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Open 3D Printing
Carmelo De Maria
Open Source for
Biomedical Engineering - OS4BME
3D world
A picture says than 1000 words ...
... a model tells the whole story
Built 3D object
• Two approaches:
o Subtractive
o Additive
3D printing
● 3D printing (or Additive Manufacturing)is a process of
making a 3D solid object of virtually any shape from a
digital model.
● 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where
successive layers of material are laid down in different
shapes.
Computer Aided technologies (Cax)UN UNICO SISTEMA PRODUTTIVO INTEGRATO
CIM - COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING
CAD - COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
CAE - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING
CAM - COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING
CAPP - COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANING
• CAD – Design
• CAE – Engineering
• CAM – Manufacturing
• CAPP – Process
Planning
• CIM – Computer
Integrated
Manufacturing
A possible classification
Available technologies
● Solidification of liquid materials
● Photo-polymerization process
● Generation from the solid phase:
● incipiently or completely melted solid materials, powder,
or powder mixtures:
– Extrusion (FDM),
– Ballistic and
– Sintering processes
Available technologies
● Generation from the solid phase:
● incipiently or completely melted solid materials, powder,
or powder mixtures:
– Extrusion (FDM),
– Ballistic and
– Sintering processes
Available technologies
● Generation from the solid phase:
● Conglutination of granules or powders by additional
binders
– 3D inkjet printer
Available technologies
• Features of RP Systems:
o Process type - Stereo lithography, Laminating, Fused
deposition modelling, Sintering of powder, Solid ground
curing, etc.
o Work space(mm) - depends on the models
o Material - photopolymer resin, coated paper, ABS, wax,
metal alloy, etc.
Rapid Prototyping
Rapid Prototyping
Machine Cost Material Application
Fused Deposition Modeler
1600 (FDM)
$10/hr ABS or Casting Wax Strong Parts
Casting Patterns
Laminated Object
Manufacturing (LOM)
$18/hr Paper (wood-like) Larger Parts
Concept Models
Sanders Model Maker 2
(Jet)
$3.30/hr Wax Casting Pattern
Selective Laser Sintering
2000 (SLS)
$44/hr Polycarbonate
TrueForm
SandForm
light: 100%; margin:
0">Casting Patterns
Concept Models
Stereolithography 250
(SLA)
$33/hr Epoxy Resin
(Translucent)
Thin walls
Durable Models
Z402 3-D Modeller (Jet) $27.50/hr Starch/Wax Concept Models
• Features of RP Systems
Layer thickness(mm) Accuracy (mm)
SLA 0.05 - 0.3 0.01 - 0.2
LOM 0.1 - 1 0.1 - 0.2
FDM ≈0.05 0.130 - 0.260
SLS ≈0.08 0.03 - 0.4
SGC 0.01 - 0.15 0.05 - 0.5
Rapid Prototyping
Comparison chart
Technology SLA SLS FDM Wax Inkjet 3D printer LOM
Max Part Size
(cm)
30x30x50 34x34x60 30x30x50 30x15x21 30x30x40 65x55x40
Speed Average Average to fair Poor Poor Excellent Good
Accuracy Very good Good Fair Excellent Fair Fair
Surface finish Very good Fair Fair Excellent Fair Fair to poor
Strenghts Market
leader, large
part size,
accuragy,
wide product
Market leader,
accuracy,
materials,
large part size
Lab on
desktop,
price,
materials
Accuracy,
finish, lab
on desktop
Speed, lab
on
desktop,
price, color
Large part
size, good for
large
castings,
material cost
Weaknesses Post
processing,
messy liquids
Size and
weight,
system price,
surface finish
Speed Speed
limited,
materials,
part size
Limited
materials,
fragile
parts, finsh
Part stability,
smoke, finish
and accuracy
Which Process Should You Pick?
Do you need a prototype (not just a model)?
SLS, FDM (for robustness, strength).
Do you need a mold for a small batch?
SLA (for smooth, hard surface).
Does part need multiple colors?
3D Color-Printing.
Does part have convoluted internal spaces?
3D-Print, SLS, SLA (easy support removal).
Holoow
Sphere
Hollow
sphere with
drain/vent
2 Nested,
perforated
shperes
3D hilbert
pipe
Preassembled
gear
mechanism
LOM ★ ★ ★ ★★★ ★
SLA ★ ★★★ ★★★★ ★★★★★ ★★★
FDM ★ ★ ★★★★ ★★★★ ★★★
3D-P ★ ★★★★★
★
★★★★★
★
★★★★ ★★★★★
SLS ★ ★★★★★
★
★★★★★
★
★★★★★
Informal Process Ratings Matrix
Asking for a quote
• http://www.redeyeondemand.com
• http://www.redeyeondemand.com
MEDICAL APPLICATION
OF RAPID PROTOTYPING
Invisalign Orthodontic Aligners
An aligner for orthodontic use manufactured using a
combination of rapid tooling and thermoforming.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Surgery
Tissue Engineering
• Living cells are extracted
from patients and seeded
onto a carrier (scaffold)
which accomodates and
guides the growth of new
cells in 3D within
laboratory environment.
Tissue Engineering
• STL Data produced from
Micro-CT scan data
• Multiple specimens of
identical structure can be
made, reducing samples
variations.
IS IT A GOOD CHOICE
TO 3DPRINT EVERY OBJECT?
Design for manufacture
Limitations of RP Methods
• ACCURACY
o Stair Stepping:
Since rapid prototyping builds object in layers, there is inevitably
a "stairstepping" effect produced because the layers have a finite
thickness.
Limitations of RP Methods
• ACCURACY
o Precision:
tolerances are still not quite at the level of CNC,
Because of intervening energy exchanges and/or complex
chemistry one cannot say with any certainty that one method of
RP is always more accurate than another, or that a particular
method always produces a certain tolerance.
Limitations of RP Methods
• FINISH
o The finish and appearance of
a part are related to
accuracy, but also depend on
the method of RP employed.
o Technologies based on
powders have a sandy or
diffuse appearance, sheet-
based methods might be
considered poorer in finish
because the stairstepping is
more pronounced.
Limitations of RP Methods
• Secondary Operations
o Post Curing (Stereolithography)
o Inflintration, for fragile parts (3DP, MJM, SLS)
o Final machining of metal parts
o Removing of the support structures
Support structure (red material), water-
soluble, fused deposition modeling (FDM). Support structure, stereolithography.
Limitations of RP Methods
Limitations of RP Methods
• System costs
o from $30,000 to $800,000
o training, housing and maintenance (a laser for a
stereolithography system costs more than $20,000)
• Material
o High cost
o Available choices are limited.
Subtractive technologies
● Laser cutter
● CNC milling machines
Open Subtractive technologies
www.buildyourcnc.com
http://labs.nortd.com/lasersaur/
● Laser cutter
● CNC milling machines
NC Machining & Rapid Prototyping
• Numeric control machines requires a skilled
operator to set up the maching specifying:
o tools,
o speeds,
o raw materials.
• NC Machining allows:
o a wide range of materials
o better accuracy
o to reveal manufacturing limits in a given design.
Additive Fabrication
vs Subtractive Fabrication
• AF can not become complete replacement for the SF
(Milling, Turning, EDM etc.)
• AF technologies are instead complementary for:
o complex or intricate geometric forms,
o simultaneous fabrication of multiple parts into a single
assembly,
o multiple materials or composite materials in the same part.
• Thus, AF is the enabling technology for controlled
material composition as well as for geometric control.
Environmental and health issues
IS 3D PRINTING ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY?
IS FDM A SAFE TECHNOLOGY?
OPEN 3D PRINTING
The Rep Rap Project
Open 3D printing: the RepRap project
● RepRap is first general-purpose self-replicating
manufacturing machine.
● RepRap takes the form of a free desktop 3D printer capable
of printing plastic objects.
● Since many parts of RepRap are made from plastic and
RepRap prints those parts, RepRap self-replicates by
making a kit of itself - a kit that anyone can assemble given
time and materials.
The RepRap Project
The RepRap Project
The RepRap Project
The RepRap Project
Fused deposition modelling
Materials
 FFF = Fused Filament Fabrication
 Filament: fine diameter plastic that exits from an
extruder (some may refer to the plastic feed stock
as filament as well)
 Typically, the diameter of the filament varies
between 1 mm and 3mm
 The standard extruder produces filament using high
pressure and heat to force molten plastic thru a
very tiny hole.
Materials
 “Standard” materials:
 Poly-Lactic-Acid (PLA) (soft and hard)
 Acrylonitril-Butadiene-Stiren (ABS)
 “Experimental” materials:
 Nylon
 Polycarbonate (PC)
 Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)
Open questions
• WHICH ARE THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF
LOW-COST 3D PRINTING?
• IS THE OPEN SOURCE 3-D PRINTING AN ENABLING
TECHNOLOGY FOR SELF-DIRECTED SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT?

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2014 12-22 - open 3 d printing and fabrication technology (cd)

  • 1. Open 3D Printing Carmelo De Maria Open Source for Biomedical Engineering - OS4BME
  • 2. 3D world A picture says than 1000 words ... ... a model tells the whole story
  • 3. Built 3D object • Two approaches: o Subtractive o Additive
  • 4. 3D printing ● 3D printing (or Additive Manufacturing)is a process of making a 3D solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. ● 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes.
  • 5. Computer Aided technologies (Cax)UN UNICO SISTEMA PRODUTTIVO INTEGRATO CIM - COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING CAD - COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN CAE - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING CAM - COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING CAPP - COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANING • CAD – Design • CAE – Engineering • CAM – Manufacturing • CAPP – Process Planning • CIM – Computer Integrated Manufacturing
  • 7. Available technologies ● Solidification of liquid materials ● Photo-polymerization process
  • 8. ● Generation from the solid phase: ● incipiently or completely melted solid materials, powder, or powder mixtures: – Extrusion (FDM), – Ballistic and – Sintering processes Available technologies
  • 9. ● Generation from the solid phase: ● incipiently or completely melted solid materials, powder, or powder mixtures: – Extrusion (FDM), – Ballistic and – Sintering processes Available technologies
  • 10. ● Generation from the solid phase: ● Conglutination of granules or powders by additional binders – 3D inkjet printer Available technologies
  • 11. • Features of RP Systems: o Process type - Stereo lithography, Laminating, Fused deposition modelling, Sintering of powder, Solid ground curing, etc. o Work space(mm) - depends on the models o Material - photopolymer resin, coated paper, ABS, wax, metal alloy, etc. Rapid Prototyping
  • 12. Rapid Prototyping Machine Cost Material Application Fused Deposition Modeler 1600 (FDM) $10/hr ABS or Casting Wax Strong Parts Casting Patterns Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) $18/hr Paper (wood-like) Larger Parts Concept Models Sanders Model Maker 2 (Jet) $3.30/hr Wax Casting Pattern Selective Laser Sintering 2000 (SLS) $44/hr Polycarbonate TrueForm SandForm light: 100%; margin: 0">Casting Patterns Concept Models Stereolithography 250 (SLA) $33/hr Epoxy Resin (Translucent) Thin walls Durable Models Z402 3-D Modeller (Jet) $27.50/hr Starch/Wax Concept Models
  • 13. • Features of RP Systems Layer thickness(mm) Accuracy (mm) SLA 0.05 - 0.3 0.01 - 0.2 LOM 0.1 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 FDM ≈0.05 0.130 - 0.260 SLS ≈0.08 0.03 - 0.4 SGC 0.01 - 0.15 0.05 - 0.5 Rapid Prototyping
  • 14. Comparison chart Technology SLA SLS FDM Wax Inkjet 3D printer LOM Max Part Size (cm) 30x30x50 34x34x60 30x30x50 30x15x21 30x30x40 65x55x40 Speed Average Average to fair Poor Poor Excellent Good Accuracy Very good Good Fair Excellent Fair Fair Surface finish Very good Fair Fair Excellent Fair Fair to poor Strenghts Market leader, large part size, accuragy, wide product Market leader, accuracy, materials, large part size Lab on desktop, price, materials Accuracy, finish, lab on desktop Speed, lab on desktop, price, color Large part size, good for large castings, material cost Weaknesses Post processing, messy liquids Size and weight, system price, surface finish Speed Speed limited, materials, part size Limited materials, fragile parts, finsh Part stability, smoke, finish and accuracy
  • 15. Which Process Should You Pick? Do you need a prototype (not just a model)? SLS, FDM (for robustness, strength). Do you need a mold for a small batch? SLA (for smooth, hard surface). Does part need multiple colors? 3D Color-Printing. Does part have convoluted internal spaces? 3D-Print, SLS, SLA (easy support removal).
  • 16. Holoow Sphere Hollow sphere with drain/vent 2 Nested, perforated shperes 3D hilbert pipe Preassembled gear mechanism LOM ★ ★ ★ ★★★ ★ SLA ★ ★★★ ★★★★ ★★★★★ ★★★ FDM ★ ★ ★★★★ ★★★★ ★★★ 3D-P ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★ ★★★★★ SLS ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★★ Informal Process Ratings Matrix
  • 17. Asking for a quote • http://www.redeyeondemand.com • http://www.redeyeondemand.com
  • 19. Invisalign Orthodontic Aligners An aligner for orthodontic use manufactured using a combination of rapid tooling and thermoforming. Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Tissue Engineering • Living cells are extracted from patients and seeded onto a carrier (scaffold) which accomodates and guides the growth of new cells in 3D within laboratory environment.
  • 25. Tissue Engineering • STL Data produced from Micro-CT scan data • Multiple specimens of identical structure can be made, reducing samples variations.
  • 26. IS IT A GOOD CHOICE TO 3DPRINT EVERY OBJECT?
  • 28. Limitations of RP Methods • ACCURACY o Stair Stepping: Since rapid prototyping builds object in layers, there is inevitably a "stairstepping" effect produced because the layers have a finite thickness.
  • 29. Limitations of RP Methods • ACCURACY o Precision: tolerances are still not quite at the level of CNC, Because of intervening energy exchanges and/or complex chemistry one cannot say with any certainty that one method of RP is always more accurate than another, or that a particular method always produces a certain tolerance.
  • 30. Limitations of RP Methods • FINISH o The finish and appearance of a part are related to accuracy, but also depend on the method of RP employed. o Technologies based on powders have a sandy or diffuse appearance, sheet- based methods might be considered poorer in finish because the stairstepping is more pronounced.
  • 31. Limitations of RP Methods • Secondary Operations o Post Curing (Stereolithography) o Inflintration, for fragile parts (3DP, MJM, SLS) o Final machining of metal parts o Removing of the support structures
  • 32. Support structure (red material), water- soluble, fused deposition modeling (FDM). Support structure, stereolithography. Limitations of RP Methods
  • 33. Limitations of RP Methods • System costs o from $30,000 to $800,000 o training, housing and maintenance (a laser for a stereolithography system costs more than $20,000) • Material o High cost o Available choices are limited.
  • 34. Subtractive technologies ● Laser cutter ● CNC milling machines
  • 36. NC Machining & Rapid Prototyping • Numeric control machines requires a skilled operator to set up the maching specifying: o tools, o speeds, o raw materials. • NC Machining allows: o a wide range of materials o better accuracy o to reveal manufacturing limits in a given design.
  • 37. Additive Fabrication vs Subtractive Fabrication • AF can not become complete replacement for the SF (Milling, Turning, EDM etc.) • AF technologies are instead complementary for: o complex or intricate geometric forms, o simultaneous fabrication of multiple parts into a single assembly, o multiple materials or composite materials in the same part. • Thus, AF is the enabling technology for controlled material composition as well as for geometric control.
  • 38. Environmental and health issues IS 3D PRINTING ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY? IS FDM A SAFE TECHNOLOGY?
  • 39. OPEN 3D PRINTING The Rep Rap Project
  • 40. Open 3D printing: the RepRap project ● RepRap is first general-purpose self-replicating manufacturing machine. ● RepRap takes the form of a free desktop 3D printer capable of printing plastic objects. ● Since many parts of RepRap are made from plastic and RepRap prints those parts, RepRap self-replicates by making a kit of itself - a kit that anyone can assemble given time and materials.
  • 46. Materials  FFF = Fused Filament Fabrication  Filament: fine diameter plastic that exits from an extruder (some may refer to the plastic feed stock as filament as well)  Typically, the diameter of the filament varies between 1 mm and 3mm  The standard extruder produces filament using high pressure and heat to force molten plastic thru a very tiny hole.
  • 47. Materials  “Standard” materials:  Poly-Lactic-Acid (PLA) (soft and hard)  Acrylonitril-Butadiene-Stiren (ABS)  “Experimental” materials:  Nylon  Polycarbonate (PC)  Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)
  • 48. Open questions • WHICH ARE THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST 3D PRINTING? • IS THE OPEN SOURCE 3-D PRINTING AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR SELF-DIRECTED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?