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Dream Fulfilled?  King, the “Civil Rights Movement”, and Obama’s America Dedrick Muhammad Senior Organizer and Research Associate Institute for Policy Studies
Truth and Lies ,[object Object],[object Object]
Do you know about Kwame Ture? How about Stokely Carmichael?
Kwame Ture Another Face of the “Civil Rights Movement” Kwame Ture and Stokely Carmichael are the same person. ,[object Object],[object Object]
Stokely Carmichael and SNCC ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Ella Baker
The Big 6 Civil Rights Organizations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters  The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was a major Black union founded in 1925 whose leader A Phillip Randolph originally had the idea of the March on Washington.  It took almost twenty years for the march to become a reality. The Urban League  The Urban League originated in New York City to deal with the great migration of African Americans from rural areas to urban areas.
The Black Radicalism that Came from the “Civil Rights Movement” ,[object Object],The symbol of the racist Alabama Democratic party was a white rooster whose motto was “White Supremacy / For the Right.” To help the African American population distinguish the new non-racist democratic party in Lowndes County from the racist Alabama Democratic Party they used the Black Panther symbol.
The “Civil Rights” Birth of the Black Panther Party ,[object Object]
The Civil Rights Birth of “Black Power” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The last great Civil Rights march in 1965 continued the “March Against Fear” that was originally attempted by one man James Meredith who was shot in his attempt to march through the South.
Stokely Carmichael from  Civil Rights to Black Power ,[object Object]
From the Caribbean to the United States to Africa ,[object Object]
The Emergence of Kwame Ture ,[object Object],Shirley Dubois  an activist and member of the American Communist Party who married WEB Dubois and emigrated to Ghana with WEB Dubois in 1961. Kwame Ture  Kwame Nkrumah
The Black Liberation Struggle Continues ,[object Object]
What does all of this have to do with Dr. King? ,[object Object],There were many different faces and aspects of the civil rights movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s, some faces such as Dr. King are remembered more than others and some aspects of the civil rights movement are remembered more than others.
America’s Dream of King ,[object Object],Dr. King is remembered for bringing America together and to a large extent having his dream realized.
King’s Dream ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Reality of Dr. King ,[object Object],[object Object],There were two phases of Dr. Kings life’s work. As King stated, “The first phase had been a struggle to treat the Negro with a degree of decency, not of equality… When Negroes looked for the second phase, the realization of equality, they found that many of their white allies had quietly disappeared.”
Phase 2 of Dr. King’s Work:  Structural Inequality ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],“ The looting in Watts was a form of social protest very common through the ages as a dramatic and destructive gesture of the poor toward symbols of their need.”    - Dr. King Dr. King moved himself and his family into a housing project on the West side of Chicago to express solidarity with ghettoized African Americans in the North.  In Chicago King received some of the most hateful responses to his demonstrations to end the defacto segregation in Northern cities. The conditions for African Americans in urban areas that no longer had segregation laws, but still were segregated and disenfranchised, were thrust to center stage not by nonviolent action but by rebellions/riots like Watts, which highlighted the great dissatisfaction of urban Blacks outside of the South.
Dr. King the Unpopular ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Radical King ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],Martin Luther King Jr., the #1 Threat to National Security   As Dr. King organized for national socioeconomic reforms, the FBI worked more intently in  “neutralizing”  him.
Death on the Battlefield ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],King’s family  after his death King brought down by an an assassin King’s funeral procession Chicago brought to flames  with the murder of King
Failed Poor  People’s Campaign ,[object Object],Police were sent into remove the poor families that  lived in Resurrection City and their shanty towns were torn down, ending King’s last campaign. Resurrection City in downtown Washington DC. Robert Kennedy killed.
Change We Can Believe in? How have African Americans economically advanced since the time of Dr. King? In terms of median family income, the disparity between Blacks and whites has actually increased.
Median Household Wealth  The Black-white economic divide is most dramatically seen when it comes to wealth. In 1983 Median Household wealth for Blacks in 2004 dollars was $5,500 and for whites was $82,900 so Blacks had 7% of the wealth of whites.  In 2007, before the recession, Blacks had $17,100 dollars in household wealth compared to $170,400 in wealth by whites,  Blacks had 10% of the wealth of whites.
Segregation in the New Millennium According to “Beyond Black and White,” a 2002 US Census Bureau report,  Blacks are the most segregated racial group in the United States .  The report highlights that “holding other factors constant, while Asian and Hispanics composition does not matter to whites buying a home, Blacks neighborhood composition does.”  White Americans’ preference to avoid living in areas that are more than 10% Black causes a substantial decrease in demand for Black-owned homes ,  leading to a decline in the value of homes owned by African Americans .  At the same time, this bias artificially increases the demand for and value of homes located in overwhelmingly  white neighborhoods.
Poverty Rates Poverty rates for African Americans have gone down since the time of Dr. King, but still remain remarkably high.  In 2008, over a third of Black children lived in poverty and 25% of all African Americans were in poverty.
“ Sophisticated Rationalization of his Acquired Infirmities” ,[object Object],[object Object],Dr. King was critical of those who blamed racial inequality on African American deficiencies rather than structural inequality or institutional racism.  Incarceration and single parent households are national social challenges not problems of one particular community.
The Recessions Racial Divide ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
40 Years Later: Dream Fulfilled?
Obama’s Dream:  no need to address Black disenfranchisement ,[object Object],[object Object],Question to President Obama Obama’s Response
The Obama Reality ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
King’s Truths and the Obama Era ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Too often Negro leaders “change from the representative of the Negro to white men into the white man’s representative to the Negro.  The tragedy is that too often he does not recognize what has happened to him.”  - Dr. King
Policy Solutions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Let Us Be Dissatisfied ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Many Faces of Black Struggle The civil rights movement didn’t begin or end with King.  The Civil Rights Movement was one phase of a larger struggle to ensure Blacks receive equal protection under US Law.  King and the civil rights movement are pieces of a centuries old struggle for Black advancement in this country.

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2010 Black History Month Final

  • 1. Dream Fulfilled? King, the “Civil Rights Movement”, and Obama’s America Dedrick Muhammad Senior Organizer and Research Associate Institute for Policy Studies
  • 2.
  • 3. Do you know about Kwame Ture? How about Stokely Carmichael?
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Change We Can Believe in? How have African Americans economically advanced since the time of Dr. King? In terms of median family income, the disparity between Blacks and whites has actually increased.
  • 25. Median Household Wealth The Black-white economic divide is most dramatically seen when it comes to wealth. In 1983 Median Household wealth for Blacks in 2004 dollars was $5,500 and for whites was $82,900 so Blacks had 7% of the wealth of whites. In 2007, before the recession, Blacks had $17,100 dollars in household wealth compared to $170,400 in wealth by whites, Blacks had 10% of the wealth of whites.
  • 26. Segregation in the New Millennium According to “Beyond Black and White,” a 2002 US Census Bureau report, Blacks are the most segregated racial group in the United States . The report highlights that “holding other factors constant, while Asian and Hispanics composition does not matter to whites buying a home, Blacks neighborhood composition does.” White Americans’ preference to avoid living in areas that are more than 10% Black causes a substantial decrease in demand for Black-owned homes , leading to a decline in the value of homes owned by African Americans . At the same time, this bias artificially increases the demand for and value of homes located in overwhelmingly white neighborhoods.
  • 27. Poverty Rates Poverty rates for African Americans have gone down since the time of Dr. King, but still remain remarkably high. In 2008, over a third of Black children lived in poverty and 25% of all African Americans were in poverty.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. 40 Years Later: Dream Fulfilled?
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Many Faces of Black Struggle The civil rights movement didn’t begin or end with King. The Civil Rights Movement was one phase of a larger struggle to ensure Blacks receive equal protection under US Law. King and the civil rights movement are pieces of a centuries old struggle for Black advancement in this country.