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2 Write a program to implement the selection algorithm. A) Prove that merging two sorted arrays of N items requires at least 2N-1 comparisons. Solution 2 Write a program to implement the selection algorithm. #include <stdio.h> int main() { int data[100],i,n,steps,temp; printf(\"Enter the number of elements to be sorted: \"); scanf(\"%d\",&n); for(i=0;i<n;++i) { printf(\"%d. Enter element: \",i+1); scanf(\"%d\",&data[i]); } for(steps=0;steps<n;++steps) for(i=steps+1;i<n;++i) { if(data[steps]>data[i]) { temp=data[steps]; data[steps]=data[i]; data[i]=temp; } } printf(\"In ascending order: \"); for(i=0;i<n;++i) printf(\"%d \",data[i]); return 0; } A) Prove that merging two sorted arrays of N items requires at least 2N-1 comparisons. The observation about mergesort is that no matter suppose input array looks like, mergesort will divide the array recursively into the same two sorted array. The way the input influences the way the algorithm works in is the merge phase of the algorithm. A merge of two N-element sorted arrays requires at least N comparisons (this happens if one array\'s elements are all less than the other array\'s smallest element) and at most 2N-1 comparisons. In any case, merge requires 2N assignments. So, merge requires Theta(N) time regardless of the input. This implies that mergesort takes when marging two sorted arrays of N item requires at least 2N-1 comparisons. .

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DAA Lab File C Programs

The document contains 10 programs related to sorting and graph algorithms. Program 1-7 implement different sorting algorithms - insertion sort, selection sort, heap sort, quick sort, counting sort, merge sort and radix sort. Program 8 implements the greedy knapsack problem. Program 9 implements the travelling salesman problem. Program 10 implements Kruskal's algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree of a graph.

design and analysis of algorithm Lab files

This document contains details of experiments conducted as part of a "Design and Analysis of Algorithm Lab" course. It includes 10 experiments covering algorithms like binary search, heap sort, merge sort, selection sort, insertion sort, quick sort, knapsack problem, travelling salesman problem, minimum spanning tree (using Kruskal's algorithm), and N queen problem (using backtracking). For each experiment, it provides the objective, program code implementation, and result. The document is submitted by a student to their professor for the lab session.

DSC program.pdf

This document provides C programs to implement various data structures and algorithms. It is divided into two parts. Part A includes programs to find GCD using recursion, generate Pascal's triangle using binomial coefficients, find Fibonacci numbers recursively, implement Towers of Hanoi recursively, find the largest and smallest element in an array, write even and odd numbers to separate files, store student records in a file, and sort city names alphabetically. Part B includes programs to sort arrays using insertion, quick, merge, selection and bubble sort and perform linear and binary searches recursively. It also includes programs to implement stacks, queues, linked lists and binary trees.

Pnno

The document contains programs for various sorting and searching algorithms like insertion sort, selection sort, bubble sort, linear search, binary search, etc. It also includes programs for stack operations, queue operations, tower of Hanoi, infix to postfix conversion and postfix evaluation. Each program is written in C language and contains the main logic/code to implement the given algorithm or data structure operation.

Ada file

The document contains 8 questions related to data structures and algorithms in C programming. Question 1 asks to write a program to search a number from a list using linear and binary search. Question 2 asks to write a program to search a number recursively using binary search. Question 3 asks to write a program to find the factorial of a number recursively and non-recursively and compare performance. The remaining questions ask to write programs for sorting, matrix multiplication using Strassen's algorithm, minimum spanning tree using Kruskal's algorithm, and other algorithms.

1D Array

An array is a collection of homogeneous data items stored in successive memory locations. It allows storing multiple elements of the same type using a single name. Elements in an array can be accessed using the array name and index number. Common operations on arrays include storing/retrieving elements, searching for a particular element or largest/smallest element, and calculating sum of elements based on certain criteria like even/odd indexing. Arrays can also be modified by inserting or deleting elements.

ADA FILE

1. The document contains 10 code snippets implementing various data structures and algorithms in C/C++ like linear search, binary search, merge sort, quick sort, selection sort, bubble sort, stack implementation using array, Fibonacci series using recursion, queue implementation using array, and binary search tree operations like insertion, deletion, display and traversal.
2. The codes include functions for searching an element, sorting arrays, implementing stacks and queues as well as common operations on binary search trees.
3. Main functions are included to accept user input, call the relevant functions and output the results of operations like searching, sorting or tree traversals.

All important c programby makhan kumbhkar

The document contains C code examples for various algorithms and programs including:
1. A program to check if a year is a leap year by checking if the year is divisible by 400, 100, or 4.
2. Code to add the digits of a number by extracting the remainder of successive divisions by 10.
3. Code to convert a decimal number to binary using bitwise operators.
4. Code to store the binary conversion in a string using pointers and dynamic memory allocation.
5. Programs to check for palindrome numbers, print patterns like pyramids and triangles, calculate Fibonacci series with and without recursion, perform linear and binary search of arrays, insert elements into arrays, and sort arrays using

DAA Lab File C Programs

The document contains 10 programs related to sorting and graph algorithms. Program 1-7 implement different sorting algorithms - insertion sort, selection sort, heap sort, quick sort, counting sort, merge sort and radix sort. Program 8 implements the greedy knapsack problem. Program 9 implements the travelling salesman problem. Program 10 implements Kruskal's algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree of a graph.

design and analysis of algorithm Lab files

This document contains details of experiments conducted as part of a "Design and Analysis of Algorithm Lab" course. It includes 10 experiments covering algorithms like binary search, heap sort, merge sort, selection sort, insertion sort, quick sort, knapsack problem, travelling salesman problem, minimum spanning tree (using Kruskal's algorithm), and N queen problem (using backtracking). For each experiment, it provides the objective, program code implementation, and result. The document is submitted by a student to their professor for the lab session.

DSC program.pdf

This document provides C programs to implement various data structures and algorithms. It is divided into two parts. Part A includes programs to find GCD using recursion, generate Pascal's triangle using binomial coefficients, find Fibonacci numbers recursively, implement Towers of Hanoi recursively, find the largest and smallest element in an array, write even and odd numbers to separate files, store student records in a file, and sort city names alphabetically. Part B includes programs to sort arrays using insertion, quick, merge, selection and bubble sort and perform linear and binary searches recursively. It also includes programs to implement stacks, queues, linked lists and binary trees.

Pnno

The document contains programs for various sorting and searching algorithms like insertion sort, selection sort, bubble sort, linear search, binary search, etc. It also includes programs for stack operations, queue operations, tower of Hanoi, infix to postfix conversion and postfix evaluation. Each program is written in C language and contains the main logic/code to implement the given algorithm or data structure operation.

Ada file

The document contains 8 questions related to data structures and algorithms in C programming. Question 1 asks to write a program to search a number from a list using linear and binary search. Question 2 asks to write a program to search a number recursively using binary search. Question 3 asks to write a program to find the factorial of a number recursively and non-recursively and compare performance. The remaining questions ask to write programs for sorting, matrix multiplication using Strassen's algorithm, minimum spanning tree using Kruskal's algorithm, and other algorithms.

1D Array

An array is a collection of homogeneous data items stored in successive memory locations. It allows storing multiple elements of the same type using a single name. Elements in an array can be accessed using the array name and index number. Common operations on arrays include storing/retrieving elements, searching for a particular element or largest/smallest element, and calculating sum of elements based on certain criteria like even/odd indexing. Arrays can also be modified by inserting or deleting elements.

ADA FILE

1. The document contains 10 code snippets implementing various data structures and algorithms in C/C++ like linear search, binary search, merge sort, quick sort, selection sort, bubble sort, stack implementation using array, Fibonacci series using recursion, queue implementation using array, and binary search tree operations like insertion, deletion, display and traversal.
2. The codes include functions for searching an element, sorting arrays, implementing stacks and queues as well as common operations on binary search trees.
3. Main functions are included to accept user input, call the relevant functions and output the results of operations like searching, sorting or tree traversals.

All important c programby makhan kumbhkar

The document contains C code examples for various algorithms and programs including:
1. A program to check if a year is a leap year by checking if the year is divisible by 400, 100, or 4.
2. Code to add the digits of a number by extracting the remainder of successive divisions by 10.
3. Code to convert a decimal number to binary using bitwise operators.
4. Code to store the binary conversion in a string using pointers and dynamic memory allocation.
5. Programs to check for palindrome numbers, print patterns like pyramids and triangles, calculate Fibonacci series with and without recursion, perform linear and binary search of arrays, insert elements into arrays, and sort arrays using

Write a program to check a given number is prime or not

The document contains 6 algorithms for solving different programming problems:
1. A program to check if a number is prime or not using a while loop.
2. A program to check if a number is a Krishnamurty number using factorial calculations in a while loop.
3. A recursive function to generate the Fibonacci series.
4. A program to print an array in reverse order using a for loop.
5. A program to merge two sorted arrays into a single sorted array using a while loop.
6. A program to check if a string is a palindrome without built-in functions by reversing the string and comparing the original and reversed strings.

Let us C (by yashvant Kanetkar) chapter 3 Solution

The document contains solutions to questions on loops in C programming. It includes:
- Sample code to demonstrate while, for, and do-while loops with explanations of output
- Solutions to problems involving calculating overtime pay, finding factorials, exponents, ASCII values, Armstrong numbers, and more using various loop structures
- Explanations of parts of for and do-while loops, and statements like break and continue
- Additional problems solved using nested loops to produce patterns, tables, and series calculations

C programming codes for the class assignment

This is the class assignment of BUBT, in online google classroom about the topic of Array in C Programming

programs on arrays.pdf

The document provides solutions to various problems involving 1D arrays in C and Python. It includes programs to:
1. Reverse the elements of an array
2. Determine if an array contains all even, odd, or mixed elements
3. Count the number of even and odd elements in an array
4. Check if two arrays are equal
5. Find the sum of perfect square elements in an array
6. Find the minimum scalar product of two vectors
7. Find the smallest and largest elements in an array
8. Print all distinct elements in an array
9. Check if two arrays are disjoint
For each problem, it provides the algorithm, C and Python solutions, sample input/output,

Chapter 8 c solution

The document provides code snippets to copy the contents of one array into another array in reverse order using different approaches like loops, pointers, and functions. It also includes code to reverse an array without using additional memory by swapping elements, and to reverse an array using pointers.

Operating system labs

The document contains summaries of 12 programs implementing various operating system concepts like memory management algorithms, CPU scheduling algorithms, and page replacement algorithms. It includes programs for first fit, best fit, worst fit, priority scheduling, producer consumer problem, FCFS, SJF, SRTF, round robin, and page replacement algorithms like FIFO, LRU, and optimal page replacement. For each program, it lists the code, inputs/outputs and provides a brief 1-2 line description.

insertion sort.pptx

Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that works by iteratively inserting elements into a sorted subset of the array. It has a worst case time complexity of O(n^2) but performs well on small or partially sorted data. The algorithm splits the array into a sorted and unsorted part, taking elements from the unsorted part and inserting them into the correct position in the sorted part until the entire array is sorted.

C Programming Example

Ex.1 Write a program to print the following pattern
1
2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5
Ex.2 Write a program to find bigger of three integers.
Ex.3 Write a program to calculate GCD between two numbers.
Ex.4 Write a program to find transpose of matrix.
Ex.5 Write a program which deletes an element from an array & display all other elements.
Ex.6 Write a program to calculate XA+YB where A & B are matrix & X=2, Y=3.
Ex.7 Write a program to calculate the total amount of money in the piggy bank, given that coins of Rs.10, Rs.5, Rs.2, RS.1.
& many more.....

Basic c programs updated on 31.8.2020

The document provides examples of basic C programs that demonstrate fundamental programming concepts like printing values, arithmetic operations, arrays, functions, conditionals, loops, and matrices. The programs cover topics such as printing and reading integers, adding/multiplying numbers, swapping values, checking vowels/consonants, Armstrong numbers, palindromes, summing matrices, and finding the transpose of a matrix.

array.ppt

This document discusses 1-dimensional arrays in C. It explains that arrays allow storing multiple values of the same type using a single name. Elements in an array are accessed using an index from 0 to size-1. Arrays can be initialized, read from using a for loop and scanf, printed using printf, and manipulated using operations on individual elements. Examples demonstrate finding the minimum, computing GPA with two parallel arrays, binary search, and selection sort of an array. Character arrays can represent strings by storing characters and terminating with a null character.

Cpds lab

The documents contain program code snippets for various sorting and searching algorithms in C programming language including selection sort, bubble sort, quick sort, merge sort, insertion sort, binary search and linear search. The programs take input from the user, implement the respective algorithms to sort or search arrays of numbers, and output the results.

C Programming Exam problems & Solution by sazzad hossain

The document contains 18 code snippets demonstrating solutions to common programming problems. The code snippets include programs to: 1) convert temperature between Celsius and Fahrenheit, 2) find the larger of two numbers, 3) determine if a number is even or odd, and 4) calculate the square of a number. The programs demonstrate a variety of programming concepts like if/else statements, for loops, functions, and more.

Arrays

Arrays allow programmers to work with multiple similar data values efficiently. There are different types of arrays including one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and multi-dimensional arrays. One-dimensional arrays use a single index, two-dimensional arrays use two indices for rows and columns, and multi-dimensional arrays can have three or more indices. Programmers can initialize array values at declaration time or runtime, and access elements using indices. Common array operations include sorting, searching, and performing mathematical operations on arrays.

Ds

The document describes three different sorting algorithms: linear search, binary search, and insertion sort. Linear search iterates through an array sequentially to find a target value. Binary search divides the array in half on each step to quickly locate a value. Insertion sort iterates through the array and inserts each element into the sorted portion, building up the sorted array.

PCA-2 Programming and Solving 2nd Sem.pdf

The document contains 14 code snippets that provide solutions to common programming problems in C including: printing patterns like numbers, stars, triangles using loops; finding sum of digits, checking palindrome, Armstrong number; sorting arrays using bubble, selection sort; string operations like concatenation; matrix addition; factorial; checking even-odd; Floyd's triangle. Each code snippet includes the header files, function definitions and main function to accept input, call functions and print output.

1Experimental Chemistry Data Analysis 1- How do you know when to name.docx

1Experimental Chemistry Data Analysis 1. How do you know when to name something as an ionic compound? 2. How do you know when to name something as a molecular compound? 3. How does naming an ionic compound differ from naming a molecular compound? 4. How do you know when a polyatomic ion is present? Why do we include a Roman numeral in the name for compounds containing a transition metal and not for main group metals? 5.
Solution
1. Ionic compounds contain ionic bond. When an electropositive metal (preferably groups 1 and 2) forms a compound with an electronegative element, it is an ionic compound. Eg- NaCl
2. Molecular bonds are formed by sharing of electrons. We can identify a compound as molecular compound if it has two or more non metal elements.
3. Naming of molecular compounds includes naming the first Atom as such and the second atom with a suffix of -ide. The number of atoms is also mentioned . Eg- carbon dioxide
Ionic compound naming involves naming the first atom as such and attaching -ide with the name of second atom. Number of atoms is not mentioned. Eg- sodium chloride
4. If the ion has more than 1 atom, it is polyionic. We can see that by checking the number of non metal in the compound. If there is more than 1, it is polyatomic ion. Eg- carbonate ion has carbon and oxygen.
5. The Roman numeral represents the coordination number of the transition metal which is not applicable in case of main group metals as they don\'t form ligands.
.

18) Explain why oil and water do not mix- A) Water is not able to ioni.docx

18) Explain why oil and water do not mix. A) Water is not able to ionize in oil. B) The dipole-dipole force between water and oil molecules is too strong. C) Water molecules are polar and oil molecules are not polar D) Oil molecules cannot break the ionic bonds in water E) The viscosity of oil doesn\'t allow mixing of the water molecules. 19) Place the following aqueous solutions of nonvolatile, nonionic compounds in order ot decreasing (highest to lowest) osmotic pressure. I. 0.011 M sucrose II. 0.00095 M galactose III. 0.0060 M glycerin A)I > 111 >11 C) II > III >I 20) Why isn\'t pentanol (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH) very soluble in water? A) Pentanol cannot engage in hydrogen-bonding interactions. B) Pentanol is too viscous so it cannot mix with water. C) Pentanol\'s ion-dipole interactions with water are not strong enough. D) Most of the pentanol molecule is nonpolar, so it exhibits mainly dispersion forces, making it difficult to dissolve in water. E) Most of the pentanol molecule is polar, so it exhibits mainly dipole-dipoles forces making it difficult to dissolve in water.
Solution
Ans 18 : C) Water molecules are polar and oil molecules are not polar
Since water molecule are polar and oil molecules are non polar, they are attracted to each other more than the other oil molecules , in accordance with the general solubility rule that \"like dissolves like\". Moreover oil being less denser than water , floats over the top of water surface .
.

Write a program to check a given number is prime or not

The document contains 6 algorithms for solving different programming problems:
1. A program to check if a number is prime or not using a while loop.
2. A program to check if a number is a Krishnamurty number using factorial calculations in a while loop.
3. A recursive function to generate the Fibonacci series.
4. A program to print an array in reverse order using a for loop.
5. A program to merge two sorted arrays into a single sorted array using a while loop.
6. A program to check if a string is a palindrome without built-in functions by reversing the string and comparing the original and reversed strings.

Let us C (by yashvant Kanetkar) chapter 3 Solution

The document contains solutions to questions on loops in C programming. It includes:
- Sample code to demonstrate while, for, and do-while loops with explanations of output
- Solutions to problems involving calculating overtime pay, finding factorials, exponents, ASCII values, Armstrong numbers, and more using various loop structures
- Explanations of parts of for and do-while loops, and statements like break and continue
- Additional problems solved using nested loops to produce patterns, tables, and series calculations

C programming codes for the class assignment

This is the class assignment of BUBT, in online google classroom about the topic of Array in C Programming

programs on arrays.pdf

The document provides solutions to various problems involving 1D arrays in C and Python. It includes programs to:
1. Reverse the elements of an array
2. Determine if an array contains all even, odd, or mixed elements
3. Count the number of even and odd elements in an array
4. Check if two arrays are equal
5. Find the sum of perfect square elements in an array
6. Find the minimum scalar product of two vectors
7. Find the smallest and largest elements in an array
8. Print all distinct elements in an array
9. Check if two arrays are disjoint
For each problem, it provides the algorithm, C and Python solutions, sample input/output,

Chapter 8 c solution

The document provides code snippets to copy the contents of one array into another array in reverse order using different approaches like loops, pointers, and functions. It also includes code to reverse an array without using additional memory by swapping elements, and to reverse an array using pointers.

Operating system labs

The document contains summaries of 12 programs implementing various operating system concepts like memory management algorithms, CPU scheduling algorithms, and page replacement algorithms. It includes programs for first fit, best fit, worst fit, priority scheduling, producer consumer problem, FCFS, SJF, SRTF, round robin, and page replacement algorithms like FIFO, LRU, and optimal page replacement. For each program, it lists the code, inputs/outputs and provides a brief 1-2 line description.

insertion sort.pptx

Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that works by iteratively inserting elements into a sorted subset of the array. It has a worst case time complexity of O(n^2) but performs well on small or partially sorted data. The algorithm splits the array into a sorted and unsorted part, taking elements from the unsorted part and inserting them into the correct position in the sorted part until the entire array is sorted.

C Programming Example

Ex.1 Write a program to print the following pattern
1
2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5
Ex.2 Write a program to find bigger of three integers.
Ex.3 Write a program to calculate GCD between two numbers.
Ex.4 Write a program to find transpose of matrix.
Ex.5 Write a program which deletes an element from an array & display all other elements.
Ex.6 Write a program to calculate XA+YB where A & B are matrix & X=2, Y=3.
Ex.7 Write a program to calculate the total amount of money in the piggy bank, given that coins of Rs.10, Rs.5, Rs.2, RS.1.
& many more.....

Basic c programs updated on 31.8.2020

The document provides examples of basic C programs that demonstrate fundamental programming concepts like printing values, arithmetic operations, arrays, functions, conditionals, loops, and matrices. The programs cover topics such as printing and reading integers, adding/multiplying numbers, swapping values, checking vowels/consonants, Armstrong numbers, palindromes, summing matrices, and finding the transpose of a matrix.

array.ppt

This document discusses 1-dimensional arrays in C. It explains that arrays allow storing multiple values of the same type using a single name. Elements in an array are accessed using an index from 0 to size-1. Arrays can be initialized, read from using a for loop and scanf, printed using printf, and manipulated using operations on individual elements. Examples demonstrate finding the minimum, computing GPA with two parallel arrays, binary search, and selection sort of an array. Character arrays can represent strings by storing characters and terminating with a null character.

Cpds lab

The documents contain program code snippets for various sorting and searching algorithms in C programming language including selection sort, bubble sort, quick sort, merge sort, insertion sort, binary search and linear search. The programs take input from the user, implement the respective algorithms to sort or search arrays of numbers, and output the results.

C Programming Exam problems & Solution by sazzad hossain

The document contains 18 code snippets demonstrating solutions to common programming problems. The code snippets include programs to: 1) convert temperature between Celsius and Fahrenheit, 2) find the larger of two numbers, 3) determine if a number is even or odd, and 4) calculate the square of a number. The programs demonstrate a variety of programming concepts like if/else statements, for loops, functions, and more.

Arrays

Arrays allow programmers to work with multiple similar data values efficiently. There are different types of arrays including one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and multi-dimensional arrays. One-dimensional arrays use a single index, two-dimensional arrays use two indices for rows and columns, and multi-dimensional arrays can have three or more indices. Programmers can initialize array values at declaration time or runtime, and access elements using indices. Common array operations include sorting, searching, and performing mathematical operations on arrays.

Ds

The document describes three different sorting algorithms: linear search, binary search, and insertion sort. Linear search iterates through an array sequentially to find a target value. Binary search divides the array in half on each step to quickly locate a value. Insertion sort iterates through the array and inserts each element into the sorted portion, building up the sorted array.

PCA-2 Programming and Solving 2nd Sem.pdf

The document contains 14 code snippets that provide solutions to common programming problems in C including: printing patterns like numbers, stars, triangles using loops; finding sum of digits, checking palindrome, Armstrong number; sorting arrays using bubble, selection sort; string operations like concatenation; matrix addition; factorial; checking even-odd; Floyd's triangle. Each code snippet includes the header files, function definitions and main function to accept input, call functions and print output.

Write a program to check a given number is prime or not

Write a program to check a given number is prime or not

Let us C (by yashvant Kanetkar) chapter 3 Solution

Let us C (by yashvant Kanetkar) chapter 3 Solution

C programming codes for the class assignment

C programming codes for the class assignment

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Zoro123456789123456789123456789123456789

labb123456789123456789123456789123456789

labb123456789123456789123456789123456789

programs on arrays.pdf

programs on arrays.pdf

Chapter 8 c solution

Chapter 8 c solution

Operating system labs

Operating system labs

insertion sort.pptx

insertion sort.pptx

C Programming Example

C Programming Example

Basic c programs updated on 31.8.2020

Basic c programs updated on 31.8.2020

array.ppt

array.ppt

Cpds lab

Cpds lab

C Programming Exam problems & Solution by sazzad hossain

C Programming Exam problems & Solution by sazzad hossain

Arrays

Arrays

Ds

Ds

Complete Lab 123456789123456789123456789

Complete Lab 123456789123456789123456789

Lab program 1234567891234567891234567891

Lab program 1234567891234567891234567891

lab.123456789123456789123456789123456789

lab.123456789123456789123456789123456789

PCA-2 Programming and Solving 2nd Sem.pdf

PCA-2 Programming and Solving 2nd Sem.pdf

1Experimental Chemistry Data Analysis 1- How do you know when to name.docx

1Experimental Chemistry Data Analysis 1. How do you know when to name something as an ionic compound? 2. How do you know when to name something as a molecular compound? 3. How does naming an ionic compound differ from naming a molecular compound? 4. How do you know when a polyatomic ion is present? Why do we include a Roman numeral in the name for compounds containing a transition metal and not for main group metals? 5.
Solution
1. Ionic compounds contain ionic bond. When an electropositive metal (preferably groups 1 and 2) forms a compound with an electronegative element, it is an ionic compound. Eg- NaCl
2. Molecular bonds are formed by sharing of electrons. We can identify a compound as molecular compound if it has two or more non metal elements.
3. Naming of molecular compounds includes naming the first Atom as such and the second atom with a suffix of -ide. The number of atoms is also mentioned . Eg- carbon dioxide
Ionic compound naming involves naming the first atom as such and attaching -ide with the name of second atom. Number of atoms is not mentioned. Eg- sodium chloride
4. If the ion has more than 1 atom, it is polyionic. We can see that by checking the number of non metal in the compound. If there is more than 1, it is polyatomic ion. Eg- carbonate ion has carbon and oxygen.
5. The Roman numeral represents the coordination number of the transition metal which is not applicable in case of main group metals as they don\'t form ligands.
.

18) Explain why oil and water do not mix- A) Water is not able to ioni.docx

18) Explain why oil and water do not mix. A) Water is not able to ionize in oil. B) The dipole-dipole force between water and oil molecules is too strong. C) Water molecules are polar and oil molecules are not polar D) Oil molecules cannot break the ionic bonds in water E) The viscosity of oil doesn\'t allow mixing of the water molecules. 19) Place the following aqueous solutions of nonvolatile, nonionic compounds in order ot decreasing (highest to lowest) osmotic pressure. I. 0.011 M sucrose II. 0.00095 M galactose III. 0.0060 M glycerin A)I > 111 >11 C) II > III >I 20) Why isn\'t pentanol (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH) very soluble in water? A) Pentanol cannot engage in hydrogen-bonding interactions. B) Pentanol is too viscous so it cannot mix with water. C) Pentanol\'s ion-dipole interactions with water are not strong enough. D) Most of the pentanol molecule is nonpolar, so it exhibits mainly dispersion forces, making it difficult to dissolve in water. E) Most of the pentanol molecule is polar, so it exhibits mainly dipole-dipoles forces making it difficult to dissolve in water.
Solution
Ans 18 : C) Water molecules are polar and oil molecules are not polar
Since water molecule are polar and oil molecules are non polar, they are attracted to each other more than the other oil molecules , in accordance with the general solubility rule that \"like dissolves like\". Moreover oil being less denser than water , floats over the top of water surface .
.

17-Calcium sulfate has a soluble form in water- formed according to-.docx

17. Calcium sulfate has a soluble form in water, formed according to:
Ca 2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) ?CaSO 4 (aq) K = 7.7Ã—103
CaSO 4 (s) itself, however, is poorly soluble and has the following solubility product:
CaSO 4 (s) ?Ca 2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) Ksp = 3Ã—10-34
If we dissolve CaSO 4 (s) in water until CaSO 4 (s)precipitate is left in equilibrium with the solution,
(a)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â What is the concentration of Ca 2+ (aq)?
(b)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â What is the concentration of the soluble complex CaSO 4 (aq)?
Solution
Ksp = [M] 2 where [M] is concentration of Ca 2+ (aq) and SO4 2- (aq) .
[M] = (3x10 -34 ) 0.5 = 1.73x10 -17
K = [CaSO 4 (aq) ] /([Ca 2+ (aq) ]x[SO4 2- (aq)])
7.7x10 3 x ([M] 2 )= [CaSO 4 (aq) ]
7.7x10 3 x3x10 -34 = [CaSO 4 (aq) ]
[CaSO 4 (aq) ] = 23.1 x 10 -31
.

2- Does evolution violate the second law of thermodynamics- Why or why.docx

2. Does evolution violate the second law of thermodynamics? Why or why not? 3. The heat capacity of compound B is two times greater than the heat capacity of compound A. If one mole of each compound (A and B) absorbs 100 Joules of heat, which compound will exhibit the larger temperature rise -A or B? Why? 4. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The entropy change of a system is necessarily zero if the process causing the change is performed reversibly. Please state why you agree or disagree.
Solution
1.
No, it doesn\'t.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is one of the most fundamental laws of nature: evolution really would be in big trouble if it broke it. Put not particularly simply, the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy (the amount of disorganisation) in a closed system tends to increase with time. Put more simply, this means that matter does not tend to organise itself in a particular location unless there is some external energy source powering it. Evolution can be seen as matter organising itself.
Evolution-deniers who cite the Second Law of Thermodynamics as proof against evolution happening on our planet either conveniently forget to mention, or do not realise, that the earth is not a closed system: it has a rather massive external energy source, namely the sun. If we were to consider the entire solar system to be a closed system (which, to all intents and purposes, it is), then the occurrence of evolution on any of the planets would not break the Second Law of Thermodynamics, because, while evolution represents a local decrease in entropy, the burning of fuel within the sun represents a far greater increase in entropy
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2- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the following com.docx

2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the following commodities as money. A. Bricks B. Corn C. Pearls
Solution
Type Definition Examples Advantage(s) Disadvantage(s) Commodity Physical assets with a relatively high degree of liquidity due to their uniformity, durability, divisibility, portability, and ease of authentication Clamshells; tobacco; gold Self-equilibrating Inelastic supply; storage, transportation, division, wastage, and authentication costs Representative Claims on commodities in the actual physical possession of the money issuer Tobacco notes; gold deposit notes Easier/cheaper to store, transport, divide, safekeep, and authenticate than the underlying commodity Default and counterfeiting risk; supply elasticity limited by the underlying commodity Credit Claims on the general assets of the money issuer and NOT fully backed by commodity, fiat, or other monies Bank deposits; banknotes Supply elasticity limited only by the reserve ratio Default and counterfeiting risk; some inflation risk Fiat Legal tender enforced by government decree Federal Reserve Notes Extremely elastic supply Inflation risk; counterfeiting risk
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2- Create a multi - step Income Statement- Statement of Retained Earni.docx

2. Create a multi - step Income Statement, Statement of Retained Earnings, and classified Balance Sheet for Financial Manufacturing Inc. for period ended May 31, 2014 based on the following adjusted trial balance.
Solution
Income statement
Statement of retained earnings
Balance sheet
.

2- Compare teh payment of cash divididends- stock dividends and purcha.docx

2. Compare teh payment of cash divididends, stock dividends and purchase of treasury stock from existing shareholders. What are the similiarities and differences? If you were a corporate treasurer, which method would you recomend for returning funds to stock holders?
Solution
Dividends are payments made by a corporation to its shareholder members. [ It is the portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders.[1]
When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, that money can be put to two uses: it can either be re-invested in the business (called retained earnings), or it can be distributed to shareholders. There are two ways to distribute cash to shareholders:
share repurchases or dividends.[2][3] Many corporations retain a portion of their earnings and pay the remainder as a dividend. stock dividend A dividend paid as additional shares of stock rather than as cash. If dividends paid are in the form of cash, those dividends are taxable.
When a company issues a stock dividend, rather than cash, there usually are not tax consequences until the shares are sold.
Companies often buy back their own stock which lowers the number of shares outstanding. When a company does a stock buyback, the stocks they purchase on the open market become known as treasury stock. These stocks do not pay dividends nor do they have voting rights. Treasury stocks are not included in shares outstanding calculations.
When a company buys back its own shares, it can either be advantageous to the shareholders or a detriment depending on the motivation for buying back the shares in the first place. If the company is seeking to boost its financial ratios such as their P/E ratio or earnings per share ratio, then the shareholders
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17-Calcium sulfate has a soluble form in water- formed according to-.docx

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2- Does evolution violate the second law of thermodynamics- Why or why.docx

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2- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the following com.docx

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আমাদের সবার জন্য খুব খুব গুরুত্বপূর্ণ একটি বই ..বিসিএস, ব্যাংক, ইউনিভার্সিটি ভর্তি ও যে কোন প্রতিযোগিতা মূলক পরীক্ষার জন্য এর খুব ইম্পরট্যান্ট একটি বিষয় ...তাছাড়া বাংলাদেশের সাম্প্রতিক যে কোন ডাটা বা তথ্য এই বইতে পাবেন ...
তাই একজন নাগরিক হিসাবে এই তথ্য গুলো আপনার জানা প্রয়োজন ...।
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- 1. 2 Write a program to implement the selection algorithm. A) Prove that merging two sorted arrays of N items requires at least 2N-1 comparisons. Solution 2 Write a program to implement the selection algorithm. #include <stdio.h> int main() { int data[100],i,n,steps,temp; printf("Enter the number of elements to be sorted: "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=0;i<n;++i) { printf("%d. Enter element: ",i+1); scanf("%d",&data[i]); } for(steps=0;steps<n;++steps) for(i=steps+1;i<n;++i) { if(data[steps]>data[i]) { temp=data[steps]; data[steps]=data[i]; data[i]=temp; } } printf("In ascending order: "); for(i=0;i<n;++i) printf("%d ",data[i]); return 0; } A) Prove that merging two sorted arrays of N items requires at least 2N-1 comparisons.
- 2. The observation about mergesort is that no matter suppose input array looks like, mergesort will divide the array recursively into the same two sorted array. The way the input influences the way the algorithm works in is the merge phase of the algorithm. A merge of two N-element sorted arrays requires at least N comparisons (this happens if one array's elements are all less than the other array's smallest element) and at most 2N-1 comparisons. In any case, merge requires 2N assignments. So, merge requires Theta(N) time regardless of the input. This implies that mergesort takes when marging two sorted arrays of N item requires at least 2N- 1 comparisons.