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                          Assessment and Accreditation
                           of Non-Formal Management
                           Education and Development
                                         Programmes
                                                         Lichia Yiu and Raymond Saner




                                  Summary                                 and skills through formal management
                   This chapter provides an overview of the               education (initial formal education at MBA
                   non-formal management education and in-                schools) is no longer sufficient for future
                   service training and identifies various assess-         managers to ensure successful careers and
                   ment tools used in Western Europe and                  adequate performance at the job site for the
                   Northern America. The chapter ends with
                   an examination of options of safeguard-
                                                                          remaining years of their work life. Continuous
                   ing the value of non-formal management                 education and training is a must. However,
                   education and management development                   satisfactory learning outcome judging from
                   programmes in the spirit and context of                the transferability of learning to the workplace
                   life-long learning.                                    is not necessarily assured.          Literature on
                                                                          non-formal management education and train-
                                                                          ing and its overall performance are scarce,
              INTRODUCTION                                                especially outside of the North American
                                                                          context.
              Impacted by rapidly evolving technology,                       While the demand for continued man-
              global competition and instant communica-                   agement learning has been growing, the
              tions, workers and managers alike are finding                supply has also been increased. Many adult
              it more difficult to keep up with their job                  education institutions and private service
              requirements. Learning has become a syn-                    providers sprang forward to fill the need that
              onym for survival. Acquisition of knowledge                 was too vast to be satisfied by the formal




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              education institutions. In a little more than              Key proponent of calling for change is
              a decade ago, continuing education for adult               Mintzberg (2004) who criticised business
              learners has taken a giant step forward to                 schools for failing to educate and develop true
              fill the vacuum and has since blossomed                     managers.
              into a full industry in its own. One of the                   While Mintzberg’s concern centres on
              most dynamic and thriving sector of adult                  the MBA programmes of formal education
              education no doubt is management studies and               institutions like universities and colleges, his
              management training. Revenue for the adult                 criticism does not extend to the growing
              learning is substantial. In the UK alone, it               field of non-formal management education
              was estimated that 43 billion Euros are spent              which so far has eluded the critical eye of
              on training of adults each year. The market                management scholars and researchers even
              size for leadership development alone for the              though the field of informal management
              FT top 500 European companies is estimated                 training has grown in size without adequate
              to be around 105 million Euros (ECUANET,                   quality assessments and practically without
              2006). Spending for adult training in the                  any form of accreditation systems. What
              US is also high. According to the ASTD                     follows is an attempt to take a closer look
              estimate, the market turnover reached $280                 at this under-researched and under-published
              billion in 2006. Management development                    field of management education and training.
              and training on-the-job constitute             a
              substantial share of this total amount spend
              on adult learning.                                         NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND
                 A variety of the adult learning organisations           INFORMAL LEARNING
              are dedicated to management education and
              development programmes. Among them are                     There is a confusion of terminology between
              corporate universities, a hybrid between a                 informal learning and non-formal learning. It
              ‘real’ university and ‘upgraded’ training unit.            is important to clearly define the meaning of
              It was estimated by experts that in the US                 each term used before proceeding with the
              alone there are more than 2,000 corporate                  discussion of assessment and accreditation.
              universities (Knight, 2007) while Europe has                  In 2001, the European Commission defined
              about 36 corporate universities, with France               the terminology used in the discussion about
              having the highest number (ECUANET,                        training within the EU countries (Bjørnåvold,
              2006).                                                     2001: 21):
                 The spread of management education and
              training was made easy by the integration of               Formal learning is typically provided by
              internet and related communication technolo-               education or training institutions, structured
              gies at the workplace and the rapidly lowering             (in terms of learning objectives, learning
              cost of providing an ICT platform for deliver-             time or learning support) and leading to
              ing training and education across geographic               certification or an academic degree. This is
              divide. Today, access to on-line management                intentional from the learner’s perspective.
              education and training is unhindered in most
              countries, and commercialisation of higher                 Informal learning results from daily life
              education is gaining momentum driven both                  activities related to work, family or leisure.
              by the institutions’ need for mobilising social            It is not structured (in terms of learning
              resources and by the consumers’ demand for                 objectives, learning time or learning support).
              more education and qualification.                           Typically, it does not lead to certification.
                 In the midst of this development, concerns              Informal learning may be intentional. But
              over credibility of business schools have                  in most cases it is incidental or at random.
              been voiced leading to broader reflection                   It comprises ‘all forms of more or less
              about the essence of managerial learning and               conscious self-learning outside of the formal
              the core mission of the business schools.                  educational settings, in direct relation to life




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ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT                                               533



                                                         Facets of informal learning

                                       International,
                                                                                          Incidental
                                     self-initiated and
                                                                                         and implicit
                                   subjectively designed




                                    Explicit                        Learning                          Tacit
                                   learning                           from                          learning
                                                                   experience



                                            Competence development / competence acquisition


              Figure 28.1 Facets of informal learning
              Source: (Frank in Wittwer (2003): 177).


              and experience – from unconscious, tacit                        children, life-skills, work-skills, and general culture.
              learning on the one hand to conscious, self-                    Non-formal education programmes do not neces-
              organised learning on the other hand’(adopted                   sarily follow the ‘ladder’ system, and may have
                                                                              differing duration. (Coombs, Prosser and Ahmed,
              from Fietz et al., 2006).                                       1973: 185)
                 Informal learning was conceptualised into
              three elements (Frank, 2003. see Figure 28.1):
              explicit learning, learning from experience                   Simkins (1977) compared non-formal edu-
              (reflection) and tacit learning.                               cation with formal education in terms of
              Non-formal learning on the other hand, is                     purpose, timing, content delivery systems and
              not provided by an education or training                      control, and developed ideal type models
              institutions and typically is not leading to                  of formal and non-formal education (see
              certification. However, it is structured, in                   Table 28.1). In short, non-formal education
              terms of learning objectives, learning time                   and training are therefore courses or pro-
              or learning support, and intentional from the                 grammes that are not part of a universally
              learner’s perspective. It refers to any activity              recognised programme and involve little or
              involving the acquisition of understanding,                   no reliance on pre-determined guidelines for
              knowledge or skill which occurs outside the                   its organisation, delivery or assessment and
              curricula of formal educational institutions                  do not lead to any formal qualification or
              and without necessarily the presence of an                    certification.
              institutionally-authorised instructor.                           Both informal learning (intentional aspect)
                 An important distinction was also made                     and non-formal learning have been greatly
              between informal learning and non-formal                      supported by the availability of information
              learning or education, which is the theme of                  on the internet (informal learning) and have
              this chapter. According to UNESCO, non-                       been facilitated by access to educational
              formal education implies:                                     materials and courseware through the internet
                                                                            (non-formal learning or education). Formal
                Any organized and sustained educational activities          educational institutions, such as MIT, have
                that do not correspond exactly to the definition             made available their whole teaching and
                of formal education. Non-formal education may               course material on-line free of charge to aid
                therefore take place both within and outside                individuals due to life circumstances who
                educational institutions [and cater to persons
                of all ages]. Depending on country contexts, it
                                                                            could not afford or attend the formal education
                may cover educational programmes to impart                  programmes. Actions taken by institutions
                adult literacy, basic education for out-of-school           such as MIT in the public interest have




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              Table 28.1 Simkins (1977) ideal type models of formal and non-formal education
                                   Formal                                                Non-formal
              Purposes             Long term and general                                 Short term and specific
                                   Credential-based                                      Non-credential based
              Timing               Long cycle/preparatory/full time                      Short cycle/recurrent/part-time
              Content              Standardised/Input centred                            Individualised/Output centred
                                   Academic                                              Practical
                                   Entry requirements determine clientele                Clientele determine entry requirements
              Delivery System      Institution-based, isolated from environment          Environment-based, community related
                                   Rigidly structured, teacher-centred and               Flexible, learner-centred and resource saving
                                      resource intensive
              Control              External/Hierarchical                                 Self-governing/Democratic
              Adopted by Fordham (1993) from Simkins (1977: 12–15).



              contributed in providing the field of informal                   as more effective accreditation systems, better
              learning possibility also for a more structured                 monitoring and evaluation, improved statis-
              and coherent learning in terms of subject                       tical systems, better performance evaluation
              matter mastery.                                                 at the institution level, and better monitoring
                 Taking into account the difficulty in                         of student outcomes and destinations (OECD,
              discerning the complexity (due to its hetero-                   2003).
              geneity) and the diversity of non-formal
              education and training, the question arises
              as how to strengthen the accountability of
              this form of learning delivery which has                        ACCREDITATION AND QUALITY
              become more relevant and urgent. In the                         ASSURANCE OF NON-FORMAL
              past few years, most developed countries                        TRAINING AND EDUCATION
              have increasingly emphasised the crucial role
              of learning that takes place outside formal                     Although accreditation services for formal
              education: in light of the increasing demands                   management studies and programmes have
              for updating knowledge and upgrading skills                     matured, the same cannot be said of non-
              of their working population in general and                      formal education. The United States is one
              the more mature workers in specific. How to                      of the few countries providing accreditation
              recognise informal and non-formal learning                      specifically for this purpose in a formalised
              so that adults can continue their more                          manner and with dedicated accreditation bod-
              advanced learning in a formal education                         ies. For example, the Accrediting Council for
              setting has become a hot topic.                                 Continuing Education & Training (ACCET,
                 This emphasis of enriching the human                         www.accet.org) is one of such organisations
              capital and re-enrolling large number of                        specialised in continuing education. ACCET
              working population into systematic learning                     was founded in 1974 and provides institu-
              processes has led to an increasing number                       tional accreditation for organisations whose
              of political and practical initiatives in the                   primary function is for educational purposes
              field of informal and non-formal learning and                    and also for organisations offering continuing
              education; thus gradually shifting the practice                 education as a clearly identified institutional
              of lifelong learning (in other words, providing                 objective within the operational entity, such
              lifelong learning opportunities) from the stage                 as in-service corporate training.
              of experimentation to implementation. For the                      ACCET accreditation can include educa-
              purpose of improving and ensuring quality                       tional institutions that offer programmes at
              of adult training and education, different                      locations other than the main headquarters
              measures have also been put into action, such                   under specified conditions and controls.




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              ACCET also accredits non-collegiate con-                    (5) learning success, and (6) quality assurance
              tinuing education and training organisations                and development. Increasingly, eduQua certi-
              throughout the United States and accredits                  fication has been put forth as a prerequisite
              programmes abroad. Institutions that may be                 for public funding in different Swiss cantons1
              eligible for accreditation include: (a) Trade               (EduQua, 2007). There is also talk among
              and professional associations; (b) Private                  educational officials about applying the same
              career schools; (c) Corporate training depart-              quality criteria to the providers in the
              ments; (d) Intensive English programmes;                    education sector in all of Switzerland and
              (e) Labour union training programmes;                       make national subsidies dependent on a proof
              (f) Religious organisations and ethical soci-               of quality.
              eties; (g) Public affairs and cultural societies;              A different approach was taken by experts
              and (h) Social service, volunteer and personal              focusing on quality of training from an ISO
              development organisations.                                  perspective. A team of international experts
                 Accreditation of non-formal training and                 developed the ISO 10015 Standard which
              education is an effort to safeguard the public              is an international standard approved by
              interests and to provide a minimum guarantee                ISO member states. ISO certification is an
              of educational and training quality through                 internationally recognised quality label which
              third party actors. Often these third party                 demonstrates an organisation’s commitment
              actors also seek certification of their own                  to quality and a well-functioning quality
              management systems in order to demonstrate                  assurance system.
              their commitment to certain quality standards                  The ISO 10015 Quality Standard for Train-
              and in turn strengthen their reputation and                 ing was published in December 1999. The
              credibility. These third party accreditation                Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development
              bodies could be public or private entities.                 (CSEND) is the first organisation to become
              What follows is a short survey of the                       a certification body for ISO 10015 related
              accreditation of non-formal education by                    quality assurance work. CSEND received its
              different European countries.                               accreditation from the Swiss Accreditation
                                                                          Agency (SAS) in February 2003 and has
                                                                          since certified training systems in China,
              Switzerland
                                                                          India, Bahrain and conducts seminars on the
              Switzerland has established a special moni-                 application of ISO 10015 to management
              toring and certification instrument for adult                training. In contrast to the EduQua, ISO
              learning in the 1990s. The Swiss Certification               10015 focuses not only on the four-stage
              for Institutions of Continuing Education was                training process, i.e., defining training needs,
              the entity to offer quality certificate ser-                 designing and planning training, providing for
              vice named EduQua (http://www.eduqua.ch)                    training, and evaluating training outcomes;
              to the adult continuing education institu-                  it puts equal emphasis on the alignment of
              tions in Switzerland. Its members are 800                   training to the needs of the organisation. By
              schools, institutions, and academies through-               so doing, training is not only focused on
              out Switzerland. In Geneva, the Foundation                  the individual acquisition of knowledge and
              for Adult Training (IFAGE) is one of the many               skills, but equally on the application of these
              eduQua certified non-formal institutions that                acquired knowledge and skills in solving indi-
              provides courses either for professionals or                vidual performance issues and in enhancing
              beginners in business and finance.                           organizational performance (Saner, 2002; Yiu
                 EduQua assesses training and education                   and Saner, 2005) (see Figure 28.2).
              providers by using the following six criteria,
              which it considers to be keys to the quality of
                                                                          Europe
              an institution: (1) the course offer, (2) commu-
              nication with clients, (3) performance based                In the rest of Europe, certification of educa-
              value, (4) staff – meaning the educators,                   tional institutions is a relatively new concepts.




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              It is not common in Europe to see accreditation            informal learning are considered as basic
              organisations cater specifically for the adult              features to increase individual skills and
              learning and non-formal sector. In Nordic                  work competences. Recently, the Learning
              countries and in Austria, accreditation bodies             and Skills Council (LSC, www.lsc.gov.uk)
              usually have the dual role of accrediting                  has taken a strategic interest in the recognition
              both formal and non-formal training. For                   of non-formal learning for adults. LSC has
              example, in Austria, accreditation of non-                 therefore become an accreditation agency
              formal training programmes is given by the                 focusing on non-formal training and educa-
              Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit                tion. The Adult learning Inspectorate (ALI),
              (Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour)                 now merged with the Office for Standards
              according to the Austrian Akkreditierungsge-               in Education (Ofsted, www.ofsted.gov.uk), is
              setz (Accreditation Act).                                  another quality control body for both formal
                  In other countries, institutions delivering            and non-formal education funded by the
              accreditations in the non-formal system con-               public funded provisions in the UK.
              centrate their task primarily on management                   British Accreditation Council (BAC,
              of the learning environment such as class-                 www.the-bac.org) is a registered charity
              rooms and educational facilities, but taking               (non-profit-making organisation) in the UK
              little into account the quality of actual training         which was established in 1984 to act as the
              and learning. For example, in the United                   national accreditation body for independent
              Kingdom and also recently in Germany,                      further and higher education. Until 2000,
              regular inspections by the public authority                BAC accreditation was only available to
              constitute part of the approval procedure                  colleges in the United Kingdom, but there are
              for non-formal training bodies to apply for                now accredited colleges in different countries
              public financial support. These inspections                 including Switzerland. At present BAC
              are targeted mostly at the institutional man-              accredits over 200 colleges in the United
              agement systems and do not focus specially                 Kingdom, and nearly 30 overseas. These
              on the training programmes themselves.                     accredited independent colleges include
              Nevertheless, in the United Kingdom, there                 business and professional education and
              is an established practice of adhering to                  training.
              an output-oriented and performance-based
              model to education and training. This is
                                                                         Scandinavian countries
              not the case in Germany, however, where
              validating informal learning still appears                 Adult education and training in the Scan-
              to be rather low (Fietz et al., 2006). On                  dinavian countries is mostly regulated with
              the whole these particular cases reveal the                the same tools and the same institutions
              excessive diversity in the monitoring of non-              involved in the formal educational system.
              formal training all over Europe. A focus                   Nevertheless, it is not possible to speak
              on specific European countries and regions                  of a ‘Nordic model’. Finland, Norway,
              that have different background in non-formal               Denmark and Sweden have chosen differ-
              training will show evidence for improving                  ent approaches and are working accord-
              the coherence of training and education                    ing to different schedules. These differ-
              monitoring both at a national and at an                    ences do not change the fact that ‘all
              international level.                                       four countries have taken practical steps
                                                                         through legislation and institutional initia-
                                                                         tives towards strengthening the link between
              United Kindom
                                                                         formal education and training and learning
              In the United Kingdom, there is general accep-             taking place outside of schools’(Colardyn
              tance of learning outside formal education and             and Bjørnåvold, 2004). In fact, these coun-
              training institutions as a valid and important             tries have created institutes in charge of
              pathway to competences. Non-formal and                     evaluating the quality of education and




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ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT                                          537



              training both in the formal and informal                    a recent reform process that increasingly
              sector. Documenting and recognising high                    takes into account the non-formally and infor-
              qualifications acquired through non-formal                   mally acquired competences. The vocational
              and informal learning has been emphasised for               qualification system is widely appreciated and
              decades in the Scandinavian countries (Fietz                the tendency is that all kinds of skills and
              et al., 2006).                                              competences should get formally validated
                 In Denmark, for example, the Danish                      credits.
              Evaluation Institute (EVA, www.eva.dk) is
              an independent agency formed under the
                                                                          France
              auspices of the Danish Ministry of Education
              in 1999 under national legislation (Act on the              In several respects, France can be charac-
              Danish Institute of Evaluation, Consolidated                terised as one of the most advanced European
              Act of September 2000). It is responsible                   countries in the area of identification, assess-
              for external quality assurance at all levels                ment and recognition of non-formal learning
              of education in Denmark, including higher                   (OECD, 2003). Concerning the ‘opening up’
              education (public and private subsidised                    of the national vocational education and
              higher education institutions). It initiates and            training system including management related
              conducts systematic evaluations of higher                   training for competences acquired outside
              education programmes. Their activities may                  formal institutions, nowadays there are
              include institutional, auditing and other forms             several different forms of recognition for
              of evaluation.                                              competences acquired outside formal courses
                 Accreditation of all programmes leading                  of study. The bilan de competences and
              to a professional Bachelor’s degree began                   the Validation des Acquis Professionnels
              in 2004. EVA conducts the accreditation/                    (VAP) legally regulate the recognition of
              evaluation, and the Ministry of Education                   vocationally acquired competences in order
              makes the accreditation decision. EVA also                  to undertake certain courses of study in the
              conducts accreditation of private courses as                formal educational system. Since 1992, voca-
              part of the Ministry of Education proce-                    tional certificates like the Certificat d’aptitude
              dure determining whether students at private                professionelle can be obtained (to various
              teaching establishments should be eligible for              degrees) on the basis of assessments of non-
              Danish state study grants. Business schools,                formal and prior learning. Another important
              for example, the Copenhagen Business                        initiative was taken by the French Chambers
              School (CBS), may go for double accred-                     of Commerce and Industry where the aim was
              itations. In the case of CBS, it has the                    to set up procedures and standards to assess
              national accreditation from EVA, but also                   independently the informal education and
              obtained EQUIS accreditation for interna-                   training system (OECD, 2003). Concerning
              tional recognition.                                         the competences strictly in management and
                 The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assur-                  business, there has been an initiative in 1999
              ance in Education (NOKUT, www.nokut.no)                     of the French employers’ association MEDEF
              was created in 2003 to be responsible for                   (Mouvement des Entreprises de France) under
              the evaluation and accreditation of all higher              the title of ‘Objectif Compétence’ that aims
              education institutions. As from 1 January                   to anchor this competence aspect more
              2002, an accreditation has become mandatory                 strongly especially in small and medium-sized
              and universal for all formally recognised                   enterprises.
              higher education in Norway which covers
              both institutional and programme based
                                                                          Mediterranean countries
              accreditations. Non-formal learning is recog-
              nised on the individual basis; there is no                  In the Mediterranean countries, despite the
              formal accreditation procedure for non-formal               fact that informal training and education
              education providers. The Finnish case shows                 are very spread, there is still a lack of




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              monitoring and evaluating. Nevertheless,                   topic of higher learning. It is obvious that
              some countries in the South of Europe                      knowledge production and related services,
              have taken important initiatives. In Spain,                including accreditation and recognition of
              institutional level work led to the creation               non-traditional learning, have become one
              of a system for assessment, recognition and                of the major drivers of Western economy.
              accreditation of vocational skills acquired                This sector, i.e., accreditation, could warrant
              through non-formal and informal channels                   greater regulatory control.
              (‘The Law on Qualifications and Vocational
              training of June 2002’). An important further
              step could be marked with the set up of the
              ERA program – ‘Evaluación, Reconocimi-                     SHOULD NON-FORMAL
              ento y Acreditatión de las competencias                    MANAGEMENT TRAINING
              profesionales’(Fietz et al., 2006). Recently,              INSTITUTIONS BE ACCREDITED
              Portugal has undertaken a programme for                    OR SUBJECT TO QUALITY
              Certification of Training Institutions named                CERTIFICATION SCHEMES?
              QUALFOR that can be compared to the
              EduQua certification in Switzerland. Many                   The proliferation of the ‘private’ accred-
              firms and financial institutions deliver learn-              itation bodies reflects the reality of the
              ing programmes for their employees. Some                   increasingly deregulated education market
              of them aim to set up corporate universities to            worldwide, making it easier to provide non-
              deliver specific training in management and                 formal management training and course work.
              leadership. This informal scope of manage-                 This proliferation has also created challenges
              ment development is generally not aligned to               and difficulties in recognition of learning
              standardisation or accreditation because their             attainments, making it more of an increasing
              education and training are strictly focused on             concern regarding the compatibility of diplo-
              their employees. As a result, the quality of               mas, certifications and qualifications by the
              the teachings and the training mostly depends              employers.
              on the quality and the success of the firm in                  Seeing it from the providers’ point of
              its fields. Nevertheless, some major firms or                view, organisations which manage training
              banks have voluntarily asked for accreditation             programmes would like to differentiate their
              of their training units and programmes.                    products by acquiring quality certification
              EFMD through its CLIP (Corporate Learning                  through an accreditation procedure offered
              Improvement Process) programme provides                    by an independent entity. Accreditation could
              accreditation of corporate learning func-                  help screen-out sub-standard or unqualified
              tion. So far 12 leading Corporate Learning                 management education and development pro-
              Organisations from across Europe have been                 gramme suppliers. Yet, it does not necessarily
              awarded the Corporate Learning Improve-                    address the question of learning outcome or
              ment Process.                                              that of an active instrument in protecting
                 A summary list of the accrediting institu-              the public and private interests of achieving
              tions and quality assurance systems of non-                quality non-formal management education
              formal management training is presented in                 or learning. It is also questionable whether
              Table 28.2.                                                the self-regulated accreditation bodies abide
                 According to Business Podium Boards                     by stringent standard of good governance
              (BPB, www.business-podium.com), there are                  imposed by international organisations such
              more than 100 unrecognised accreditation                   as the International Organisation for Stan-
              associations of higher learning in the US,                 dardisation and affiliated international metal
              UK and Europe (see Table 28.3). Some of                    organisations or government bodies. Unless
              the accreditation associations listed by BPB               verification mechanisms exist to monitor
              are discipline or professional specific. A large            and regulate these non-state ‘soft’ regulators,
              number of them are dealing with the general                accreditation of the non-formal training and




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Table 28.2          Examples of accrediting institutions and quality assurance systems of non-formal management training in Western Europe and North America
                                                    Organisation        Scope of work       Methods of          Accreditation procedure       Validity    Level of recognition   Accreditation          Territory and size   External quality   Oversight     Type of programme      Status of         Organisational
                                                                                            regulation                                                                           of informal            of the users         assurances                                              recognition       status
                                                                                                                                                                                 education/training                          measures
                                                    Accrediting council ACCET accredits     Independent         1. Inquiry                    3 to 5 years Recognised by the     Specifically informal   USA 248              No                 –             All sorts of private  Private initiative Private accrediting
                                                      for continuing      non-collegiate       peer-review      2. Application                               U.S. Department       schools &                                                                     career schools                           agency




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]
                                                      education &         continuing           and evaluation   3. Accreditation and                         of education          programmes                                                                    corporate training
                                                      training (ACCET)    education and                            evaluation workshop                    Certified as an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 departments
                                                                          training                              4. Analytic self-evaluation                 ISO 9001-quality                                                                                  For our interest:
                                                                          organisations                            report (ASER)                            management                                                                                          Trade and
                                                                          throughout the                        5. Examination team




Paper: a4
                                                                                                                                                            system                                                                                              Professional -
                                                                          United States                         6. On-site examination                                                                                                                          Associations
                                                                          and accredits                         7. Team report                                                                                                                                  Labour union
                                                                          programmes                            8. Accrediting commission                                                                                                                       training-Public
                                                                          abroad                                   action                                                                                                                                       affairs and
                                                                                                                9. Time schedule                                                                                                                                cultural societies




Job No: 5210
                                                    Eduqua              Eduqua is the       Voluntary           1. Subscription within        3 years     Secrétariat d’Etat à Schools &                Switzerland 49       No                 Proformation All sorts of            Label             –
                                                                          first Swiss                               a certification                           l’Economie (SECO)    programmes of            business &                            SQS
                                                                          accreditation/                           organisation                                                  all sorts                management                            SGS
                                                                          label for adult                       2. Adult education type of                                                                schools for 800                       ProCert
                                                                          education                                programme                                                                              institutions of                       IQB-FHS
                                                                                                                3. Work on the type of                                                                    all sorts                             SCEF
                                                                                                                   programme
                                                                                                                4. Sending off the final
                                                                                                                   work
                                                    Qualifications and   QCA develops       Voluntary            A two-stage process           Variable    Sponsored by the       Specifically informal: UK                    No                 –             All sorts of           QCA is a non-  It is governed by
                                                      curriculum          criteria which                           must be completed:                       department for         Schools                                                                       programmes in         departmental     a board whose
                                                      authority (QCA)     awarding bodies                          the recognition                          education and          programmes                                                                    Business and          public body      members are
                                                                          and their                                process; the                             skills (DfES)          Personals:                                                                    administration                         appointed by
                                                                          qualifications                            application for                                                 accreditating for                                                                                                    the Secretary of
                                                                          must meet, and                           accredited                                                      example ILM                                                                                                          State for
                                                                          processes they                           qualifications                                                   dedicated to                                                                                                         Education and
                                                                          must go through.                                                                                         advancing the                                                                                                        Skills, and
                                                                          Examinations and                                                                                         capability of                                                                                                        managed on a
                                                                          qualifications                                                                                            managers and                                                                                                         day-to-day
                                                                                                                                                                                   leaders                                                                                                              basis by an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        executive team




Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (continued)




Page: 539 531–546
Table 28.2          Continued
                                                    Organisation         Scope of work        Methods of         Accreditation procedure   Validity         Level of recognition   Accreditation        Territory and size   External quality    Oversight     Type of programme   Status of        Organisational




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]
                                                                                              regulation                                                                           of informal          of the users         assurances                                            recognition      status
                                                                                                                                                                                   education/training                        measures
                                                    EFMD-CLIP-           A quality           Independent         1. Application            Accredited:      Supported by a       EQUIS is not           Worldwide 11         Granting of the  EFMD             Banks and firms      An international A voluntary
                                                      Corporate            improvement tool     peer-review      2. On-site briefing          3 years          broad                primarily focused                           EQUIS award                                           not-for-profit    affiliation of
                                                      learning             for the corporate    and evaluation      and initiation of        reaccredited     international body   on the MBA or                               is made by an                                         association      organisations




Paper: a4
                                                      improvement          learning function                        the process              5 years          of academics and     any other specific                           independent
                                                      process                                                    3. Eligibility                               professionals.       programme. Its                              EQUIS
                                                                                                                 4. Guided                                  ENQA
                                                                                                                                                                                   scope covers all                            accreditation
                                                                                                                    self-assessment                                                programmes                                  awarding board
                                                                                                                 5. On-site peer review                                            offered by an
                                                                                                                 6. Awarding of the                                                institution




Job No: 5210
                                                                                                                    quality label
                                                                                                                 7. Follow-up: Quality
                                                                                                                    improvement and
                                                                                                                    institutional
                                                                                                                    development
                                                    International       ISO 10015 is a         Voluntary         Third party audit on      Certified and     Recognised by         Applicable for all   Worldwide             Yes. National       IAF (Interna- All                 International    International NGO,
                                                       organisation for    quality assurance                       annual basis for          registered       national standard     training functions                         authority         tional                               recognition      governed by
                                                       standardisation,    tool for the                            certification              for 3 year       setting authorities                                              accredits ISO     accreditation                                         a Board and
                                                       (ISO 10015)         in-service training                     purpose                   cycle            and international                                                certification      forum) and                                            Swiss laws
                                                                           system and                                                                         mutual                                                           bodies.           respective
                                                                           custom-tailored                                                                    recognition                                                      National          national
                                                                           training                                                                           system                                                           authority is      authority
                                                                           programmes                                                                                                                                          also subject to   responsible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               international     for standard-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               peer review       isation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               in order to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               sustain good
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               governance




Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.
Page: 540 531–546
ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT                                                  541




              Table 28.3 Unrecognised accreditation associations of higher learning according
              to BPB Survey as of 30 September 2007
                •   Accrediting Commission International (ACI) (in Beebe, Arkansas) (aka International Accrediting Commission)
                •   Accrediting Council for Colleges and Schools (ACCS)
                •   Accreditation Governing Commission of the United States of America
                •   Alternative Institution Accrediting Association (AIAA)
                •   American Accrediting Association of Theological Institutions (AATI) (in Rocky Mount, North Carolina)
                •   American Association of Bible Colleges
                •   American Association of Drugless Practitioners Commission on Accreditation (AADPCA)
                •   American Association of Independent Collegiate Schools of Business
                •   American Association of International Medical Graduates (AAIMG)
                •   American Association of Non-traditional Colleges and Universities (AANCU)
                •   American Association of Schools (AAS)
                •   American Council of Private Colleges and Universities (ACPCU) (connected to the operator
                    of Hamilton University, now called Richardson University)
                •   American Federation of Colleges and Schools (AFCS)
                •   American Federation of Colleges and Seminaries (AmFed)(AFCS) (in Lakeland, Florida)
                •   American Naturopathic Certification Board (ANCB)
                •   American Naturopathic Medical Certification and Accreditation Board (ANMCAB or ANMAB)
                •   American Naturopathic Medicine Association (ANMA)
                •   American Universities Admission Program (AUAP)
                •   Arizona Commission of Non-Traditional Private Postsecondary Education
                •   Asia Theological Association (ATA)
                •   Association for Distance Learning (ADLP) (aka National Academy of Higher Education and
                    Association of Distance Learning Programmes)
                •   Association for Online Academic Excellence (AOAE) (in Wales)
                •   Association of Christian Colleges and Theological Schools (in Louisiana)
                •   Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) (in Colorado Springs, Colorado)
                •   Association of Distance Learning Programs (ADLP) (aka Association for Distance Learning and
                    National Academy of Higher Education)
                •   Association of International Education Assessors
                •   Association of Reformed Theological Seminaries
                •   Board of Online Universities Accreditation (BOUA)
                •   Board of Theological Education of the Senate of Serampore College (BTESS)
                •   British Learning Association (BLA)
                •   Central States Consortium of Colleges & Schools (CSCCS) (connected to the operator of Breyer State University)
                •   Centre of Academic Excellence UK (CAEUK)
                •   Central States Council on Distance Education (CSCDE)
                •   Christian Accrediting Association (CAA)
                •   Commission on Medical Denturitry Accreditation (COMDA)
                •   Council for Distance Education Accreditation (CDEA; connected to Association of International Education Assessors)
                •   Council for International Education Accreditation (CIEA)
                •   Council of Online Higher Education (COHE)
                •   Council on Medical Denturitry Education (COMDE)
                •   Distance Education Council (DEC) (connected to the operator of Saint Regis University) (not to be confused with the
                    legitimate Distance Education Council recognised by the Indian Department of Education)
                •   Distance Graduation Accrediting Association
                •   Distance Learning Council of Europe (DLCE) (connected to University Degree Programme)
                •   European Committee for Home and Online Education (ECHOE) (connected to University Degree Programme)
                •   European Council for Distance and Open Learning (ECDOE) (connected to University Degree Programme)
                •   Examining Board of Natural Medicine Practitioners (EBNMP)
                •   Global Accreditation Commission (GAC)
                •   Higher Education Accreditation Commission (HEAC)
                •   Higher Education Services Association (HESA) (connected to University Degree Programme)
                •   Integra Accreditation Association (IAA)
                •   Inter-Collegiate Joint Committee on Academic Standards (ICJCAS)
                                                                                                                              (continued)




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]      Paper: a4   Job No: 5210     Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.        Page: 541 531–546
542     THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT




              Table 28.3 Continued
                •   Interfaith Education Ministries (IEM)
                •   International Academic Accrediting Commission (IAAC)
                •   International Accreditation Agency for Online Universities (IAAOU) (connected to operators of Ashwood University,
                    Belford University, and Rochville University)
                •   International Accreditation Association (IAA)
                •   International Accreditation for Universities, Colleges and Institutes (IAUCI)
                •   International Accreditation and Recognition Council (IARC)
                •   International Accrediting Association for Colleges and Universities (IAACU)
                •   International Accrediting Commission (IAC) (aka Accrediting Commission International)
                •   International Accrediting Commission for Postsecondary Institutions (IACPI)
                •   International Association of Educators for World Peace (There are different groups by the same name
                    though none are authorized accreditors.)
                •   International Association of Universities and Schools (IAUS)
                •   International Commission for Higher Education (ICHE)
                •   International Commission of Open Post Secondary Education (ICOPSE)
                •   International Council for Accrediting Alternate and Theological Studies (Kerala, India)
                •   International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICODE)
                •   International Distance Learning Accrediting Association (IDLAA)
                •   International Interfaith Accreditation Association (IIAA) (closed down operations at the end of May 2007)
                •   International University Accrediting Association (IUAA) (in California)
                •   Kingdom Fellowship of Christian Schools and Colleges
                •   Middle States Accrediting Board (MSAB)
                •   Midwestern States Accreditation Agency (MSAA)
                •   National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE) (aka Association for Distance Learning)
                •   National Accreditation Association (NAA)
                •   National Association for Private Post-Secondary Education (NAPSE)
                •   National Association of Alternative Schools and Colleges (NAASC)
                •   National Association of Open Campus Colleges (NAOCC)
                •   National Association of Private Nontraditional Schools and Colleges (NAPNSC; Grand Junction, Colorado)
                •   National College Accreditation Council (NCAC)
                •   National Council of Schools and Colleges (NCSC)
                •   National Commission on Higher Education (NCHE)
                •   National Distance Learning Accreditation Council (NDLAC) (Glenndale University and Suffield University
                    claim NDLAC accreditation)
                •   National Learning Online Council (NLOC)
                •   Naturopathic National Council (NNC)
                •   Non-Traditional Course Accreditation Body (NTCAB)
                •   Online Christ Centered Ministries
                •   Pacific Association of Schools and Colleges (PASC)
                •   Regional Education Accreditation Commission
                •   Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Institutes and Colleges (SAABIC) [6]
                •   The Association for Online Distance Learning (TAODL)
                •   Transworld Accrediting Commission International (TWACI)
                •   United Congress of Colleges (UCC) (Ireland, UK)
                •   US-DETC – Nevada (not to be confused with the legitimate DETC, based in Washington DC.)
                •   Universal Council for Online Education Accreditation (UCOEA)
                •   Virtual University Accrediting Association (VUAA)
                •   West European Accrediting Society (WEAS)
                •   Western Association of Private Alternative Schools (WAPAS)
                •   Western Council on Non-Traditional Private Post Secondary Education (WCNPPSE)
                •   Virtual University Accrediting Association (in California) (VUAA)
                •   World Association of Universities and Colleges (WAUC) (in Nevada; operated by Maxine Asher)
                •   World Online Education Accrediting Commission (WOEAC)
                •   World-wide Accreditation Commission of Christian Educational Institutions (WACCEI)




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]     Paper: a4    Job No: 5210    Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.       Page: 542 531–546
ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT                                          543



              education might not fulfil its mandate in                    Initiatives to create an international common
              assuring quality of learning experience and                 professional competence standard, such as
              outcomes.                                                   certification of project management managers
                 For instance, accreditation of corporate                 (PMM), has gained credence. Similar trends
              university is no guarantee either in ensuring               could be predicated for other management
              that an enterprise’s training inputs will                   applications.
              actually result in the attainment of strategic                 No amount of accreditation, however,
              objectives of the corporation or productivity               would be able to guarantee minimum stan-
              improvement of the manager. It is the view                  dards of non-formal management training
              of the authors that accreditation has not yet               or outstanding learning outcome of in-
              fulfilled the expectation of ensuring a return               service management education. The former is
              on training investment. There is a need to                  influenced less by the subject matter expertise
              strengthen both the outcome assessment and                  yet more by the ability of the faculty to
              the quality assurance of the learning process.              communicate his material in a motivating
              While the outcome assessment is complex and                 manner and connected to the actual practices
              not fully reliable, in-process quality control              and issues of the business.
              and assurance become all the more important                    Many young management teachers started
              and urgent.                                                 their career without proper training in ped-
                 The analysis of the individual countries                 agogy or with little experience in actual
              relating to the goal of ensuring quality of                 practice as managers. Their teaching remains
              non-formal learning/education in continuing                 theoretical and to some extent, hearsay. Situa-
              education and higher education shows that                   tion in the non-formal management training
              further development is required, even in                    programmes are similar, even though these
              those countries that have already implemented               programmes tend to have a greater mix of
              national systems for validating informal and                academicians and practitioners. Experienced
              non-formal learning. In contrast to the frag-               managers or practitioners are often asked
              mented approach that can be observed in many                to conduct these courses because of their
              countries, a holistic approach encompassing                 personal reputation or because of the firms
              both non-formal and informal learning as                    that they represent. Often their teaching
              well as general education, vocational edu-                  is rich in anecdotes but poor in reflection
              cation and enterprise training – requires co-               and short in generalisable conceptualisation.
              ordination at a national level.                             This shortcoming does not seem to matter,
                 Approaches used in Scandinavian countries                since non-formal management education and
              could serve as model for this combination                   development programmes are designed with
              of accreditation and recognition of formal                  a commercial purpose where entertainment
              and informal leaning and the corresponding                  value is supreme.
              service providers. Moreover, developing a co-                  Accreditation of non-formal management
              ordinated approach at an international level                education and development programmes is
              between the different actors involved in non-               only half of a measure, necessary but not
              formal learning process could be a preliminary              sufficient. It is time also to look at the
              step toward standardisation of professional                 other end of the pipe: What competen-
              qualification in different fields of management               cies are actually acquired by graduates of
              studies. Based on a transnational model,                    the non-formal management education and
              public and private agencies that provide                    development programmes? What difference
              certification and accreditation in tertiary edu-             would this type of learning make to the
              cation and management studies need to agree                 persons, to their work organisations, and to
              upon a professional qualification standard for               the economic development of their society?
              various branches of management studies in                   The institutional arrangements and basic
              order to benchmark different offers and to                  infrastructure for quality assurance for this
              provide guidance for curricula development.                 sector are yet to be completed. The emergence




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]    Paper: a4   Job No: 5210   Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.   Page: 543 531–546
544     THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT



                                                                Organisational
                                                                 performance
                                                                     GAP

                                                                            A
                     Wrong or                                         Under-                 Wrong
                                              Wrong or                                                           Insufficient
                    deficient raw                                   performing               products?
                                             ineffective                                                           financial
                     material or                                      human                  (no market
                                            equipment?                                                           resources?
                       parts?                                       resources?               demand?)

                                                                            A

                 Inadequate                                              Inadequate
                                                    Recruitment                               Remuneration       Inadequate
                  organisa-        Ineffective                          competencies
                                                    of staff with                             not labour         motivation?
                     tional       leadership?                             and skills
                                                    wrong skills                              market             (e.g. work
                  structure?                                              of current
                                                     portfolio?                               competitive?       overload?)
                                                                             HR?

                                                                                 A

                             Solution through           Solution                Solution through            Solution
                              rationalisation           through hiring              training of           through job
                            (substitution of HR         of new staff with         existing staff?          rotation as
                                  through               adequate                (acquiring of new      strategy for skills
                               automation)?             competencies?            competencies?)         improvement?


                                Legend:                                                           A
                                S1 = Analyse                                            S1
                                S2 = Plan
                                S3 = Deliver
                                S4 = Evaluate                               S4       TRAINING     S2
                                                                                                             B


                                                                                        S3

              Figure 28.2 ISO 10015 based training management process
              Source: ©Centre for Socio-Economic development, 2003.



              of ISO 10015 quality standard could fill part                  Countries with knowledge based economies
              of the gap (see Figure 28.2).                                 have come to rely on education production
                                                                            as one of the major engines of their economic
                                                                            performance and well-being. Individuals from
              Conclusions
                                                                            the emerging markets wanting to benefit from
              Non-formal education and training became                      the economic opportunities are also eager
              part of the international discourse on edu-                   customers for these management training
              cation policy in the late 1960s and 1970s                     programmes and education. In this context,
              in the context of recurrent and lifelong                      short-term, focused non-formal education is
              learning. The 21st century, with its changing                 also thriving.
              international economic conditions, has not                       Proliferation of service providers formed
              only revived this policy discussion but                       a diverse landscape in terms of management
              also heightened the demand for continued                      training and education, with formal business
              education, especially in the management field.                 schools offering short courses or executive




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]   Paper: a4    Job No: 5210   Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.    Page: 544 531–546
ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT                                             545



              programmes at one end of the spectrum to                    Bjørnåvold, J. (2001) Cited in Fietz and Junge (2006)
              private operators at the other end. In between,                ‘The changing institutional and political role of
              corporate universities occupy the space in                     non-formal learning: European trends’, in P. Descy,
              providing their own brand of management                        M. Tessaring (eds), Training in Europe. Second
              education and training. Proliferation caused                   Report on vocational training in Europe 2000.
                                                                             Background report (CEDEFOP Reference series):
              difficulty in consumer choice and recognition
                                                                             Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications of
              of qualification, certificates and diploma. As a                 European Communities.
              result, both business schools and non-business              Coombs, P.H. with Prosser, C. and Ahmed, M. (1973)
              school-based management education and                          New Paths to Learning for Rural Children and Youth,
              development programmes have been seeking                       West Haven, CT: International Council for Educational
              accreditation in order to boost its credibility                Development Publications.
              and competitiveness in the marketplace.                     Colardyn, D. and Bjornavöld, J. (2004) ‘Validation of
                 Does accreditation post an entry bar-                       formal, non-formal and informal learning: Policy and
              rier for the unqualified service providers?                     practices in EU member states’. European Journal of
              Does accreditation guarantee effective use                     Education, 39 (1): 69–89.
              of education and training resources? Does                   Danish Evaluation Institute (EVA) ‘Adult education
              accreditation assure quality of management                     and continuing training’. Retrieved June 6, 2007,
                                                                             from EVA web site: www.eva.dk/Methods/Adult_
              education and relevance of learning outcome?
                                                                             Education_and_Continuing_Training.aspx
              Does accreditation strengthen the quality
                                                                          Department for Education, Lifelong Learning, and Skills
              of non-formal management education and                         (DELLS) ‘Learning and qualifications’. Retrieved June
              protect the public and consumer interests?                     17, 2007, from DELLS web site: http://new.wales.
              These are questions that beg further inquiry                   gov.uk/topics/educationandskills/learning_and_
              and answers. A review of accreditation and                     qualifications/?lang=en
              quality assurance measures in the formal                    ECUANET (2006) ‘An overview of corporate university’.
              education sector could generate new insights                   Accessible at p://www.google.ch/search?q=How+
              which could also benefit the non-formal                         many+corporate+universities+in+the+world&
              training and education sector.                                 hl=de&start=20&sa=N.5.
                                                                          EduQua (2007) Good grades for good school, EDUQUA
                                                                             at http://www.eduqua.ch/002alc_0101_en.htm,
              NOTE                                                           accessed on 30/09/07.
                                                                          European Quality Link (EQUAL), European MBA
                 1 In the Swiss political system, cantons enjoy the          guidelines. http://www.fibaa.de/ger/downlo/european
              autonomy in managing most of its public affairs.               mbaguidelines.pdf
              A canton is similar to a province in France or state        Fietz, G., Junge, A., Nicholls, B. and Reglin, Th. (2006)
              in the United States. Education is considered to be a          ‘Promoting visibility of competences – the Exemplo
              cantonal competence and its policy and management              toolkit for SMEs’. EU Leonardo da Vinci Programme,
              are decided by the canton authority.                           pilot project. Impuls, 25. Retrieved July 4, 2007, from
                                                                             Exemplo web site: http://www.exemplo.de/exemplo/
                                                                             Website_Produkte/impuls25_screenpdf.pdf
              REFERENCES                                                  Fordham, P.E. (1993) ‘Informal, non-formal and formal
                                                                             education programmes’, in YMCA George Williams
              ACCET (Accrediting Council for Continuing Education &          College ICE301 Lifelong Learning Unit 2, London:
                Training): http://www.accet.org/index2.cfm, accessed         YMCA George Williams College.
                30/08/07.                                                 Frank, I. (2003) ‘Erfassung und Anerkennung
              Accredited qualification databases, UK. Awarding Body           informell erworbener Kompetenzen – Entwicklung
                Directory. Retrieved from accredited qualifications           und Perspektiven in ausgewählten europäischen
                web site, on June 12, 2007, http://www.accredited            Ländern’, in W. Wittwer and S. Kirchhof (eds), Inform-
                qualifications.org.uk/AwardingBodyDirectory.aspx#             elles Lernen und Weiterbildung. Neue Wege zur
              Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs        Kompetenzentwicklung. München/Unterschleißheim.
                (ACBSP). Accreditation. Retrieved from ACBSP web             pp. 168–209.
                site on June 6, 2007, http://www.acbsp.org/index.         Knight, R. (2007) ‘Corporate universities: Move to a
                php?module=sthtml&op=load&sid=s1_020acc                      collaborative effort’, Financial Times. March 19.




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]    Paper: a4   Job No: 5210   Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.      Page: 545 531–546
546     THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT



              Mintzberg, H. (2004) Managers not MBAs: A Hard                de l’OCDE: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/44/
                Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and                   34327758.pdf
                Management Development. San Francisco: Berrett-          OCDE (2003) ‘Les rôles des systèmes nationaux de
                Koehler Publishers Inc.                                     certification pour promouvoir l’apprentissage tout
              OECD (2003) ‘Thematic review on adult learning:               au long de la vie: Rapport de base de la Suisse’.
                Germany’. Country Note. Retrieved June 12, 2007,            Téléchargé le 13 Juin 2007 sur le site de l’OCDE:
                from OECD web site: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/           www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/10/33874774.pdf
                44/5/36341143.pdf                                        Saner, R. (2002) ‘Quality management in training:
              OECD (2003) ‘Thematic review on adult learning:               Generic or sector-specific?’ ISO Management
                UK’. Background report. Retrieved June 12, 2007,            Systems, July–August. pp. 53–7.
                from OECD web site: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/49/            Saner, R. and Fasel, S. (2003) ‘Negotiating trade in
                49/2471965.pdf                                              educational services within the WTO/GATS context’,
              OECD (2003) ‘Thematic review on adult learning:               Aussenwirtschaft. pp. 275–308.
                USA’. Country Note. Retrieved June 12, 2007,             Simkins, T. (1977) Non-Formal Education and Develop-
                from OECD web site: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/60/               ment. Some Critical Issues. Manchester: University of
                23/35406014.pdf                                             Manchester.
              OCDE (2003) ‘The role of national qualifications            The Austrian Accreditation Council: http://www.akkredit
                systems in promoting lifelong learning: Australia’.         ierungsrat.at/
                Retrieved June 12, 2007, from OECD web site:             The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and
                www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/45/34327618.pdf                    Assessment (CCEA): http://www.ccea.org.uk/
              OCDE (2003) ‘Les rôles des systèmes nationaux              Yiu, L. and Saner, R. (2005) ‘Does it pay to train?’ ISO
                de certification pour promouvoir l’apprentissage             10015 assures the quality and return on investment
                tout au long de la vie: Rapport de base de la               of training, ISO Focus: Education – Foundation for the
                France’. Téléchargé le 13 Juin 2007 sur le site             Future, April: 7–10.




[15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex]   Paper: a4   Job No: 5210   Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop.    Page: 546 531–546
Note: This publication has been made available by CSEND.org with the agrement of the author.




                        The Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development (CSEND) aims at
promoting equitable, sustainable and integrated development through dialogue and
institutional learning.




Diplomacy Dialogue is a branch of the Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development
(CSEND), a non-profit R&D organization based in Geneva, Switzerland since 1993.

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20090606 5210-armstrong-ch28 by+yiu+&+saner

  • 1. 28 Assessment and Accreditation of Non-Formal Management Education and Development Programmes Lichia Yiu and Raymond Saner Summary and skills through formal management This chapter provides an overview of the education (initial formal education at MBA non-formal management education and in- schools) is no longer sufficient for future service training and identifies various assess- managers to ensure successful careers and ment tools used in Western Europe and adequate performance at the job site for the Northern America. The chapter ends with an examination of options of safeguard- remaining years of their work life. Continuous ing the value of non-formal management education and training is a must. However, education and management development satisfactory learning outcome judging from programmes in the spirit and context of the transferability of learning to the workplace life-long learning. is not necessarily assured. Literature on non-formal management education and train- ing and its overall performance are scarce, INTRODUCTION especially outside of the North American context. Impacted by rapidly evolving technology, While the demand for continued man- global competition and instant communica- agement learning has been growing, the tions, workers and managers alike are finding supply has also been increased. Many adult it more difficult to keep up with their job education institutions and private service requirements. Learning has become a syn- providers sprang forward to fill the need that onym for survival. Acquisition of knowledge was too vast to be satisfied by the formal [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 531 531–546
  • 2. 532 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT education institutions. In a little more than Key proponent of calling for change is a decade ago, continuing education for adult Mintzberg (2004) who criticised business learners has taken a giant step forward to schools for failing to educate and develop true fill the vacuum and has since blossomed managers. into a full industry in its own. One of the While Mintzberg’s concern centres on most dynamic and thriving sector of adult the MBA programmes of formal education education no doubt is management studies and institutions like universities and colleges, his management training. Revenue for the adult criticism does not extend to the growing learning is substantial. In the UK alone, it field of non-formal management education was estimated that 43 billion Euros are spent which so far has eluded the critical eye of on training of adults each year. The market management scholars and researchers even size for leadership development alone for the though the field of informal management FT top 500 European companies is estimated training has grown in size without adequate to be around 105 million Euros (ECUANET, quality assessments and practically without 2006). Spending for adult training in the any form of accreditation systems. What US is also high. According to the ASTD follows is an attempt to take a closer look estimate, the market turnover reached $280 at this under-researched and under-published billion in 2006. Management development field of management education and training. and training on-the-job constitute a substantial share of this total amount spend on adult learning. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND A variety of the adult learning organisations INFORMAL LEARNING are dedicated to management education and development programmes. Among them are There is a confusion of terminology between corporate universities, a hybrid between a informal learning and non-formal learning. It ‘real’ university and ‘upgraded’ training unit. is important to clearly define the meaning of It was estimated by experts that in the US each term used before proceeding with the alone there are more than 2,000 corporate discussion of assessment and accreditation. universities (Knight, 2007) while Europe has In 2001, the European Commission defined about 36 corporate universities, with France the terminology used in the discussion about having the highest number (ECUANET, training within the EU countries (Bjørnåvold, 2006). 2001: 21): The spread of management education and training was made easy by the integration of Formal learning is typically provided by internet and related communication technolo- education or training institutions, structured gies at the workplace and the rapidly lowering (in terms of learning objectives, learning cost of providing an ICT platform for deliver- time or learning support) and leading to ing training and education across geographic certification or an academic degree. This is divide. Today, access to on-line management intentional from the learner’s perspective. education and training is unhindered in most countries, and commercialisation of higher Informal learning results from daily life education is gaining momentum driven both activities related to work, family or leisure. by the institutions’ need for mobilising social It is not structured (in terms of learning resources and by the consumers’ demand for objectives, learning time or learning support). more education and qualification. Typically, it does not lead to certification. In the midst of this development, concerns Informal learning may be intentional. But over credibility of business schools have in most cases it is incidental or at random. been voiced leading to broader reflection It comprises ‘all forms of more or less about the essence of managerial learning and conscious self-learning outside of the formal the core mission of the business schools. educational settings, in direct relation to life [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 532 531–546
  • 3. ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT 533 Facets of informal learning International, Incidental self-initiated and and implicit subjectively designed Explicit Learning Tacit learning from learning experience Competence development / competence acquisition Figure 28.1 Facets of informal learning Source: (Frank in Wittwer (2003): 177). and experience – from unconscious, tacit children, life-skills, work-skills, and general culture. learning on the one hand to conscious, self- Non-formal education programmes do not neces- organised learning on the other hand’(adopted sarily follow the ‘ladder’ system, and may have differing duration. (Coombs, Prosser and Ahmed, from Fietz et al., 2006). 1973: 185) Informal learning was conceptualised into three elements (Frank, 2003. see Figure 28.1): explicit learning, learning from experience Simkins (1977) compared non-formal edu- (reflection) and tacit learning. cation with formal education in terms of Non-formal learning on the other hand, is purpose, timing, content delivery systems and not provided by an education or training control, and developed ideal type models institutions and typically is not leading to of formal and non-formal education (see certification. However, it is structured, in Table 28.1). In short, non-formal education terms of learning objectives, learning time and training are therefore courses or pro- or learning support, and intentional from the grammes that are not part of a universally learner’s perspective. It refers to any activity recognised programme and involve little or involving the acquisition of understanding, no reliance on pre-determined guidelines for knowledge or skill which occurs outside the its organisation, delivery or assessment and curricula of formal educational institutions do not lead to any formal qualification or and without necessarily the presence of an certification. institutionally-authorised instructor. Both informal learning (intentional aspect) An important distinction was also made and non-formal learning have been greatly between informal learning and non-formal supported by the availability of information learning or education, which is the theme of on the internet (informal learning) and have this chapter. According to UNESCO, non- been facilitated by access to educational formal education implies: materials and courseware through the internet (non-formal learning or education). Formal Any organized and sustained educational activities educational institutions, such as MIT, have that do not correspond exactly to the definition made available their whole teaching and of formal education. Non-formal education may course material on-line free of charge to aid therefore take place both within and outside individuals due to life circumstances who educational institutions [and cater to persons of all ages]. Depending on country contexts, it could not afford or attend the formal education may cover educational programmes to impart programmes. Actions taken by institutions adult literacy, basic education for out-of-school such as MIT in the public interest have [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 533 531–546
  • 4. 534 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT Table 28.1 Simkins (1977) ideal type models of formal and non-formal education Formal Non-formal Purposes Long term and general Short term and specific Credential-based Non-credential based Timing Long cycle/preparatory/full time Short cycle/recurrent/part-time Content Standardised/Input centred Individualised/Output centred Academic Practical Entry requirements determine clientele Clientele determine entry requirements Delivery System Institution-based, isolated from environment Environment-based, community related Rigidly structured, teacher-centred and Flexible, learner-centred and resource saving resource intensive Control External/Hierarchical Self-governing/Democratic Adopted by Fordham (1993) from Simkins (1977: 12–15). contributed in providing the field of informal as more effective accreditation systems, better learning possibility also for a more structured monitoring and evaluation, improved statis- and coherent learning in terms of subject tical systems, better performance evaluation matter mastery. at the institution level, and better monitoring Taking into account the difficulty in of student outcomes and destinations (OECD, discerning the complexity (due to its hetero- 2003). geneity) and the diversity of non-formal education and training, the question arises as how to strengthen the accountability of this form of learning delivery which has ACCREDITATION AND QUALITY become more relevant and urgent. In the ASSURANCE OF NON-FORMAL past few years, most developed countries TRAINING AND EDUCATION have increasingly emphasised the crucial role of learning that takes place outside formal Although accreditation services for formal education: in light of the increasing demands management studies and programmes have for updating knowledge and upgrading skills matured, the same cannot be said of non- of their working population in general and formal education. The United States is one the more mature workers in specific. How to of the few countries providing accreditation recognise informal and non-formal learning specifically for this purpose in a formalised so that adults can continue their more manner and with dedicated accreditation bod- advanced learning in a formal education ies. For example, the Accrediting Council for setting has become a hot topic. Continuing Education & Training (ACCET, This emphasis of enriching the human www.accet.org) is one of such organisations capital and re-enrolling large number of specialised in continuing education. ACCET working population into systematic learning was founded in 1974 and provides institu- processes has led to an increasing number tional accreditation for organisations whose of political and practical initiatives in the primary function is for educational purposes field of informal and non-formal learning and and also for organisations offering continuing education; thus gradually shifting the practice education as a clearly identified institutional of lifelong learning (in other words, providing objective within the operational entity, such lifelong learning opportunities) from the stage as in-service corporate training. of experimentation to implementation. For the ACCET accreditation can include educa- purpose of improving and ensuring quality tional institutions that offer programmes at of adult training and education, different locations other than the main headquarters measures have also been put into action, such under specified conditions and controls. [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 534 531–546
  • 5. ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT 535 ACCET also accredits non-collegiate con- (5) learning success, and (6) quality assurance tinuing education and training organisations and development. Increasingly, eduQua certi- throughout the United States and accredits fication has been put forth as a prerequisite programmes abroad. Institutions that may be for public funding in different Swiss cantons1 eligible for accreditation include: (a) Trade (EduQua, 2007). There is also talk among and professional associations; (b) Private educational officials about applying the same career schools; (c) Corporate training depart- quality criteria to the providers in the ments; (d) Intensive English programmes; education sector in all of Switzerland and (e) Labour union training programmes; make national subsidies dependent on a proof (f) Religious organisations and ethical soci- of quality. eties; (g) Public affairs and cultural societies; A different approach was taken by experts and (h) Social service, volunteer and personal focusing on quality of training from an ISO development organisations. perspective. A team of international experts Accreditation of non-formal training and developed the ISO 10015 Standard which education is an effort to safeguard the public is an international standard approved by interests and to provide a minimum guarantee ISO member states. ISO certification is an of educational and training quality through internationally recognised quality label which third party actors. Often these third party demonstrates an organisation’s commitment actors also seek certification of their own to quality and a well-functioning quality management systems in order to demonstrate assurance system. their commitment to certain quality standards The ISO 10015 Quality Standard for Train- and in turn strengthen their reputation and ing was published in December 1999. The credibility. These third party accreditation Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development bodies could be public or private entities. (CSEND) is the first organisation to become What follows is a short survey of the a certification body for ISO 10015 related accreditation of non-formal education by quality assurance work. CSEND received its different European countries. accreditation from the Swiss Accreditation Agency (SAS) in February 2003 and has since certified training systems in China, Switzerland India, Bahrain and conducts seminars on the Switzerland has established a special moni- application of ISO 10015 to management toring and certification instrument for adult training. In contrast to the EduQua, ISO learning in the 1990s. The Swiss Certification 10015 focuses not only on the four-stage for Institutions of Continuing Education was training process, i.e., defining training needs, the entity to offer quality certificate ser- designing and planning training, providing for vice named EduQua (http://www.eduqua.ch) training, and evaluating training outcomes; to the adult continuing education institu- it puts equal emphasis on the alignment of tions in Switzerland. Its members are 800 training to the needs of the organisation. By schools, institutions, and academies through- so doing, training is not only focused on out Switzerland. In Geneva, the Foundation the individual acquisition of knowledge and for Adult Training (IFAGE) is one of the many skills, but equally on the application of these eduQua certified non-formal institutions that acquired knowledge and skills in solving indi- provides courses either for professionals or vidual performance issues and in enhancing beginners in business and finance. organizational performance (Saner, 2002; Yiu EduQua assesses training and education and Saner, 2005) (see Figure 28.2). providers by using the following six criteria, which it considers to be keys to the quality of Europe an institution: (1) the course offer, (2) commu- nication with clients, (3) performance based In the rest of Europe, certification of educa- value, (4) staff – meaning the educators, tional institutions is a relatively new concepts. [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 535 531–546
  • 6. 536 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT It is not common in Europe to see accreditation informal learning are considered as basic organisations cater specifically for the adult features to increase individual skills and learning and non-formal sector. In Nordic work competences. Recently, the Learning countries and in Austria, accreditation bodies and Skills Council (LSC, www.lsc.gov.uk) usually have the dual role of accrediting has taken a strategic interest in the recognition both formal and non-formal training. For of non-formal learning for adults. LSC has example, in Austria, accreditation of non- therefore become an accreditation agency formal training programmes is given by the focusing on non-formal training and educa- Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit tion. The Adult learning Inspectorate (ALI), (Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour) now merged with the Office for Standards according to the Austrian Akkreditierungsge- in Education (Ofsted, www.ofsted.gov.uk), is setz (Accreditation Act). another quality control body for both formal In other countries, institutions delivering and non-formal education funded by the accreditations in the non-formal system con- public funded provisions in the UK. centrate their task primarily on management British Accreditation Council (BAC, of the learning environment such as class- www.the-bac.org) is a registered charity rooms and educational facilities, but taking (non-profit-making organisation) in the UK little into account the quality of actual training which was established in 1984 to act as the and learning. For example, in the United national accreditation body for independent Kingdom and also recently in Germany, further and higher education. Until 2000, regular inspections by the public authority BAC accreditation was only available to constitute part of the approval procedure colleges in the United Kingdom, but there are for non-formal training bodies to apply for now accredited colleges in different countries public financial support. These inspections including Switzerland. At present BAC are targeted mostly at the institutional man- accredits over 200 colleges in the United agement systems and do not focus specially Kingdom, and nearly 30 overseas. These on the training programmes themselves. accredited independent colleges include Nevertheless, in the United Kingdom, there business and professional education and is an established practice of adhering to training. an output-oriented and performance-based model to education and training. This is Scandinavian countries not the case in Germany, however, where validating informal learning still appears Adult education and training in the Scan- to be rather low (Fietz et al., 2006). On dinavian countries is mostly regulated with the whole these particular cases reveal the the same tools and the same institutions excessive diversity in the monitoring of non- involved in the formal educational system. formal training all over Europe. A focus Nevertheless, it is not possible to speak on specific European countries and regions of a ‘Nordic model’. Finland, Norway, that have different background in non-formal Denmark and Sweden have chosen differ- training will show evidence for improving ent approaches and are working accord- the coherence of training and education ing to different schedules. These differ- monitoring both at a national and at an ences do not change the fact that ‘all international level. four countries have taken practical steps through legislation and institutional initia- tives towards strengthening the link between United Kindom formal education and training and learning In the United Kingdom, there is general accep- taking place outside of schools’(Colardyn tance of learning outside formal education and and Bjørnåvold, 2004). In fact, these coun- training institutions as a valid and important tries have created institutes in charge of pathway to competences. Non-formal and evaluating the quality of education and [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 536 531–546
  • 7. ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT 537 training both in the formal and informal a recent reform process that increasingly sector. Documenting and recognising high takes into account the non-formally and infor- qualifications acquired through non-formal mally acquired competences. The vocational and informal learning has been emphasised for qualification system is widely appreciated and decades in the Scandinavian countries (Fietz the tendency is that all kinds of skills and et al., 2006). competences should get formally validated In Denmark, for example, the Danish credits. Evaluation Institute (EVA, www.eva.dk) is an independent agency formed under the France auspices of the Danish Ministry of Education in 1999 under national legislation (Act on the In several respects, France can be charac- Danish Institute of Evaluation, Consolidated terised as one of the most advanced European Act of September 2000). It is responsible countries in the area of identification, assess- for external quality assurance at all levels ment and recognition of non-formal learning of education in Denmark, including higher (OECD, 2003). Concerning the ‘opening up’ education (public and private subsidised of the national vocational education and higher education institutions). It initiates and training system including management related conducts systematic evaluations of higher training for competences acquired outside education programmes. Their activities may formal institutions, nowadays there are include institutional, auditing and other forms several different forms of recognition for of evaluation. competences acquired outside formal courses Accreditation of all programmes leading of study. The bilan de competences and to a professional Bachelor’s degree began the Validation des Acquis Professionnels in 2004. EVA conducts the accreditation/ (VAP) legally regulate the recognition of evaluation, and the Ministry of Education vocationally acquired competences in order makes the accreditation decision. EVA also to undertake certain courses of study in the conducts accreditation of private courses as formal educational system. Since 1992, voca- part of the Ministry of Education proce- tional certificates like the Certificat d’aptitude dure determining whether students at private professionelle can be obtained (to various teaching establishments should be eligible for degrees) on the basis of assessments of non- Danish state study grants. Business schools, formal and prior learning. Another important for example, the Copenhagen Business initiative was taken by the French Chambers School (CBS), may go for double accred- of Commerce and Industry where the aim was itations. In the case of CBS, it has the to set up procedures and standards to assess national accreditation from EVA, but also independently the informal education and obtained EQUIS accreditation for interna- training system (OECD, 2003). Concerning tional recognition. the competences strictly in management and The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assur- business, there has been an initiative in 1999 ance in Education (NOKUT, www.nokut.no) of the French employers’ association MEDEF was created in 2003 to be responsible for (Mouvement des Entreprises de France) under the evaluation and accreditation of all higher the title of ‘Objectif Compétence’ that aims education institutions. As from 1 January to anchor this competence aspect more 2002, an accreditation has become mandatory strongly especially in small and medium-sized and universal for all formally recognised enterprises. higher education in Norway which covers both institutional and programme based Mediterranean countries accreditations. Non-formal learning is recog- nised on the individual basis; there is no In the Mediterranean countries, despite the formal accreditation procedure for non-formal fact that informal training and education education providers. The Finnish case shows are very spread, there is still a lack of [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 537 531–546
  • 8. 538 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT monitoring and evaluating. Nevertheless, topic of higher learning. It is obvious that some countries in the South of Europe knowledge production and related services, have taken important initiatives. In Spain, including accreditation and recognition of institutional level work led to the creation non-traditional learning, have become one of a system for assessment, recognition and of the major drivers of Western economy. accreditation of vocational skills acquired This sector, i.e., accreditation, could warrant through non-formal and informal channels greater regulatory control. (‘The Law on Qualifications and Vocational training of June 2002’). An important further step could be marked with the set up of the ERA program – ‘Evaluación, Reconocimi- SHOULD NON-FORMAL ento y Acreditatión de las competencias MANAGEMENT TRAINING profesionales’(Fietz et al., 2006). Recently, INSTITUTIONS BE ACCREDITED Portugal has undertaken a programme for OR SUBJECT TO QUALITY Certification of Training Institutions named CERTIFICATION SCHEMES? QUALFOR that can be compared to the EduQua certification in Switzerland. Many The proliferation of the ‘private’ accred- firms and financial institutions deliver learn- itation bodies reflects the reality of the ing programmes for their employees. Some increasingly deregulated education market of them aim to set up corporate universities to worldwide, making it easier to provide non- deliver specific training in management and formal management training and course work. leadership. This informal scope of manage- This proliferation has also created challenges ment development is generally not aligned to and difficulties in recognition of learning standardisation or accreditation because their attainments, making it more of an increasing education and training are strictly focused on concern regarding the compatibility of diplo- their employees. As a result, the quality of mas, certifications and qualifications by the the teachings and the training mostly depends employers. on the quality and the success of the firm in Seeing it from the providers’ point of its fields. Nevertheless, some major firms or view, organisations which manage training banks have voluntarily asked for accreditation programmes would like to differentiate their of their training units and programmes. products by acquiring quality certification EFMD through its CLIP (Corporate Learning through an accreditation procedure offered Improvement Process) programme provides by an independent entity. Accreditation could accreditation of corporate learning func- help screen-out sub-standard or unqualified tion. So far 12 leading Corporate Learning management education and development pro- Organisations from across Europe have been gramme suppliers. Yet, it does not necessarily awarded the Corporate Learning Improve- address the question of learning outcome or ment Process. that of an active instrument in protecting A summary list of the accrediting institu- the public and private interests of achieving tions and quality assurance systems of non- quality non-formal management education formal management training is presented in or learning. It is also questionable whether Table 28.2. the self-regulated accreditation bodies abide According to Business Podium Boards by stringent standard of good governance (BPB, www.business-podium.com), there are imposed by international organisations such more than 100 unrecognised accreditation as the International Organisation for Stan- associations of higher learning in the US, dardisation and affiliated international metal UK and Europe (see Table 28.3). Some of organisations or government bodies. Unless the accreditation associations listed by BPB verification mechanisms exist to monitor are discipline or professional specific. A large and regulate these non-state ‘soft’ regulators, number of them are dealing with the general accreditation of the non-formal training and [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 538 531–546
  • 9. Table 28.2 Examples of accrediting institutions and quality assurance systems of non-formal management training in Western Europe and North America Organisation Scope of work Methods of Accreditation procedure Validity Level of recognition Accreditation Territory and size External quality Oversight Type of programme Status of Organisational regulation of informal of the users assurances recognition status education/training measures Accrediting council ACCET accredits Independent 1. Inquiry 3 to 5 years Recognised by the Specifically informal USA 248 No – All sorts of private Private initiative Private accrediting for continuing non-collegiate peer-review 2. Application U.S. Department schools & career schools agency [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] education & continuing and evaluation 3. Accreditation and of education programmes corporate training training (ACCET) education and evaluation workshop Certified as an departments training 4. Analytic self-evaluation ISO 9001-quality For our interest: organisations report (ASER) management Trade and throughout the 5. Examination team Paper: a4 system Professional - United States 6. On-site examination Associations and accredits 7. Team report Labour union programmes 8. Accrediting commission training-Public abroad action affairs and 9. Time schedule cultural societies Job No: 5210 Eduqua Eduqua is the Voluntary 1. Subscription within 3 years Secrétariat d’Etat à Schools & Switzerland 49 No Proformation All sorts of Label – first Swiss a certification l’Economie (SECO) programmes of business & SQS accreditation/ organisation all sorts management SGS label for adult 2. Adult education type of schools for 800 ProCert education programme institutions of IQB-FHS 3. Work on the type of all sorts SCEF programme 4. Sending off the final work Qualifications and QCA develops Voluntary A two-stage process Variable Sponsored by the Specifically informal: UK No – All sorts of QCA is a non- It is governed by curriculum criteria which must be completed: department for Schools programmes in departmental a board whose authority (QCA) awarding bodies the recognition education and programmes Business and public body members are and their process; the skills (DfES) Personals: administration appointed by qualifications application for accreditating for the Secretary of must meet, and accredited example ILM State for processes they qualifications dedicated to Education and must go through. advancing the Skills, and Examinations and capability of managed on a qualifications managers and day-to-day leaders basis by an executive team Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. (continued) Page: 539 531–546
  • 10. Table 28.2 Continued Organisation Scope of work Methods of Accreditation procedure Validity Level of recognition Accreditation Territory and size External quality Oversight Type of programme Status of Organisational [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] regulation of informal of the users assurances recognition status education/training measures EFMD-CLIP- A quality Independent 1. Application Accredited: Supported by a EQUIS is not Worldwide 11 Granting of the EFMD Banks and firms An international A voluntary Corporate improvement tool peer-review 2. On-site briefing 3 years broad primarily focused EQUIS award not-for-profit affiliation of learning for the corporate and evaluation and initiation of reaccredited international body on the MBA or is made by an association organisations Paper: a4 improvement learning function the process 5 years of academics and any other specific independent process 3. Eligibility professionals. programme. Its EQUIS 4. Guided ENQA scope covers all accreditation self-assessment programmes awarding board 5. On-site peer review offered by an 6. Awarding of the institution Job No: 5210 quality label 7. Follow-up: Quality improvement and institutional development International ISO 10015 is a Voluntary Third party audit on Certified and Recognised by Applicable for all Worldwide Yes. National IAF (Interna- All International International NGO, organisation for quality assurance annual basis for registered national standard training functions authority tional recognition governed by standardisation, tool for the certification for 3 year setting authorities accredits ISO accreditation a Board and (ISO 10015) in-service training purpose cycle and international certification forum) and Swiss laws system and mutual bodies. respective custom-tailored recognition National national training system authority is authority programmes also subject to responsible international for standard- peer review isation in order to sustain good governance Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 540 531–546
  • 11. ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT 541 Table 28.3 Unrecognised accreditation associations of higher learning according to BPB Survey as of 30 September 2007 • Accrediting Commission International (ACI) (in Beebe, Arkansas) (aka International Accrediting Commission) • Accrediting Council for Colleges and Schools (ACCS) • Accreditation Governing Commission of the United States of America • Alternative Institution Accrediting Association (AIAA) • American Accrediting Association of Theological Institutions (AATI) (in Rocky Mount, North Carolina) • American Association of Bible Colleges • American Association of Drugless Practitioners Commission on Accreditation (AADPCA) • American Association of Independent Collegiate Schools of Business • American Association of International Medical Graduates (AAIMG) • American Association of Non-traditional Colleges and Universities (AANCU) • American Association of Schools (AAS) • American Council of Private Colleges and Universities (ACPCU) (connected to the operator of Hamilton University, now called Richardson University) • American Federation of Colleges and Schools (AFCS) • American Federation of Colleges and Seminaries (AmFed)(AFCS) (in Lakeland, Florida) • American Naturopathic Certification Board (ANCB) • American Naturopathic Medical Certification and Accreditation Board (ANMCAB or ANMAB) • American Naturopathic Medicine Association (ANMA) • American Universities Admission Program (AUAP) • Arizona Commission of Non-Traditional Private Postsecondary Education • Asia Theological Association (ATA) • Association for Distance Learning (ADLP) (aka National Academy of Higher Education and Association of Distance Learning Programmes) • Association for Online Academic Excellence (AOAE) (in Wales) • Association of Christian Colleges and Theological Schools (in Louisiana) • Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) (in Colorado Springs, Colorado) • Association of Distance Learning Programs (ADLP) (aka Association for Distance Learning and National Academy of Higher Education) • Association of International Education Assessors • Association of Reformed Theological Seminaries • Board of Online Universities Accreditation (BOUA) • Board of Theological Education of the Senate of Serampore College (BTESS) • British Learning Association (BLA) • Central States Consortium of Colleges & Schools (CSCCS) (connected to the operator of Breyer State University) • Centre of Academic Excellence UK (CAEUK) • Central States Council on Distance Education (CSCDE) • Christian Accrediting Association (CAA) • Commission on Medical Denturitry Accreditation (COMDA) • Council for Distance Education Accreditation (CDEA; connected to Association of International Education Assessors) • Council for International Education Accreditation (CIEA) • Council of Online Higher Education (COHE) • Council on Medical Denturitry Education (COMDE) • Distance Education Council (DEC) (connected to the operator of Saint Regis University) (not to be confused with the legitimate Distance Education Council recognised by the Indian Department of Education) • Distance Graduation Accrediting Association • Distance Learning Council of Europe (DLCE) (connected to University Degree Programme) • European Committee for Home and Online Education (ECHOE) (connected to University Degree Programme) • European Council for Distance and Open Learning (ECDOE) (connected to University Degree Programme) • Examining Board of Natural Medicine Practitioners (EBNMP) • Global Accreditation Commission (GAC) • Higher Education Accreditation Commission (HEAC) • Higher Education Services Association (HESA) (connected to University Degree Programme) • Integra Accreditation Association (IAA) • Inter-Collegiate Joint Committee on Academic Standards (ICJCAS) (continued) [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 541 531–546
  • 12. 542 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT Table 28.3 Continued • Interfaith Education Ministries (IEM) • International Academic Accrediting Commission (IAAC) • International Accreditation Agency for Online Universities (IAAOU) (connected to operators of Ashwood University, Belford University, and Rochville University) • International Accreditation Association (IAA) • International Accreditation for Universities, Colleges and Institutes (IAUCI) • International Accreditation and Recognition Council (IARC) • International Accrediting Association for Colleges and Universities (IAACU) • International Accrediting Commission (IAC) (aka Accrediting Commission International) • International Accrediting Commission for Postsecondary Institutions (IACPI) • International Association of Educators for World Peace (There are different groups by the same name though none are authorized accreditors.) • International Association of Universities and Schools (IAUS) • International Commission for Higher Education (ICHE) • International Commission of Open Post Secondary Education (ICOPSE) • International Council for Accrediting Alternate and Theological Studies (Kerala, India) • International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICODE) • International Distance Learning Accrediting Association (IDLAA) • International Interfaith Accreditation Association (IIAA) (closed down operations at the end of May 2007) • International University Accrediting Association (IUAA) (in California) • Kingdom Fellowship of Christian Schools and Colleges • Middle States Accrediting Board (MSAB) • Midwestern States Accreditation Agency (MSAA) • National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE) (aka Association for Distance Learning) • National Accreditation Association (NAA) • National Association for Private Post-Secondary Education (NAPSE) • National Association of Alternative Schools and Colleges (NAASC) • National Association of Open Campus Colleges (NAOCC) • National Association of Private Nontraditional Schools and Colleges (NAPNSC; Grand Junction, Colorado) • National College Accreditation Council (NCAC) • National Council of Schools and Colleges (NCSC) • National Commission on Higher Education (NCHE) • National Distance Learning Accreditation Council (NDLAC) (Glenndale University and Suffield University claim NDLAC accreditation) • National Learning Online Council (NLOC) • Naturopathic National Council (NNC) • Non-Traditional Course Accreditation Body (NTCAB) • Online Christ Centered Ministries • Pacific Association of Schools and Colleges (PASC) • Regional Education Accreditation Commission • Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Institutes and Colleges (SAABIC) [6] • The Association for Online Distance Learning (TAODL) • Transworld Accrediting Commission International (TWACI) • United Congress of Colleges (UCC) (Ireland, UK) • US-DETC – Nevada (not to be confused with the legitimate DETC, based in Washington DC.) • Universal Council for Online Education Accreditation (UCOEA) • Virtual University Accrediting Association (VUAA) • West European Accrediting Society (WEAS) • Western Association of Private Alternative Schools (WAPAS) • Western Council on Non-Traditional Private Post Secondary Education (WCNPPSE) • Virtual University Accrediting Association (in California) (VUAA) • World Association of Universities and Colleges (WAUC) (in Nevada; operated by Maxine Asher) • World Online Education Accrediting Commission (WOEAC) • World-wide Accreditation Commission of Christian Educational Institutions (WACCEI) [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 542 531–546
  • 13. ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT 543 education might not fulfil its mandate in Initiatives to create an international common assuring quality of learning experience and professional competence standard, such as outcomes. certification of project management managers For instance, accreditation of corporate (PMM), has gained credence. Similar trends university is no guarantee either in ensuring could be predicated for other management that an enterprise’s training inputs will applications. actually result in the attainment of strategic No amount of accreditation, however, objectives of the corporation or productivity would be able to guarantee minimum stan- improvement of the manager. It is the view dards of non-formal management training of the authors that accreditation has not yet or outstanding learning outcome of in- fulfilled the expectation of ensuring a return service management education. The former is on training investment. There is a need to influenced less by the subject matter expertise strengthen both the outcome assessment and yet more by the ability of the faculty to the quality assurance of the learning process. communicate his material in a motivating While the outcome assessment is complex and manner and connected to the actual practices not fully reliable, in-process quality control and issues of the business. and assurance become all the more important Many young management teachers started and urgent. their career without proper training in ped- The analysis of the individual countries agogy or with little experience in actual relating to the goal of ensuring quality of practice as managers. Their teaching remains non-formal learning/education in continuing theoretical and to some extent, hearsay. Situa- education and higher education shows that tion in the non-formal management training further development is required, even in programmes are similar, even though these those countries that have already implemented programmes tend to have a greater mix of national systems for validating informal and academicians and practitioners. Experienced non-formal learning. In contrast to the frag- managers or practitioners are often asked mented approach that can be observed in many to conduct these courses because of their countries, a holistic approach encompassing personal reputation or because of the firms both non-formal and informal learning as that they represent. Often their teaching well as general education, vocational edu- is rich in anecdotes but poor in reflection cation and enterprise training – requires co- and short in generalisable conceptualisation. ordination at a national level. This shortcoming does not seem to matter, Approaches used in Scandinavian countries since non-formal management education and could serve as model for this combination development programmes are designed with of accreditation and recognition of formal a commercial purpose where entertainment and informal leaning and the corresponding value is supreme. service providers. Moreover, developing a co- Accreditation of non-formal management ordinated approach at an international level education and development programmes is between the different actors involved in non- only half of a measure, necessary but not formal learning process could be a preliminary sufficient. It is time also to look at the step toward standardisation of professional other end of the pipe: What competen- qualification in different fields of management cies are actually acquired by graduates of studies. Based on a transnational model, the non-formal management education and public and private agencies that provide development programmes? What difference certification and accreditation in tertiary edu- would this type of learning make to the cation and management studies need to agree persons, to their work organisations, and to upon a professional qualification standard for the economic development of their society? various branches of management studies in The institutional arrangements and basic order to benchmark different offers and to infrastructure for quality assurance for this provide guidance for curricula development. sector are yet to be completed. The emergence [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 543 531–546
  • 14. 544 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT Organisational performance GAP A Wrong or Under- Wrong Wrong or Insufficient deficient raw performing products? ineffective financial material or human (no market equipment? resources? parts? resources? demand?) A Inadequate Inadequate Recruitment Remuneration Inadequate organisa- Ineffective competencies of staff with not labour motivation? tional leadership? and skills wrong skills market (e.g. work structure? of current portfolio? competitive? overload?) HR? A Solution through Solution Solution through Solution rationalisation through hiring training of through job (substitution of HR of new staff with existing staff? rotation as through adequate (acquiring of new strategy for skills automation)? competencies? competencies?) improvement? Legend: A S1 = Analyse S1 S2 = Plan S3 = Deliver S4 = Evaluate S4 TRAINING S2 B S3 Figure 28.2 ISO 10015 based training management process Source: ©Centre for Socio-Economic development, 2003. of ISO 10015 quality standard could fill part Countries with knowledge based economies of the gap (see Figure 28.2). have come to rely on education production as one of the major engines of their economic performance and well-being. Individuals from Conclusions the emerging markets wanting to benefit from Non-formal education and training became the economic opportunities are also eager part of the international discourse on edu- customers for these management training cation policy in the late 1960s and 1970s programmes and education. In this context, in the context of recurrent and lifelong short-term, focused non-formal education is learning. The 21st century, with its changing also thriving. international economic conditions, has not Proliferation of service providers formed only revived this policy discussion but a diverse landscape in terms of management also heightened the demand for continued training and education, with formal business education, especially in the management field. schools offering short courses or executive [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 544 531–546
  • 15. ACCREDITATION IN NON-FORMAL MANAGEMENT 545 programmes at one end of the spectrum to Bjørnåvold, J. (2001) Cited in Fietz and Junge (2006) private operators at the other end. In between, ‘The changing institutional and political role of corporate universities occupy the space in non-formal learning: European trends’, in P. Descy, providing their own brand of management M. Tessaring (eds), Training in Europe. Second education and training. Proliferation caused Report on vocational training in Europe 2000. Background report (CEDEFOP Reference series): difficulty in consumer choice and recognition Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications of of qualification, certificates and diploma. As a European Communities. result, both business schools and non-business Coombs, P.H. with Prosser, C. and Ahmed, M. (1973) school-based management education and New Paths to Learning for Rural Children and Youth, development programmes have been seeking West Haven, CT: International Council for Educational accreditation in order to boost its credibility Development Publications. and competitiveness in the marketplace. Colardyn, D. and Bjornavöld, J. (2004) ‘Validation of Does accreditation post an entry bar- formal, non-formal and informal learning: Policy and rier for the unqualified service providers? practices in EU member states’. European Journal of Does accreditation guarantee effective use Education, 39 (1): 69–89. of education and training resources? Does Danish Evaluation Institute (EVA) ‘Adult education accreditation assure quality of management and continuing training’. Retrieved June 6, 2007, from EVA web site: www.eva.dk/Methods/Adult_ education and relevance of learning outcome? Education_and_Continuing_Training.aspx Does accreditation strengthen the quality Department for Education, Lifelong Learning, and Skills of non-formal management education and (DELLS) ‘Learning and qualifications’. Retrieved June protect the public and consumer interests? 17, 2007, from DELLS web site: http://new.wales. These are questions that beg further inquiry gov.uk/topics/educationandskills/learning_and_ and answers. A review of accreditation and qualifications/?lang=en quality assurance measures in the formal ECUANET (2006) ‘An overview of corporate university’. education sector could generate new insights Accessible at p://www.google.ch/search?q=How+ which could also benefit the non-formal many+corporate+universities+in+the+world& training and education sector. hl=de&start=20&sa=N.5. EduQua (2007) Good grades for good school, EDUQUA at http://www.eduqua.ch/002alc_0101_en.htm, NOTE accessed on 30/09/07. European Quality Link (EQUAL), European MBA 1 In the Swiss political system, cantons enjoy the guidelines. http://www.fibaa.de/ger/downlo/european autonomy in managing most of its public affairs. mbaguidelines.pdf A canton is similar to a province in France or state Fietz, G., Junge, A., Nicholls, B. and Reglin, Th. (2006) in the United States. Education is considered to be a ‘Promoting visibility of competences – the Exemplo cantonal competence and its policy and management toolkit for SMEs’. EU Leonardo da Vinci Programme, are decided by the canton authority. pilot project. Impuls, 25. Retrieved July 4, 2007, from Exemplo web site: http://www.exemplo.de/exemplo/ Website_Produkte/impuls25_screenpdf.pdf REFERENCES Fordham, P.E. (1993) ‘Informal, non-formal and formal education programmes’, in YMCA George Williams ACCET (Accrediting Council for Continuing Education & College ICE301 Lifelong Learning Unit 2, London: Training): http://www.accet.org/index2.cfm, accessed YMCA George Williams College. 30/08/07. Frank, I. (2003) ‘Erfassung und Anerkennung Accredited qualification databases, UK. Awarding Body informell erworbener Kompetenzen – Entwicklung Directory. Retrieved from accredited qualifications und Perspektiven in ausgewählten europäischen web site, on June 12, 2007, http://www.accredited Ländern’, in W. Wittwer and S. Kirchhof (eds), Inform- qualifications.org.uk/AwardingBodyDirectory.aspx# elles Lernen und Weiterbildung. Neue Wege zur Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs Kompetenzentwicklung. München/Unterschleißheim. (ACBSP). Accreditation. Retrieved from ACBSP web pp. 168–209. site on June 6, 2007, http://www.acbsp.org/index. Knight, R. (2007) ‘Corporate universities: Move to a php?module=sthtml&op=load&sid=s1_020acc collaborative effort’, Financial Times. March 19. [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 545 531–546
  • 16. 546 THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT Mintzberg, H. (2004) Managers not MBAs: A Hard de l’OCDE: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/44/ Look at the Soft Practice of Managing and 34327758.pdf Management Development. San Francisco: Berrett- OCDE (2003) ‘Les rôles des systèmes nationaux de Koehler Publishers Inc. certification pour promouvoir l’apprentissage tout OECD (2003) ‘Thematic review on adult learning: au long de la vie: Rapport de base de la Suisse’. Germany’. Country Note. Retrieved June 12, 2007, Téléchargé le 13 Juin 2007 sur le site de l’OCDE: from OECD web site: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/ www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/10/33874774.pdf 44/5/36341143.pdf Saner, R. (2002) ‘Quality management in training: OECD (2003) ‘Thematic review on adult learning: Generic or sector-specific?’ ISO Management UK’. Background report. Retrieved June 12, 2007, Systems, July–August. pp. 53–7. from OECD web site: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/49/ Saner, R. and Fasel, S. (2003) ‘Negotiating trade in 49/2471965.pdf educational services within the WTO/GATS context’, OECD (2003) ‘Thematic review on adult learning: Aussenwirtschaft. pp. 275–308. USA’. Country Note. Retrieved June 12, 2007, Simkins, T. (1977) Non-Formal Education and Develop- from OECD web site: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/60/ ment. Some Critical Issues. Manchester: University of 23/35406014.pdf Manchester. OCDE (2003) ‘The role of national qualifications The Austrian Accreditation Council: http://www.akkredit systems in promoting lifelong learning: Australia’. ierungsrat.at/ Retrieved June 12, 2007, from OECD web site: The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/45/34327618.pdf Assessment (CCEA): http://www.ccea.org.uk/ OCDE (2003) ‘Les rôles des systèmes nationaux Yiu, L. and Saner, R. (2005) ‘Does it pay to train?’ ISO de certification pour promouvoir l’apprentissage 10015 assures the quality and return on investment tout au long de la vie: Rapport de base de la of training, ISO Focus: Education – Foundation for the France’. Téléchargé le 13 Juin 2007 sur le site Future, April: 7–10. [15:09 3/10/2008 5210-Armstrong-Ch28.tex] Paper: a4 Job No: 5210 Armstrong: Management Learning, Edu. and Develop. Page: 546 531–546
  • 17. Note: This publication has been made available by CSEND.org with the agrement of the author. The Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development (CSEND) aims at promoting equitable, sustainable and integrated development through dialogue and institutional learning. Diplomacy Dialogue is a branch of the Centre for Socio-Eco-Nomic Development (CSEND), a non-profit R&D organization based in Geneva, Switzerland since 1993.