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GROWTH
Growth
Irreversible change in Mass, i.e. increase in size, volume
and weight of any part of plant’s body.
It means quantitative increase in plant body.
e.g. Cell division Cell enlargement.
Development
Irreversible change in state.
It means the qualitative change in plant body.
e.g. Seed Seedling Vegetative
maturation Flowering.
Growth is a continuous process Development
is phase to phase process.
Plant’s growth and development are
under the control of two sets of internal
factors.
Nutritional factors such as the supply of
carbohydrates, proteins, fats and others
constitute the raw materials required for
growth.
Proper utilization of these raw materials
is under the control of certain “chemical
messengers” which can be classified into
hormones and vitamins.
Hormone Vitamin
1)The site of synthesis
is different from the
site of action.
2)Plant hormones are
physiologically
active.
1)Vitamins are used in
the same part without
being transported.
2)Vitamins by
themselves are not
physiologically active.
They act as co-factor
of enzyme.
The term Hormone is derived
from a Greek word ‘hormao’
which means ‘to stimulate’
(Beylis and Starling, 1902).
Thimann (1948) suggested using
the term ‘Phytohormone’ for
hormones of plant.
Phytohormones are organic substances
produced naturally by the plants which in
minute/low concentration
increase,
decrease
modify the growth and development.
Also termed as
growth hormones
growth promoting substances
growth substances
growth regulators
growth factors etc.
Plant Growth Regulators
• Plant Growth regulators (PGR) refers to natural or
synthetic substances influence the growth and
development.
• IAA (Auxin)- Both natural and synthetic.
• IBA (Auxin) - Always synthetic.
•The naturally occurring (endogenous) growth
substances are commonly known as Plant Hormones,
while the synthetic ones are called Growth Regulators.
•All plant hormone are plant growth regulators but,
all plant growth regulator are not plant
hormones
Plant Hormones
• It is an organic compound synthesized in one
part of plant and translocated to another parts,
wherein very low concentration causes a
physiological response.
• The plant hormones are identified as
promoters (auxins, gibberellin, cytokinins),
inhibitors (abscisic acid and ethylene) and
other hypothetical growth substances
(Florigen, death hormone, etc.).
Classification of PGR
1.On the Basis of Origin
• Natural hormone: Produced by some tissues in
the plant. Also called Endogenous hormones. e.g.
IAA.
• Synthetic hormone: Produced artificially and
similar to natural hormone in physiological
activity. Also called Exogenous hormones. e.g. 2,4-
D, NAA etc.
• Postulated hormone: Also produced
spontaneously in the plant body, but their
structure and function is not discovered clearly.
e.g. Florigen, Vernalin.
Classification of PGR
2.On the Basis of Nature of Function
• Growth promoting hormones/Growth promoter: They
promote cell division, cell enlargement, flowering, fruiting
and seed formation.
• e.g. Auxins. Gibberellins, Cytokinins etc.
• Growth inhibiting hormones/Growth retardant: Inhibits
growth and promote dormancy and abscission in plants. e.g.
ABA, Ethylene, Morphactins.
Note: Ethylene can be a promoter or an inhibitor, but is largely
a Plant Growth Inhibitor.
All plant growth regulators were discovered accidentally.
1. Auxins
• The term Auxin is derived from
the Greek word "auxein"
means- "to grow/increase".
• Auxins may be defined as
growth promoting substances
which promote growth along
the vertical axis when applied in
low concentration to the shoot
of the plant.
Discovery of Auxin
• Auxins were the first growth
hormone to be discovered.
• They were discovered due to the
observations of Charles Darwin and
his son, Francis Darwin.
• The Darwins observed that the
coleoptile (protective sheath) in
canary grass grows and bends towards
the source of light.
• This phenomenon is ‘phototropism’.
• In addition, their experiments showed
that the coleoptile tip was the site
responsible for the bending.
• Finally, this led to the isolation of the
first Auxin by F. W. Went in 1926
from the coleoptile tip of oat
seedlings.
Discovery of Auxins
Discovery of Auxins
• The idea of existence of auxin was proposed
by Charles Darwin (1880) in his book “The
Power of Movements in Plants”.
• Coleoptiles of Canary grass (Phallaris
canariensis) to unilateral light and observed it
to bend towards light.
• He covered the coleoptiles tip with tin foil or
cut it off and observed that coleoptiles did not
bend towards unilateral light.
• Concluded - some stimulus is transmitted
from upper to the lower part which induced
bending of the coleoptiles.
Discovery of Auxins
• F.W
. Went (1926) successfully discovered and
isolated this growth substance from Avena
sativa (Oat) coleoptiles tips.
• Kogl and Haagen-Smit(1931) named it as
“auxin”.
 Isolated first from human urine of Pellegra
patient
Synthesis: Precursor of Auxin is Tryptophan.
Zinc is also necessary for the biosynthesis of
Auxin.
Discovery of Auxins
Discovery of Auxins
Discovery of Auxins
Occurrence and Distribution of Auxins
Occurs universally in all plants.
Where there is active growth there is auxin
production.
Growing meristem and enlarging organs produces
auxin.
Shoot apex produces much auxin than root apex.
Apical bud synthesizes more auxin than lateral
buds.
Developing seeds contain more auxin than matured
seeds.
Apical bud synthesizes six times more auxin than
expanding leaves.
Auxin Translocation
Auxin transported basipetally.
It moves from apical to basal end.
Velocity of transport is-
1 to 1.5 cm/hr in stem &
coleoptiles
0.1 to 0.2 cm/hr in root.
Structure of Auxins
Structure of Auxins
Synthetic Auxins—produced artificially and
similar to natural in their physiological activity.
IPA (Indole Propionic Acid)
IBA (Indole Butyric Acid)
NAA (Napthalene Acetic Acid)
2,4-D (2,4 – Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid)
2,4,5-T (2,4,5 – Trichlorophenoxy acetic
acid) etc.
Structure of Auxins
Structure of Auxins
Effects of Auxin
• Promote flowering in plants like
pineapple.
• Help to initiate rooting in stem cuttings.
• Prevent dropping of fruits and leaves too
early.
• Promote natural detachment (abscission)
of older leaves and fruits.
• Control xylem differentiation and help in
cell division.
Applications
• Used for plant propagation.
• To induce parthenocarpy i.e. the production of fruit
without prior fertilization.
• 2, 4-D is widely used as a herbicide to kill
dicotyledonous weeds.
• Used by gardeners to keep lawns weed-free.
• Note: The growing apical bud in higher plants inhibits
the growth of the lateral buds.
• This phenomenon is ‘Apical Dominance’.
• Removal of the apical bud allows the lateral buds to
grow.
• This technique is commonly used in tea plantations
and hedge-making.
Apical Dominance
Rooting in cuttings
Parthenocarpic fruit development
Prevent fall of young leaves and fruits but
promotes the fall of matured leaves and fruits
Gibberellins
Discovery
• It is the component responsible for the
‘bakane’ disease of rice seedlings.
• The disease is caused by the fungal
pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi.
• E. Kurosawa treated uninfected rice
seedlings with sterile filtrates of the
fungus and reported the appearance
of disease symptoms.
• Finally, the active substance causing the
disease was identified as Gibberellic
acid.
• (Yabuta and sumiki) named as
gibberellin.
GIBBERELLINS
Discovered by Kurosawa, a Japanese Plant
Pathologist in 1928.
Rice plants infected by the fungus Gibberella
fujikuroi (Synonym: Fusarium moniliforme)
showed excessive stem elongation.
Symptom is called ‘Bakane’diseases.
Chemical was extracted & purified and named as
Gibberellic Acid (GA).
Now 80 different Gibberellins are available- GA1
to GA80 is available.
The most commonly occurring gibberellins is GA3.
Types
• There exist more than 100 gibberellins obtained from a
variety of organisms from fungi to higher plants.
• They are all acidic and are denoted as follows – GA1,
GA2, GA3 etc.
• GA3 (Gibberellic acid) is the most noteworthy since
it was the first to be discovered and is the most
studied.
Effects
• Increase the axis length in plants such as grape stalks.
• Delay senescence (i.e. ageing) in fruits. As a result, their
market period is extended.
• Help fruits like apples to elongate and improve their
shape.
Applications
• Cell elongation and cell division: Synthesis in leaf and induce
shoot elongation (IAA + GA3), by effecting cell elongation or cell
division or both.
• Enhance metabolic activity: Mobilization of reserved food
material, promote growth and height, increase root activity and
kinetin production in root- translocate to growing bud.
• Shoot elongation: GA3 spray increases height of seedlings.
• Delay senescence: Increase photosynthetic and protein synthesis so
decrease abscission.
• Increase cambial growth and differentiation: Induce flower and
fruit set (IAA+GA3).
• Dwarf plant (genetically) to normal height: GA3.
• Promote flowering in Long Day Plants: Substitute for long day
condition and cold treatment (vernalization).
• Induction of parthenocarpy in grapes: Three physiological
events: Rachis cell elongation, flower thinning and berry
enlargement.
• Breaking dormancy and leaf expansion.
Cell elongation
Elongation of Grape stalk and Sugarcane
thus increase in yield
It prevent normal ageing or delay ageing and
enable to remain fruits for longer time in tree
Therefore extend the market period of Apple
Bolting of internodes in Cabbage or
Lengthening of internodes before flowering
Hastening the maturity of seeds and hence cause
early seed formation in juvenile conifers
Commercially GA3 is used in brewing industry to increase
the enzymatic activity inside the grains during malting
process to achieve the uniform germination in all seeds in
commercial beer production
Cytokinins
Discovery of Cytokinin
• F. Skoog and his co-workers observed that
cells extracted from the internodal segments
of tobacco plant proliferate to callus (a mass
of cells) when the nutrient medium (yeast and
coconut milk with the addition of Auxin) is
supplemented with extracts of Vascular
tissues.
• These cells proliferated only when the
nutrient medium contained Auxins along with
yeast extract or extracts of vascular tissue.
• Later it was Skoog and Miller who isolated
and identified the active substance responsible
for proliferation (cytokinensis) in plant and
called it as kinetin.
Types
• Cytokinins were discovered as kinetin which were a
purine derivative.
• Scientists later discovered several natural (example –
zeatin) and synthetic cytokinins.
• Natural cytokinins exist in root apices and
developing shoot buds – areas where rapid cell
division takes place.
Plays and important role in Cytokinesis or
division of cytoplasm in a plant cell.
One kind of Cytokinin- Zeatin, later isolated from
corn kernel
And much later, naturally occurring Cytokinin is found in
specific regions of plants such as shoot apex, root apex and
fruit to promote growth
WHERE IT PRODUCED ?
 Cytokinin are synthesized primarily in actively growing
tissues, particular in roots, embryos and fruits and
transported to other organs, although there are many
minor sites of production as well.
 Cytokinin produced in the root reach to their target
tissues by moving up the plant in the xylem sap.
HOWIT CONTROL CELL DIVISION
 Cytokinin will stimulate cell division and influenced the
pathway of differentiation when acting with auxin hormone.
 In some experiment, a piece of parenchyma tissue from
stem is cultured. This is some observation of the effect on
cytokinin in cell tissue
Absent of cytokinin Added cytokinin
& auxin
Added cytokinin
only
The cell grow very
large but do not divide
The cell grows and
divided
No effect
HOWIT CONTROL CELL DIVISION
The ratio of cytokinins to auxin controls the cell
differentiate.
When the concentration of these 2 hormone are at certain
level, the mass of cell continues to grow, but remains
undifferentiated called a callus.
Cytokinin level increase Auxin level increase
Shoot buds develop from callus Root form
Effects/Application
• Help in the formation of new leaves and chloroplast.
• Promote lateral shoot growth and adventitious shoot
formation.
• Help overcome apical dominance.
• Promote nutrient mobilization which in turn helps delay
leaf senescence.
Developing embryo shows active cell division.
Liquid endosperm of coconut called Coconut Water /
Milk contain cell division causing factors (Kinetine).
Similarly the developing endosperm of maize contain
such factors (Zeatin).
FUNCTION OF CYTOKININ
Stimulates cell
division.
Stimulates
morphogenesis
(shoot initiation/bud
formation) in tissue
culture.
Stimulates the
growth of lateral
buds-release of
apical dominance.
Stimulates leaf
expansion resulting
from cell
enlargement.
Cytokinins can slow
down the aging of
some plant organs.
Slow deterioration
of leaves on intact
plant.
A list of some of the known physiological effects
caused by cytokinins are listed below
Ethylene
• Discovery
• A group of scientists lead by Cousins
showed that a gaseous substance
released from ripe oranges hastens the
ripening of unripe oranges.
• They also found that the volatile
substance enhance the ripening of
other unripe oranges.
• Consequently, they found that the
substance was ethylene – a simple
gaseous Plant Growth Regulator.
• Ripening fruits and tissues undergoing
senescence produce ethylene in large
amounts.
Effects
• Affects horizontal growth of seedlings and swelling
of the axis in dicot seedlings.
• Promotes abscission and senescence, especially of
leaves and flowers.
• Enhances respiration rate during ripening of fruits.
• This phenomenon is ‘respiratory climacteric’.
• Increases root growth and root hair formation,
therefore helping plants to increase their absorption
surface area.
• Used to boost rapid petiole elongation in deep water
rice plants.
• To initiate flowering and synchronising fruit-set in
pineapples.
• To induce flowering in mango.
• Ethephon hastens fruit ripening in apples and
tomatoes and increases yield by promoting female
flowering in cucumbers.
• It also accelerates abscission in cherry, walnut and
cotton.
Lengthening the internode of rice
Increased roots and root hairs formation
Promotes flowering
Applications
• Ethylene regulates many physiological processes
and is, therefore, widely used in agriculture.
• The most commonly used source of ethylene is
Ethephon.
• Plants can easily absorb and transport an aqueous
solution of ethephon and release ethylene slowly.
• Used to break seed and bud dormancy and initiate
germination in peanut seeds.
• To promote sprouting of potato tubers.
Functions of Ethylene
1. Induction of female flowers
 Cucumber and melon normally produce male flowers earlier than
female flowers.
 Ethylene stimulates the early production of female flowers.
 Often male flowers induction is completely inhibited following
ethylene treatment.
2. Male sterility
 Ethylene applied at a certain time of pollen development cause male
sterility.
3. Abscission
 Ethylene enhances the process of abscission.
4. Ripening
 Extensively used in several crops.
 ACC Oxidase antisenescence enzyme so as to enhance ripening.
5. Stress and ethylene production
 Plants when subjected to stress produce ethylene. Such stress may be
disease, radiation, mechanical woundings and chemicals.
Inhibitors/Retardants
• These suppress the growth of plants.
• There are phenolic inhibitors and synthetic
inhibitors and abscisic acid(ABA).
• Phenolic inhibitors: E.g. Benzoic acid, Salicylic
acid, Coumaric acid and Chlorogenic acid.
• Synthetic inhibitors: E.g. Maleic hydrazide, Tri-
Iodobenzoic acid (TIBA), SADH etc.
• An inhibitor from young leaves of Betula sps.
prevent the growth of apical buds .
E. g. ABA and Dormin.
Abscisic Acid
Discovery
• Date back to 1960s, three independent
researchers reported the purification
and characterization of three different
inhibitors of plants namely –Inhibitor
B, Abscission II and Dormin.
• Later, it was found that all three
inhibitors were chemically identical
and were, therefore, together were
given the name Abscissic acid.
• Abscissic acid mostly acts as an
antagonist to Gibberellic acid.
WHERE IT PRODUCED?
Almost plant has ability to synthesize
ABA.
It presence has been detected in every
major organ &living tissue and may be
transported in the phloem/xylem
ABSCISIC ACID (ABA)
ABA is one of the hormone plant. Also called as
abscisic II & dormin
Function: inhibit growth, promote seed
dormancy & inhibit early germination, promote
stomatal closure during drought stress.
ABA also promotes abscission of leaves and
fruits
ABA inhibits stem elongation probably by its
inhibitory effect on gibberellic acid
EFFECT OFABSCISIC ACID
• One of major affect of ABA
is seed dormancy. Seed
dormancy has great survival
value because it ensure that
seed willgerminate only
when there are optimal
conditions of light,
temperature, &moisture.
• Many types of dormant seed
germinate when ABA is
remove or inactive.
SEED DORMANCY DROUGHT TOLERANCE
• ABA is the primary internal
signal
- That enables plants to
withstand drought
- signaling turns on the
expression of genes
encoding proteins that
protect cells — in seeds as
well as in vegetative tissues
— from damage when they
become dehydrated
Inhibits the germination of seeds
In case of drought condition, closing of
stomata
a) ABA in roots that
elongate the root for
water absorption
b) ABA in the stem that
allow the stem to elongate
to get sufficient light
Effects
• Regulate abscission and dormancy.
• Inhibit plant growth, metabolism and seed
germination.
• Stimulates closure of stomata in the epidermis.
• It increases the tolerance of plants to different
kinds of stress and is, therefore, called ‘stress
hormone’.
• Important for seed development and maturation.
• It induces dormancy in seeds and helps them
withstand desiccation and other unfavourable
growth factors.
Functions of ABA
1. Photosynthesis:
• Through stomatal closure and by affecting carbon
fixation.
2. Dormancy:
• ABA induces seed and bud dormancy.
3. Stomatal closure:
• In water stress conditions, more abscisic acid is
synthesized in the plant. This abscisic acid promotes the
closing of stomata and thereby decreases transpiration.
4. Senescence of leaves:
• It promotes senescence or yellowing prior to leaf fall.
5. Seed dormancy:
• ABA plays an important role in developing seeds by
inhibiting precocious germination of the developing
embryo. However, as the embryo matured the
endogenous ABA declined.
6. Bud Dormancy:
• ABA synthesized on the plant, in the response of some
environmental factor trigger and this ABA travelled to
the buds and induces them to go dormant.
7. Resistant to frost damage:
• ABA may also be involved in increasing the resistance
of temperate zones plants to frost damage; the external
application of ABA has been shown to increase the frost
hardiness and to ameliorate chilling in different fruits
and vegetables.
• stem apex, auxillary buds 
promotes cells division (release of
apical dominance)
• leaves  inhibits senescence
Cytokinins
• Guard cells  close stomata
• seed coat  inhibits seed
germination
Abscisic
acid
• Stem  inhibits cell elongation
• fruits  promotes ripening
Ehtylene
Functions
Various Commercial Uses of PGRs in horticulture
1. Propagation of Plants
• A number of plants are propagated by stem, leaf
cutting and by layering.
• For promotion of rooting, the most commonly
utilized hormone is IBA followed by NAA.IBA is
applied in the form of Paste, dust and solution.
• 10-100 ppm (1ppm=1mg in 1000 ml water) by the
soak method (12-24 hrs)
• 1000-5000ppm by quick dip method (5 Sec)
• 1000-10000ppm by dust method
• Gibberellic acid causes inhibition of root formation
in cutting.
• Cytokinins also help in quick and profuse root
formation in cuttings and layers.
• By use of auxins, profuse root formation is observed
in cuttings of guava, fig, pomegranate, crotons, rose,
hibiscus, etc.
2. Seed Germination
• Many seeds have natural
dormancy which can be got
over by dipping the seeds
in auxins.
• Soaking seeds of french
beans and peas in 10-20ppm
solution of GA for 12 hours
before sowing, significantly
improves the yield and
quality.
• Dipping potatoes in 5ppm
GA solution for 5minutes
before sowing increases
sprouting and yield of
potatoes.
Fig: French bean
3. Control of Plant Size
• In fruits and vegetables, application of higher doses
of nitrogenous fertilizers, spraying cycocel (growth
retardant), the superfluous growth of leaves is
checked.
• By spraying 10ppm solution of morphactin in
potato, the growth of plant is reduced and thereby
the size of tubers is increased.
• The growth retardants are useful in checking the
growth of hedges in ornamental gardens there by
reducing the cost of trimming the hedges.
4. Regulation of Flowering
• In Pineapple, due to later flowering the fruit get ready in
rainy season.
• This deteriorates the quality of the fruit.
• This difficulty can be overcome by spraying 5-10 ppm
solution of NAA before flowering.
• Use of Potassium salt of NAA (200-800 ppm) delayed
flowering in apple, pear, peach, plum etc by 1-2 weeks.
• Application of 100-200 ppm GA in Dahlia plants
induces early flowering.
• Sometimes, it is necessary to delay flowering. E.g.
Crossing of varieties which do not flower
simultaneously.
• Hence, the crossing becomes difficult.
5. Control of Sex Expression
• In number of cucurbits, such as ridge gourd,
bittergourd, watermelon, cucumber and pumpkins
which have proportion of male flowers is more than
female flowers.
• For better yield, it is necessary to increase the
number of female flowers.
• This can be achieved by application of auxins and
ethylene which increases the number of female
flowers and decreases the number of male flower.
• The commonly used auxin is NAA.
• Application of NAA, IAA at 50-100 ppm increased
femaleness in pumpkin, cucumber and ridge gourd.
6. Control of Fruit Set and Growth of Fruit
• Spraying Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Tri benzoic
Acid(TIBA), and(4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (PCPA) on
flowers increases the fruit set.
• Dipping of grape bunches (young fruits) in GA solution
increases the berry size in Thompson seedless grape.
7. Control of Fruit Drop
• To control preharvest drop of fruit, 2,4,5- T(8 ppm) for apples
and lemons
• 2,4-D (8-10 ppm) for oranges,
• NAA (10 ppm)) for pears and apricot.
• In Nagpur Santra, the fruit drop can be controlled by spraying
10-20 ppm NAA or 10 ppm 2,4-D after fruit set.
• The fruit drop in mango can be controlled by these
two auxins.
• Application of 2,4,5- T below 20 ppm on the mango varieties
of Bombay green, Langra and Chausa prevented the fruit drop
8. Thinning of Fruits
• Sometimes it is necessary to thin the fruits so as to bring a
balance between the supply of nutrients and development of
fruit.
• In such cases spraying with mild solution of ethrel or
morphactin reduces the fruit load by 25-30 per cent.
• NAA (5-10 ppm) and Naphthalene Acetamide (5-7 ppm) for
thinning of apples, peaches, grapes.
9. Early and uniform Ripening and Development of Fruit
Colour
• Spraying with 2,4,5-T and B-9 (Alar: functions opposite to
gibberellin) hastens maturity of apples by 1-4weeks.
• 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T(2-5 Ppm) causes uniform ripening of
grapes.
• Ethylene is used to hasten ripening and fruit color
development.
• Tomato can be ripened by the use of 500-1000ppm ethylene.
10. Dormancy (Prevention of Sprouting)
• In potatoes and onions, after harvest, in storage, the
buds start sprouting which makes them unfit for
cooking.
• Spraying of Malic Hydrazide (MH) solution before
storing, prevents sprouting and these can be stored
safely for 6 months.
• In onions two week before harvest , MH (500-2500
ppm) as foliar sprays when the crop is in the field,
prolonged the dormancy for 7 months.
11.Control of Weeds
• The conventional method of controlling the weeds is to
remove them by uprooting manually.
• Successful control of dicot weeds is obtained by
spraying 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in many crops.

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16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. GROWTH Growth Irreversible change in Mass, i.e. increase in size, volume and weight of any part of plant’s body. It means quantitative increase in plant body. e.g. Cell division Cell enlargement. Development Irreversible change in state. It means the qualitative change in plant body. e.g. Seed Seedling Vegetative maturation Flowering. Growth is a continuous process Development is phase to phase process.
  • 3.
  • 4. Plant’s growth and development are under the control of two sets of internal factors. Nutritional factors such as the supply of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and others constitute the raw materials required for growth. Proper utilization of these raw materials is under the control of certain “chemical messengers” which can be classified into hormones and vitamins.
  • 5.
  • 6. Hormone Vitamin 1)The site of synthesis is different from the site of action. 2)Plant hormones are physiologically active. 1)Vitamins are used in the same part without being transported. 2)Vitamins by themselves are not physiologically active. They act as co-factor of enzyme.
  • 7. The term Hormone is derived from a Greek word ‘hormao’ which means ‘to stimulate’ (Beylis and Starling, 1902). Thimann (1948) suggested using the term ‘Phytohormone’ for hormones of plant.
  • 8. Phytohormones are organic substances produced naturally by the plants which in minute/low concentration increase, decrease modify the growth and development. Also termed as growth hormones growth promoting substances growth substances growth regulators growth factors etc.
  • 9.
  • 10. Plant Growth Regulators • Plant Growth regulators (PGR) refers to natural or synthetic substances influence the growth and development. • IAA (Auxin)- Both natural and synthetic. • IBA (Auxin) - Always synthetic. •The naturally occurring (endogenous) growth substances are commonly known as Plant Hormones, while the synthetic ones are called Growth Regulators. •All plant hormone are plant growth regulators but, all plant growth regulator are not plant hormones
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Plant Hormones • It is an organic compound synthesized in one part of plant and translocated to another parts, wherein very low concentration causes a physiological response. • The plant hormones are identified as promoters (auxins, gibberellin, cytokinins), inhibitors (abscisic acid and ethylene) and other hypothetical growth substances (Florigen, death hormone, etc.).
  • 14. Classification of PGR 1.On the Basis of Origin • Natural hormone: Produced by some tissues in the plant. Also called Endogenous hormones. e.g. IAA. • Synthetic hormone: Produced artificially and similar to natural hormone in physiological activity. Also called Exogenous hormones. e.g. 2,4- D, NAA etc. • Postulated hormone: Also produced spontaneously in the plant body, but their structure and function is not discovered clearly. e.g. Florigen, Vernalin.
  • 15. Classification of PGR 2.On the Basis of Nature of Function • Growth promoting hormones/Growth promoter: They promote cell division, cell enlargement, flowering, fruiting and seed formation. • e.g. Auxins. Gibberellins, Cytokinins etc. • Growth inhibiting hormones/Growth retardant: Inhibits growth and promote dormancy and abscission in plants. e.g. ABA, Ethylene, Morphactins. Note: Ethylene can be a promoter or an inhibitor, but is largely a Plant Growth Inhibitor. All plant growth regulators were discovered accidentally.
  • 16.
  • 17. 1. Auxins • The term Auxin is derived from the Greek word "auxein" means- "to grow/increase". • Auxins may be defined as growth promoting substances which promote growth along the vertical axis when applied in low concentration to the shoot of the plant.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Discovery of Auxin • Auxins were the first growth hormone to be discovered. • They were discovered due to the observations of Charles Darwin and his son, Francis Darwin. • The Darwins observed that the coleoptile (protective sheath) in canary grass grows and bends towards the source of light. • This phenomenon is ‘phototropism’. • In addition, their experiments showed that the coleoptile tip was the site responsible for the bending. • Finally, this led to the isolation of the first Auxin by F. W. Went in 1926 from the coleoptile tip of oat seedlings.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 24. Discovery of Auxins • The idea of existence of auxin was proposed by Charles Darwin (1880) in his book “The Power of Movements in Plants”. • Coleoptiles of Canary grass (Phallaris canariensis) to unilateral light and observed it to bend towards light. • He covered the coleoptiles tip with tin foil or cut it off and observed that coleoptiles did not bend towards unilateral light. • Concluded - some stimulus is transmitted from upper to the lower part which induced bending of the coleoptiles.
  • 25. Discovery of Auxins • F.W . Went (1926) successfully discovered and isolated this growth substance from Avena sativa (Oat) coleoptiles tips. • Kogl and Haagen-Smit(1931) named it as “auxin”.  Isolated first from human urine of Pellegra patient Synthesis: Precursor of Auxin is Tryptophan. Zinc is also necessary for the biosynthesis of Auxin.
  • 29. Occurrence and Distribution of Auxins Occurs universally in all plants. Where there is active growth there is auxin production. Growing meristem and enlarging organs produces auxin. Shoot apex produces much auxin than root apex. Apical bud synthesizes more auxin than lateral buds. Developing seeds contain more auxin than matured seeds. Apical bud synthesizes six times more auxin than expanding leaves.
  • 30. Auxin Translocation Auxin transported basipetally. It moves from apical to basal end. Velocity of transport is- 1 to 1.5 cm/hr in stem & coleoptiles 0.1 to 0.2 cm/hr in root.
  • 32. Structure of Auxins Synthetic Auxins—produced artificially and similar to natural in their physiological activity. IPA (Indole Propionic Acid) IBA (Indole Butyric Acid) NAA (Napthalene Acetic Acid) 2,4-D (2,4 – Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) 2,4,5-T (2,4,5 – Trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) etc.
  • 35. Effects of Auxin • Promote flowering in plants like pineapple. • Help to initiate rooting in stem cuttings. • Prevent dropping of fruits and leaves too early. • Promote natural detachment (abscission) of older leaves and fruits. • Control xylem differentiation and help in cell division.
  • 36.
  • 37. Applications • Used for plant propagation. • To induce parthenocarpy i.e. the production of fruit without prior fertilization. • 2, 4-D is widely used as a herbicide to kill dicotyledonous weeds. • Used by gardeners to keep lawns weed-free. • Note: The growing apical bud in higher plants inhibits the growth of the lateral buds. • This phenomenon is ‘Apical Dominance’. • Removal of the apical bud allows the lateral buds to grow. • This technique is commonly used in tea plantations and hedge-making.
  • 41. Prevent fall of young leaves and fruits but promotes the fall of matured leaves and fruits
  • 42.
  • 43. Gibberellins Discovery • It is the component responsible for the ‘bakane’ disease of rice seedlings. • The disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. • E. Kurosawa treated uninfected rice seedlings with sterile filtrates of the fungus and reported the appearance of disease symptoms. • Finally, the active substance causing the disease was identified as Gibberellic acid. • (Yabuta and sumiki) named as gibberellin.
  • 44. GIBBERELLINS Discovered by Kurosawa, a Japanese Plant Pathologist in 1928. Rice plants infected by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi (Synonym: Fusarium moniliforme) showed excessive stem elongation. Symptom is called ‘Bakane’diseases. Chemical was extracted & purified and named as Gibberellic Acid (GA). Now 80 different Gibberellins are available- GA1 to GA80 is available. The most commonly occurring gibberellins is GA3.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. Types • There exist more than 100 gibberellins obtained from a variety of organisms from fungi to higher plants. • They are all acidic and are denoted as follows – GA1, GA2, GA3 etc. • GA3 (Gibberellic acid) is the most noteworthy since it was the first to be discovered and is the most studied. Effects • Increase the axis length in plants such as grape stalks. • Delay senescence (i.e. ageing) in fruits. As a result, their market period is extended. • Help fruits like apples to elongate and improve their shape.
  • 48. Applications • Cell elongation and cell division: Synthesis in leaf and induce shoot elongation (IAA + GA3), by effecting cell elongation or cell division or both. • Enhance metabolic activity: Mobilization of reserved food material, promote growth and height, increase root activity and kinetin production in root- translocate to growing bud. • Shoot elongation: GA3 spray increases height of seedlings. • Delay senescence: Increase photosynthetic and protein synthesis so decrease abscission. • Increase cambial growth and differentiation: Induce flower and fruit set (IAA+GA3). • Dwarf plant (genetically) to normal height: GA3. • Promote flowering in Long Day Plants: Substitute for long day condition and cold treatment (vernalization). • Induction of parthenocarpy in grapes: Three physiological events: Rachis cell elongation, flower thinning and berry enlargement. • Breaking dormancy and leaf expansion.
  • 50. Elongation of Grape stalk and Sugarcane thus increase in yield
  • 51.
  • 52. It prevent normal ageing or delay ageing and enable to remain fruits for longer time in tree
  • 53. Therefore extend the market period of Apple
  • 54. Bolting of internodes in Cabbage or Lengthening of internodes before flowering
  • 55. Hastening the maturity of seeds and hence cause early seed formation in juvenile conifers
  • 56. Commercially GA3 is used in brewing industry to increase the enzymatic activity inside the grains during malting process to achieve the uniform germination in all seeds in commercial beer production
  • 57. Cytokinins Discovery of Cytokinin • F. Skoog and his co-workers observed that cells extracted from the internodal segments of tobacco plant proliferate to callus (a mass of cells) when the nutrient medium (yeast and coconut milk with the addition of Auxin) is supplemented with extracts of Vascular tissues. • These cells proliferated only when the nutrient medium contained Auxins along with yeast extract or extracts of vascular tissue. • Later it was Skoog and Miller who isolated and identified the active substance responsible for proliferation (cytokinensis) in plant and called it as kinetin.
  • 58.
  • 59. Types • Cytokinins were discovered as kinetin which were a purine derivative. • Scientists later discovered several natural (example – zeatin) and synthetic cytokinins. • Natural cytokinins exist in root apices and developing shoot buds – areas where rapid cell division takes place.
  • 60. Plays and important role in Cytokinesis or division of cytoplasm in a plant cell.
  • 61. One kind of Cytokinin- Zeatin, later isolated from corn kernel
  • 62. And much later, naturally occurring Cytokinin is found in specific regions of plants such as shoot apex, root apex and fruit to promote growth
  • 63.
  • 64. WHERE IT PRODUCED ?  Cytokinin are synthesized primarily in actively growing tissues, particular in roots, embryos and fruits and transported to other organs, although there are many minor sites of production as well.  Cytokinin produced in the root reach to their target tissues by moving up the plant in the xylem sap.
  • 65. HOWIT CONTROL CELL DIVISION  Cytokinin will stimulate cell division and influenced the pathway of differentiation when acting with auxin hormone.  In some experiment, a piece of parenchyma tissue from stem is cultured. This is some observation of the effect on cytokinin in cell tissue Absent of cytokinin Added cytokinin & auxin Added cytokinin only The cell grow very large but do not divide The cell grows and divided No effect
  • 66. HOWIT CONTROL CELL DIVISION The ratio of cytokinins to auxin controls the cell differentiate. When the concentration of these 2 hormone are at certain level, the mass of cell continues to grow, but remains undifferentiated called a callus. Cytokinin level increase Auxin level increase Shoot buds develop from callus Root form
  • 67. Effects/Application • Help in the formation of new leaves and chloroplast. • Promote lateral shoot growth and adventitious shoot formation. • Help overcome apical dominance. • Promote nutrient mobilization which in turn helps delay leaf senescence. Developing embryo shows active cell division. Liquid endosperm of coconut called Coconut Water / Milk contain cell division causing factors (Kinetine). Similarly the developing endosperm of maize contain such factors (Zeatin).
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70. FUNCTION OF CYTOKININ Stimulates cell division. Stimulates morphogenesis (shoot initiation/bud formation) in tissue culture. Stimulates the growth of lateral buds-release of apical dominance. Stimulates leaf expansion resulting from cell enlargement. Cytokinins can slow down the aging of some plant organs. Slow deterioration of leaves on intact plant. A list of some of the known physiological effects caused by cytokinins are listed below
  • 71.
  • 72. Ethylene • Discovery • A group of scientists lead by Cousins showed that a gaseous substance released from ripe oranges hastens the ripening of unripe oranges. • They also found that the volatile substance enhance the ripening of other unripe oranges. • Consequently, they found that the substance was ethylene – a simple gaseous Plant Growth Regulator. • Ripening fruits and tissues undergoing senescence produce ethylene in large amounts.
  • 73. Effects • Affects horizontal growth of seedlings and swelling of the axis in dicot seedlings. • Promotes abscission and senescence, especially of leaves and flowers. • Enhances respiration rate during ripening of fruits. • This phenomenon is ‘respiratory climacteric’. • Increases root growth and root hair formation, therefore helping plants to increase their absorption surface area.
  • 74. • Used to boost rapid petiole elongation in deep water rice plants. • To initiate flowering and synchronising fruit-set in pineapples. • To induce flowering in mango. • Ethephon hastens fruit ripening in apples and tomatoes and increases yield by promoting female flowering in cucumbers. • It also accelerates abscission in cherry, walnut and cotton.
  • 75.
  • 77. Increased roots and root hairs formation
  • 79. Applications • Ethylene regulates many physiological processes and is, therefore, widely used in agriculture. • The most commonly used source of ethylene is Ethephon. • Plants can easily absorb and transport an aqueous solution of ethephon and release ethylene slowly. • Used to break seed and bud dormancy and initiate germination in peanut seeds. • To promote sprouting of potato tubers.
  • 80. Functions of Ethylene 1. Induction of female flowers  Cucumber and melon normally produce male flowers earlier than female flowers.  Ethylene stimulates the early production of female flowers.  Often male flowers induction is completely inhibited following ethylene treatment. 2. Male sterility  Ethylene applied at a certain time of pollen development cause male sterility. 3. Abscission  Ethylene enhances the process of abscission. 4. Ripening  Extensively used in several crops.  ACC Oxidase antisenescence enzyme so as to enhance ripening. 5. Stress and ethylene production  Plants when subjected to stress produce ethylene. Such stress may be disease, radiation, mechanical woundings and chemicals.
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86. Inhibitors/Retardants • These suppress the growth of plants. • There are phenolic inhibitors and synthetic inhibitors and abscisic acid(ABA). • Phenolic inhibitors: E.g. Benzoic acid, Salicylic acid, Coumaric acid and Chlorogenic acid. • Synthetic inhibitors: E.g. Maleic hydrazide, Tri- Iodobenzoic acid (TIBA), SADH etc. • An inhibitor from young leaves of Betula sps. prevent the growth of apical buds . E. g. ABA and Dormin.
  • 87. Abscisic Acid Discovery • Date back to 1960s, three independent researchers reported the purification and characterization of three different inhibitors of plants namely –Inhibitor B, Abscission II and Dormin. • Later, it was found that all three inhibitors were chemically identical and were, therefore, together were given the name Abscissic acid. • Abscissic acid mostly acts as an antagonist to Gibberellic acid.
  • 88. WHERE IT PRODUCED? Almost plant has ability to synthesize ABA. It presence has been detected in every major organ &living tissue and may be transported in the phloem/xylem
  • 89. ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) ABA is one of the hormone plant. Also called as abscisic II & dormin Function: inhibit growth, promote seed dormancy & inhibit early germination, promote stomatal closure during drought stress. ABA also promotes abscission of leaves and fruits ABA inhibits stem elongation probably by its inhibitory effect on gibberellic acid
  • 90. EFFECT OFABSCISIC ACID • One of major affect of ABA is seed dormancy. Seed dormancy has great survival value because it ensure that seed willgerminate only when there are optimal conditions of light, temperature, &moisture. • Many types of dormant seed germinate when ABA is remove or inactive. SEED DORMANCY DROUGHT TOLERANCE • ABA is the primary internal signal - That enables plants to withstand drought - signaling turns on the expression of genes encoding proteins that protect cells — in seeds as well as in vegetative tissues — from damage when they become dehydrated
  • 91.
  • 92.
  • 94. In case of drought condition, closing of stomata
  • 95.
  • 96. a) ABA in roots that elongate the root for water absorption b) ABA in the stem that allow the stem to elongate to get sufficient light
  • 97. Effects • Regulate abscission and dormancy. • Inhibit plant growth, metabolism and seed germination. • Stimulates closure of stomata in the epidermis. • It increases the tolerance of plants to different kinds of stress and is, therefore, called ‘stress hormone’. • Important for seed development and maturation. • It induces dormancy in seeds and helps them withstand desiccation and other unfavourable growth factors.
  • 98. Functions of ABA 1. Photosynthesis: • Through stomatal closure and by affecting carbon fixation. 2. Dormancy: • ABA induces seed and bud dormancy. 3. Stomatal closure: • In water stress conditions, more abscisic acid is synthesized in the plant. This abscisic acid promotes the closing of stomata and thereby decreases transpiration. 4. Senescence of leaves: • It promotes senescence or yellowing prior to leaf fall.
  • 99. 5. Seed dormancy: • ABA plays an important role in developing seeds by inhibiting precocious germination of the developing embryo. However, as the embryo matured the endogenous ABA declined. 6. Bud Dormancy: • ABA synthesized on the plant, in the response of some environmental factor trigger and this ABA travelled to the buds and induces them to go dormant. 7. Resistant to frost damage: • ABA may also be involved in increasing the resistance of temperate zones plants to frost damage; the external application of ABA has been shown to increase the frost hardiness and to ameliorate chilling in different fruits and vegetables.
  • 100. • stem apex, auxillary buds  promotes cells division (release of apical dominance) • leaves  inhibits senescence Cytokinins • Guard cells  close stomata • seed coat  inhibits seed germination Abscisic acid • Stem  inhibits cell elongation • fruits  promotes ripening Ehtylene Functions
  • 101. Various Commercial Uses of PGRs in horticulture 1. Propagation of Plants • A number of plants are propagated by stem, leaf cutting and by layering. • For promotion of rooting, the most commonly utilized hormone is IBA followed by NAA.IBA is applied in the form of Paste, dust and solution. • 10-100 ppm (1ppm=1mg in 1000 ml water) by the soak method (12-24 hrs) • 1000-5000ppm by quick dip method (5 Sec) • 1000-10000ppm by dust method • Gibberellic acid causes inhibition of root formation in cutting. • Cytokinins also help in quick and profuse root formation in cuttings and layers. • By use of auxins, profuse root formation is observed in cuttings of guava, fig, pomegranate, crotons, rose, hibiscus, etc.
  • 102. 2. Seed Germination • Many seeds have natural dormancy which can be got over by dipping the seeds in auxins. • Soaking seeds of french beans and peas in 10-20ppm solution of GA for 12 hours before sowing, significantly improves the yield and quality. • Dipping potatoes in 5ppm GA solution for 5minutes before sowing increases sprouting and yield of potatoes. Fig: French bean
  • 103. 3. Control of Plant Size • In fruits and vegetables, application of higher doses of nitrogenous fertilizers, spraying cycocel (growth retardant), the superfluous growth of leaves is checked. • By spraying 10ppm solution of morphactin in potato, the growth of plant is reduced and thereby the size of tubers is increased. • The growth retardants are useful in checking the growth of hedges in ornamental gardens there by reducing the cost of trimming the hedges.
  • 104. 4. Regulation of Flowering • In Pineapple, due to later flowering the fruit get ready in rainy season. • This deteriorates the quality of the fruit. • This difficulty can be overcome by spraying 5-10 ppm solution of NAA before flowering. • Use of Potassium salt of NAA (200-800 ppm) delayed flowering in apple, pear, peach, plum etc by 1-2 weeks. • Application of 100-200 ppm GA in Dahlia plants induces early flowering. • Sometimes, it is necessary to delay flowering. E.g. Crossing of varieties which do not flower simultaneously. • Hence, the crossing becomes difficult.
  • 105. 5. Control of Sex Expression • In number of cucurbits, such as ridge gourd, bittergourd, watermelon, cucumber and pumpkins which have proportion of male flowers is more than female flowers. • For better yield, it is necessary to increase the number of female flowers. • This can be achieved by application of auxins and ethylene which increases the number of female flowers and decreases the number of male flower. • The commonly used auxin is NAA. • Application of NAA, IAA at 50-100 ppm increased femaleness in pumpkin, cucumber and ridge gourd.
  • 106. 6. Control of Fruit Set and Growth of Fruit • Spraying Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Tri benzoic Acid(TIBA), and(4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (PCPA) on flowers increases the fruit set. • Dipping of grape bunches (young fruits) in GA solution increases the berry size in Thompson seedless grape. 7. Control of Fruit Drop • To control preharvest drop of fruit, 2,4,5- T(8 ppm) for apples and lemons • 2,4-D (8-10 ppm) for oranges, • NAA (10 ppm)) for pears and apricot. • In Nagpur Santra, the fruit drop can be controlled by spraying 10-20 ppm NAA or 10 ppm 2,4-D after fruit set. • The fruit drop in mango can be controlled by these two auxins. • Application of 2,4,5- T below 20 ppm on the mango varieties of Bombay green, Langra and Chausa prevented the fruit drop
  • 107. 8. Thinning of Fruits • Sometimes it is necessary to thin the fruits so as to bring a balance between the supply of nutrients and development of fruit. • In such cases spraying with mild solution of ethrel or morphactin reduces the fruit load by 25-30 per cent. • NAA (5-10 ppm) and Naphthalene Acetamide (5-7 ppm) for thinning of apples, peaches, grapes. 9. Early and uniform Ripening and Development of Fruit Colour • Spraying with 2,4,5-T and B-9 (Alar: functions opposite to gibberellin) hastens maturity of apples by 1-4weeks. • 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T(2-5 Ppm) causes uniform ripening of grapes. • Ethylene is used to hasten ripening and fruit color development. • Tomato can be ripened by the use of 500-1000ppm ethylene.
  • 108. 10. Dormancy (Prevention of Sprouting) • In potatoes and onions, after harvest, in storage, the buds start sprouting which makes them unfit for cooking. • Spraying of Malic Hydrazide (MH) solution before storing, prevents sprouting and these can be stored safely for 6 months. • In onions two week before harvest , MH (500-2500 ppm) as foliar sprays when the crop is in the field, prolonged the dormancy for 7 months. 11.Control of Weeds • The conventional method of controlling the weeds is to remove them by uprooting manually. • Successful control of dicot weeds is obtained by spraying 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in many crops.