced by a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. It describes how the interaction between the magnetic field generated by the current and an external magnetic field produces a force.
2. Key factors that influence the magnitude of the motor effect force are outlined, including the strength of the magnetic field, current magnitude, length of the conductor in the field, and angle between the field and conductor.
3. Rules for determining the direction of the force are provided, such as the left hand motor rule. Parallel conductors experience attractive or repulsive forces depending on whether their currents are parallel or anti-parallel.

3.3.2 transformers

Transformers are electrical devices that convert alternating current from one voltage to another by using two coils of wire wrapped around an iron core. Transformers that step up voltage increase it, while transformers that step down voltage decrease it. They work by generating a changing magnetic field in the primary coil using AC power, which induces a voltage in the secondary coil. The ratio of turns between the two coils determines the ratio of voltages out and in. While efficient, transformers have some energy losses through eddy currents in the core and resistance in the windings. They are widely used to adjust voltages for transmission on power grids and in devices.

1.5.1 einstein and relativity

This document discusses Einstein's theory of special relativity and its implications. It begins by describing Galilean relativity and frames of reference. It then discusses Michelson-Morley's famous experiment which found that the speed of light is constant regardless of the motion of the observer, contradicting the theory of the luminiferous aether. This led Einstein to postulate that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames and that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant. The document explores the implications of these postulates through various thought experiments, showing that simultaneity is relative, time dilates and lengths contract for moving observers. It concludes by discussing some implications of special relativity like mass-energy equivalence and the twins paradox

1.1.1 gravitational fields

1. The document discusses gravitational fields and the simple pendulum experiment. It describes how the period of a pendulum is affected by the mass of the bob and the length of the string. The experiment can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity.
2. Gravitational potential energy is introduced. Lifting an object increases its gravitational potential energy, which is defined to be zero at an infinite distance. Calculations of gravitational potential energy are shown for objects near and far from Earth.
3. The formula for gravitational field strength is derived, showing that it decreases with the square of the distance from the object's center. Values of g are calculated for the major planets based on their masses and radii.

1.2.1 projectile motion

This document discusses projectile motion and related concepts. It defines a projectile as any object moving only under the influence of gravity. The horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent, allowing the use of kinematic equations separately in each direction. Galileo first discovered that objects fall at the same rate regardless of mass by dropping objects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The document provides examples of solving projectile motion problems by separating the horizontal and vertical components.

1.3.1 newton cannons and satellites

1. Isaac Newton considered what would happen if a cannon ball was shot from a mountain at increasing speeds. He realized that at a certain speed, the projectile would enter into orbit around the Earth due to gravity.
2. Astronauts are not truly weightless in space, but are in a state of constant free fall around the Earth at the same rate as its curvature.
3. To enter into orbit, a satellite must be launched at a velocity less than the escape velocity from Earth, which is around 8km/s. Significant thrust is required to accelerate a satellite to this velocity.

1.4.1 gravity again

The document discusses gravitational fields and the law of universal gravitation. It defines gravitational field lines and how they represent the gravitational field around an object. The closer the field lines, the stronger the gravitational field. The law of universal gravitation describes the gravitational force between two objects using mass, distance, and the gravitational constant. Gravitational potential energy is the energy an object has due to its position in a gravitational field and depends on mass and distance from attracting objects.

4.4 wave properties

When a wave crosses a boundary between two media, it is partially transmitted and partially reflected. The amount depends on the boundary - a hard boundary reflects the wave out of phase, while a soft boundary reflects it in phase. Reflection follows the law that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. Refraction occurs when a wave crosses into a medium with a different wave speed, causing it to change direction according to Snell's law. Diffraction spreads waves out when they pass through an opening or obstacle. Superposition combines overlapping waves constructively or destructively based on their phase difference.

4.3 waves

The document discusses different types of waves including transverse waves, where the vibration is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, and longitudinal waves, where the vibration is parallel. It also covers characteristics of waves like frequency, wavelength, amplitude, intensity, and speed; how waves transfer energy without transferring matter; and the electromagnetic spectrum.

4.2 damped harmonic motion

This document discusses damped and forced harmonic motion. It explains that in damped harmonic motion, a damping force acts opposite to the velocity to dissipate energy and stop vibrations. The damping causes the amplitude to decay exponentially over time. A system can be under-damped, over-damped, or critically damped depending on how quickly it stops oscillating. Forced harmonic motion occurs when an external periodic force drives the system, like pushing a swing. At resonance, the driving frequency matches the natural frequency, causing large amplitude oscillations. While resonance can be dangerous if it causes collapse, it can also be useful in applications like radios and musical instruments.

4.1 simple harmonic motion

This document defines key terms and equations related to simple harmonic motion (SHM). It discusses oscillating systems that vibrate back and forth around an equilibrium point, like a mass on a spring or pendulum. The key parameters of SHM systems are defined, including amplitude, wavelength, period, frequency, displacement, velocity, acceleration. Equations are presented that relate the displacement, velocity, acceleration as sinusoidal functions of time. The concepts of kinetic, potential and total energy are also explained for oscillating systems undergoing SHM.

3.3 the ideal gas

The document discusses the properties and behavior of ideal gases. It defines ideal gases as having point-like particles that exert no forces on each other except during elastic collisions. The document then derives the ideal gas law (PV=nRT) by considering the momentum transfer during particle collisions with the container walls and relating gas pressure to temperature via the kinetic energy and speeds of the particles. It concludes by noting that the ideal gas law can provide approximate descriptions of real gases.

3.2 thermal properties of matter

The document discusses the particle model of matter and how it relates to the different phases of matter and phase changes. It explains that in solids, particles vibrate around fixed positions, in liquids they can move slowly, and in gases they can move quickly. A phase change occurs when the kinetic energy of particles changes enough for them to overcome attractive forces. Evaporation involves single particles escaping while boiling happens when vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure. Thermal capacity and specific heat capacity are introduced to quantify how much energy is required to change an object's temperature. Latent heat also quantifies energy absorbed or released during phase changes.

3.1 thermal concepts

This document discusses key concepts in thermodynamics including:
1) All objects have internal energy due to the vibration and interactions of their internal particles; internal energy can be transferred as thermal energy.
2) Thermal energy flows spontaneously from hot to cold objects and can be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation.
3) Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy and different temperature scales (Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin) are defined based on fixed points.

2.4 circular motion

This document discusses circular motion and centripetal acceleration. It defines centripetal acceleration as the acceleration an object experiences when moving in a circular path, which causes a change in the direction of motion towards the center of the circle. The document provides equations for centripetal acceleration, relating it to the object's velocity, radius of the circular path, and angular speed. Examples are given of forces that provide centripetal acceleration, such as gravity keeping the moon in orbit or friction keeping cars from slipping outward while turning.

Differentiation in the classroom.

Differentiation in the classroom.

3.1.2 using the motor effect

3.1.2 using the motor effect

3.4.1 ac motors

3.4.1 ac motors

3.3.1 generators

3.3.1 generators

3.2.1 electomagnetic induction

3.2.1 electomagnetic induction

3.1.1 the motor effect

3.1.1 the motor effect

3.3.2 transformers

3.3.2 transformers

1.5.1 einstein and relativity

1.5.1 einstein and relativity

1.1.1 gravitational fields

1.1.1 gravitational fields

1.2.1 projectile motion

1.2.1 projectile motion

1.3.1 newton cannons and satellites

1.3.1 newton cannons and satellites

1.4.1 gravity again

1.4.1 gravity again

4.4 wave properties

4.4 wave properties

4.3 waves

4.3 waves

4.2 damped harmonic motion

4.2 damped harmonic motion

4.1 simple harmonic motion

4.1 simple harmonic motion

3.3 the ideal gas

3.3 the ideal gas

3.2 thermal properties of matter

3.2 thermal properties of matter

3.1 thermal concepts

3.1 thermal concepts

2.4 circular motion

2.4 circular motion

MVC Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat

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RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW

Description:
Welcome to the comprehensive guide on Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) concepts, tailored for final year B.Sc. Computer Science students affiliated with Alagappa University. This document covers fundamental principles and advanced topics in RDBMS, offering a structured approach to understanding databases in the context of modern computing. PDF content is prepared from the text book Learn Oracle 8I by JOSE A RAMALHO.
Key Topics Covered:
Main Topic : VIEW
Sub-Topic :
View Definition, Advantages and disadvantages, View Creation Syntax, View creation based on single table, view creation based on multiple table, Deleting View and View the definition of view
Target Audience:
Final year B.Sc. Computer Science students at Alagappa University seeking a solid foundation in RDBMS principles for academic and practical applications.
Previous Slides Link:
1. Data Integrity, Index, TAble Creation and maintenance https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/lecture_notes_unit4_chapter_8_9_10_rdbms-for-the-students-affiliated-by-alagappa-university/270123800
2. Sequences : https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/sequnces-lecture_notes_unit4_chapter11_sequence/270134792
About the Author:
Dr. S. Murugan is Associate Professor at Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi. With 23 years of teaching experience in the field of Computer Science, Dr. S. Murugan has a passion for simplifying complex concepts in database management.
Disclaimer:
This document is intended for educational purposes only. The content presented here reflects the author’s understanding in the field of RDBMS as of 2024.

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- 1. Topic 2 – Mechanics 2.2 – Forces and Dynamics
- 2. Force Diagrams In order to solve dynamics problems we usually require a diagram.
- 3. In general there are two types of diagram we can use. System diagrams – These are a “realistic” picture of the whole system.
- 4. Free body diagrams – These show only one object and only the forces acting on it. Both types of diagram are useful in different situations.
- 5. Free Body Diagrams Consider a box, mass m, that is sliding down a rough ramp of angle 30 o
- 6. The system diagram showing the external forces looks like this: W is the box's weight acting vertically downwards from the centre of mass.
- 7. F is the surface friction force acting along the surface from the point of contact .
- 8. Free Body Diagrams Consider a box, mass m, that is sliding down a rough ramp of angle 30 o
- 9. The free body diagram for the box looks like this: W is the box's weight acting vertically downwards from the centre of mass.
- 10. R is the normal reaction force of the ramp on the box acting perpendicular to the surface of contact from the point of contact .
- 11. F is the surface friction force acting along the surface from the point of contact .
- 12. Free Body Diagrams Often the only way to properly describe all the forces acting on an object is to draw a free body force diagram.
- 13. This will help identify Newton's third law paired internal forces and help solve the problem.
- 14. Weight due to Gravity Gravity is not a force.
- 15. Gravity is a field. The slope of that field is the gravitational field strength.
- 16. The effect of the field on an object's mass is called the object's weight due to gravity.
- 17. Weight is a force and is measured in newtons.
- 18. Mass is a measure of an object's linear inertia and is measured in kilograms. Inertia is the resistance of an object to change its state of motion.
- 19. Weight due to Gravity Weight due to gravity is calculated by: W = mg W : weight in N
- 20. M : inetial mass in kg
- 21. g : gravitational field strength Nkg -1 For object's in a uniform gravitational field (i.e. close to the Earth's surface) g is a constant.
- 22. G = 9.81 Nkg -1 or 9.81 ms -2
- 23. Newton's First Law An object in equilibrium will remain in equilibrium if no external forces act. OR If the resultant force on an object is zero, then the velocity of that object will be constant. If the resultant forces on an object are zero then the object is in translational (linear) equilibrium.
- 24. The velocity is constant or zero
- 25. There is no change in direction.
- 26. Newton's First Law All of the objects below are in equilibrium. Determine the magnitude and direction of the unknown force. 30 0 m=6kg m=4kg m=8kg
- 27. Newton's Second Law An object that is not in equilibrium experiences an acceleration proportional to the nett force on the object. Σ F = ma Σ F : the vector sum (nett) force acting in N
- 28. m : the inertial mass of the object in kg
- 29. a : the acceleration of the object in ms -2 This is only true if m remains constant.
- 30. The acceleration will be in the same direction as the nett force.
- 31. Newton's Second Law Calculate the acceleration of each of the objects below: m=6kg m=8kg m=4kg
- 32. Linear Momentum The linear momentum of an object is the product of its inertial mass and its velocity. It is a sort of measure of how difficult it is to stop the moving object. p = mv p = momentum in kgms -1
- 33. m = inertial mass in kg
- 34. v = velocity in ms -1 Momentum is a vector quantity. It has direction Momentum is a conserved quantity. There is always the same amount of momentum in a system if no external forces act.
- 35. Linear Momentum Calculate the momentum of the following objects. A 70kg man running with a velocity of 10ms -1 to the right.
- 36. A 1000kg car travelling at 30ms -1 to the left.
- 37. A 50,000kg rocket travelling at 80ms -1 upwards.
- 38. Newton's Second Law Newton's second law can also be stated as: The nett force is equal to the time rate of change of momentum.
- 39. Impulse In most situations such as collisions, Σ F is not a constant and is applied over a very short time Δ t.
- 40. The product of force and time is called impulse and is measured in Ns
- 41. Impulse = Δ F Δ t = Δp = m(v-u) It is the total impulse of a kick that affects the change in momentum of a ball, not the force or time individually.
- 42. The total impulse is found in reality by measuring the area under an F-t graph
- 43. Impulse A model rocket motor has a total impulse of 246Ns. The rocket has a mass of 500g and is fired from rest. What is the rocket's velocity when the motor burns out?
- 44. A cricket ball has a velocity of 130kmh -1 when bowled. The batsman applies an impulse of 350Ns to the 160g ball. What is the speed of the ball after striking?
- 45. Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum states that: In a collision the total momentum of the system is conserved if no external forces act. i.e. p final = p initial OR Σ mv = Σ mu
- 46. Simple Collisions Consider a car of mass 1500kg travelling at 50kmh -1 . It strikes a stationary van (no brakes) of mass 2500kg. After the collision both vehicles move off together. Calculate the speed.
- 47. Simple Collisions Two marbles (A and B) of equal mass (100g) roll towards each other. A has a speed of 2.5ms -1 . B has a speed of 4.0ms -1 . After the collision both marbles roll away with the same speed. Calculate the speed.
- 48. Newton's Third Law Newton stated that: If body A exerts a force on body B then body B exerts an equal and opposite force on body A. This is a consequence of the law of conservation of momentum. The two objects in a collision, are subject to the same impulse during a collision for the same time. The forces must therefore be equal These forces are internal to the system. You can only see them in free body diagrams.
- 49. You can not “measure” these forces, but you can calculate them.
- 50. Newton's Third Law Forces due to Newton's third law always occur in pairs. The pair of forces act: On different bodies
- 51. Are of the same type (contact, gravitational etc)
- 52. Are of the same magnitude
- 53. Are of opposite directions. e.g. Bob pushes to the left on the wall. The wall pushes to the right on Bob e.g. the Moon is attracted by the gravitational pull of the Earth. The Earth is attracted by the gravitational pull of the Moon.
- 54. Newton's Third Law Two boxes (A and B) have masses 4kg and 9kg respectively and are in contact on a smooth floor. A force of 10N is applied to the 4kg box to cause an acceleration. What is the acceleration of the 9kg box?
- 55. What is the magnitude of the force exerted on Box B by box A?