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RICKETTSIA
RATHEESH R.L
19. rickettsiae
MORPHOLGY
• They are gram negative, non-motile, non
capsulated, pleomorphic cocco bacilli.
• Size varies from 600 x 300 nm.
PATHOGENESIS
• The rickettsiae are transmitted to man by the
bite or feces of an infected antropod vector.
• After entering the body the organism
multiplies locally and enters to the blood
stream for further multiplication and affecting
the skin and other organs.
• The disease caused by the rickettsia is
classified under various groups.
– TYPHUS FEVER GROUP
– SPOTTED FEVER GROUP
– SCRUB TYPHUS GROUP
TYPHUS FEVER GROUP
This group consist of epidemic typhus,
recrudescent typhus and endemic typhus.
EPIDEMIC TYPHUS
• Epidemic typhus (also called "camp fever", "jail
fever", "hospital fever", "ship fever", "famine
fever", "putrid fever", "petechial fever", "Epidemic
louse-borne typhus," and "louse-borne typhus")
• It is a form of typhus so named because the
disease often causes epidemics following wars
and natural disasters.
• The causative organism is Rickettsia prowazekii,
transmitted by the human body louse
• R. prowazekii grows in the louse's gut and is
excreted in its feces. The disease is then
transmitted to an uninfected human who
scratches the louse bite (which itches) and rubs
the feces into the wound.
• The incubation period is one to two weeks. R.
prowazekii can remain viable and virulent in the
dried louse feces for many days.
SYMPTOMS
• Symptoms include severe headache, a sustained high
fever, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, chills,
falling blood pressure, stupor,sensitivity to
light, delirium and death.
• A rash begins on the chest about five days after the
fever appears, and spreads to the trunk and
extremities. A symptom common to all forms of typhus
is a fever which may reach 39 °C (102 °F).
RECRUDESCENT TYPHUS
• It is a milder illness of short duration (1-2
weeks).
• Symptoms are headache, malaise and myalgia
ENDEMIC TYPHUS
• It is a milder disease than epidemic typhus
and is caused by R.mooseri.
• The reservoir of infection is wild rats and is
transmitted to man by bite of infected rat flea
or food contaminated by its urine or feces.
SPOTTED FEVER GROUP
• The rickettsiae of this group are transmitted by
tick (tick borne) which is transmitted by mites.
• The organism multiply in the gut of mites and are
shed in its feces.
• Infection occurs to man by the bite of the
infected mites
19. rickettsiae
• The various infection caused by different
species are,
– Rocky mountain spotted fever
– Rickettsial pox
Rocky mountain spotted fever
• Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a bacterial
infection transmitted R.ricketsii.
• Without prompt treatment, Rocky Mountain
spotted fever can cause serious damage to
internal organs, such as your kidneys and
heart.
signs and symptoms
• Although many people become ill within the first
week after infection, signs and symptoms may
not appear for up to 14 days. High fever
– Chills
– Severe headache
– Muscle aches
– Nausea and vomiting
– Restlessness and insomnia
– Rashus will appear on wrist, ankles, palms and soles
– Vascular damage may leads to hypovolemia and
hypotension
Rickettsial pox
• Rickettsial pox is a mild, self-limited, zoonotic
febrile illness characterized by eschar(a dry, dark
scab or falling away of dead skin, typically caused
by a burn, an insect bite, or infection with anthrax)
formation at the location of a mite bite, followed
by the onset of systemic symptoms and a more
generalized papulovesicular rash.
• The causative agent is Rickettsia akari, a
member of the spotted-fever group of
rickettsiae.
• Clinical features are enlargement of lymph
nodes, fever, chills, headache, malaise and
myalgia.
SCRUB TYPHUS GROUP
• Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious
disease caused by Orientia
tsutsugamushi (previously called Rickettsia
tsutsugamushi).
• Tsutsug- diagnosis
• Mushi- mite
• Scrub typhus lasts for 14 to 21 days without
treatment. Severe infections may be
complicated by interstitial pneumonia,
pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure
and circulatory collapse.
• Scrub typhus is manifested clinically by high
fever, intense generalized headache, diffuse
myalgias, and, in many patients, rash and an
eschar at the site of the bite.
DIAGNOSIS
• Hematological investigations
– TLC- Shows leucopenia
– DLC- Shows neutropenia and lymphocytosis
• Bacteriological investigations
– Isolation of rickettsiae
• The most ideal method of rickettsiae isolation is to
inoculate the material intra-peritoneally into mice or
guinea pig.
• The inoculated animal is observed for 3 weeks
• Temperature variation will occur in each type of
rickettsial infection.
• Serological tests
– Weil felix reaction
– CFT test
– Immunofluorescence test
– Latex agglutination test
– ELISA
TREATMENT
• Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are the
effective antibiotics against the organism.
19. rickettsiae

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19. rickettsiae

  • 3. MORPHOLGY • They are gram negative, non-motile, non capsulated, pleomorphic cocco bacilli. • Size varies from 600 x 300 nm.
  • 4. PATHOGENESIS • The rickettsiae are transmitted to man by the bite or feces of an infected antropod vector. • After entering the body the organism multiplies locally and enters to the blood stream for further multiplication and affecting the skin and other organs.
  • 5. • The disease caused by the rickettsia is classified under various groups. – TYPHUS FEVER GROUP – SPOTTED FEVER GROUP – SCRUB TYPHUS GROUP
  • 6. TYPHUS FEVER GROUP This group consist of epidemic typhus, recrudescent typhus and endemic typhus.
  • 7. EPIDEMIC TYPHUS • Epidemic typhus (also called "camp fever", "jail fever", "hospital fever", "ship fever", "famine fever", "putrid fever", "petechial fever", "Epidemic louse-borne typhus," and "louse-borne typhus") • It is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters. • The causative organism is Rickettsia prowazekii, transmitted by the human body louse
  • 8. • R. prowazekii grows in the louse's gut and is excreted in its feces. The disease is then transmitted to an uninfected human who scratches the louse bite (which itches) and rubs the feces into the wound. • The incubation period is one to two weeks. R. prowazekii can remain viable and virulent in the dried louse feces for many days.
  • 9. SYMPTOMS • Symptoms include severe headache, a sustained high fever, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, chills, falling blood pressure, stupor,sensitivity to light, delirium and death. • A rash begins on the chest about five days after the fever appears, and spreads to the trunk and extremities. A symptom common to all forms of typhus is a fever which may reach 39 °C (102 °F).
  • 10. RECRUDESCENT TYPHUS • It is a milder illness of short duration (1-2 weeks). • Symptoms are headache, malaise and myalgia
  • 11. ENDEMIC TYPHUS • It is a milder disease than epidemic typhus and is caused by R.mooseri. • The reservoir of infection is wild rats and is transmitted to man by bite of infected rat flea or food contaminated by its urine or feces.
  • 12. SPOTTED FEVER GROUP • The rickettsiae of this group are transmitted by tick (tick borne) which is transmitted by mites. • The organism multiply in the gut of mites and are shed in its feces. • Infection occurs to man by the bite of the infected mites
  • 14. • The various infection caused by different species are, – Rocky mountain spotted fever – Rickettsial pox
  • 15. Rocky mountain spotted fever • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a bacterial infection transmitted R.ricketsii. • Without prompt treatment, Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause serious damage to internal organs, such as your kidneys and heart.
  • 16. signs and symptoms • Although many people become ill within the first week after infection, signs and symptoms may not appear for up to 14 days. High fever – Chills – Severe headache – Muscle aches – Nausea and vomiting – Restlessness and insomnia – Rashus will appear on wrist, ankles, palms and soles – Vascular damage may leads to hypovolemia and hypotension
  • 17. Rickettsial pox • Rickettsial pox is a mild, self-limited, zoonotic febrile illness characterized by eschar(a dry, dark scab or falling away of dead skin, typically caused by a burn, an insect bite, or infection with anthrax) formation at the location of a mite bite, followed by the onset of systemic symptoms and a more generalized papulovesicular rash.
  • 18. • The causative agent is Rickettsia akari, a member of the spotted-fever group of rickettsiae. • Clinical features are enlargement of lymph nodes, fever, chills, headache, malaise and myalgia.
  • 19. SCRUB TYPHUS GROUP • Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (previously called Rickettsia tsutsugamushi). • Tsutsug- diagnosis • Mushi- mite
  • 20. • Scrub typhus lasts for 14 to 21 days without treatment. Severe infections may be complicated by interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure and circulatory collapse.
  • 21. • Scrub typhus is manifested clinically by high fever, intense generalized headache, diffuse myalgias, and, in many patients, rash and an eschar at the site of the bite.
  • 22. DIAGNOSIS • Hematological investigations – TLC- Shows leucopenia – DLC- Shows neutropenia and lymphocytosis • Bacteriological investigations – Isolation of rickettsiae • The most ideal method of rickettsiae isolation is to inoculate the material intra-peritoneally into mice or guinea pig. • The inoculated animal is observed for 3 weeks • Temperature variation will occur in each type of rickettsial infection.
  • 23. • Serological tests – Weil felix reaction – CFT test – Immunofluorescence test – Latex agglutination test – ELISA
  • 24. TREATMENT • Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are the effective antibiotics against the organism.