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Abstract
Roundabouts have an excellent reputation in traffic safety. This is based on
investigations with smaller sample sizes from the initial stage of modern
roundabouts. In our days many countries operate a larger number of roundabouts.
This is the fundament for safety research with larger samples in recent years in many
countries.Asaconclusionfromallstudies,thereisnodoubtthatroundaboutsarethe
safest type of intersection. Especially the single-lane roundabouts reveal the highest
level of safety. Also Mini-roundabouts have an extraordinary good safety record.
Turbo-roundabouts - regarding safety -are on the same level as the single-laned. This
high degree of traffic safety is strictly depending on the speed-reducing design of the
whole intersection. In comparison to conventional types of intersections like
signalized or 2-way-stop intersections, the car occupants and the pedestrians enjoy
the highest gains from roundabout safety. On the other hand bicyclists can become a
problemfortrafficsafetyatroundabouts.However,alsocyclistscanbeoperatedwith
asufficientdegreeofsafety–butonlyiftherequirementsforasafedesignarestrictly
obeyed.
Conclusions
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Single lane roundabouts are much safer than each alternative
for intersection design.
Mini-roundabouts are particularly safe.
Turbo-roundabouts have an adequate level of safety.
Car occupants and pedestrians enjoy highest benefits from roundabouts.
Bicyclists at roundabouts are problematic.
The safest solution for cyclists is to guide them on the circle
or on separate cycle tracks with no priority at the crossings.
Design rules from guidelines should be strictly obeyed.
Safety of Roundabouts:
an International Overview
Werner Brilon 16-0648
Ruhr-University Bochum
D-44780 Bochum, Germany e-mail: werner.brilon@rub.de
Early findings :
France:
Switzerland:
Germany:
Gambard (1988): fatalities reduced by 88%
Alphand (1991): only 50% of accidents compered to signalized intersections
77% reduction of accidents for 2-wheelers
90% of roundabouts without personal injury accident
single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts
Buehlmann (1994): significant improvement of safety by converting into roundabouts
Stuwe (1993): -88% of accident costs by conversion into a roundabout
single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts
best improvements for pedestrians
van Minnen (1992 - 1998): 48% less accidents, 71% less injured persons
Schoon (1994): 70% reduction in injury accidents
single-lane significantly better then multi-lane roundabouts
Elvik (2003): roundabouts reduce injury accidents by 30% to 50%
and fatal accidents by 50% to 70%
Netherlands:
Norway:
large rural roundabout in Norway
origin: A.Aakre
Recent findings :
(with larger sample sizes)
USA:
Germany:
Rodegerdts (2007): conversion to roundabout: -35% all accidents & -77% injury accidents
accident prediction model
Bill (2014): Wisconsin: no. of accidents with injuries decreased by 38%
Bondzio (2012): high degree of safety for pedestrians / Zebra crossings are problematic
large variability of risk
average accident cost rate =
6.3 €/1000veh
no influence of the diameter (25m < D < 50m)
more than 4 arms: negative effect on safety
single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts
conversion to roundabout: -47% injury accidents & -60% injuries
single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts
3-arm roundabouts are problematic
cycle-tracks with no priority to cyclists are safer (-81% accidents)
Denmark:
Underlien-Jensen (2015):
Involvement of different road users
into all accidents
and into injury accidents (in %)
Accident cost rates for the various
designs for cyclists
A) cycles mixed with other traffic
on the circle
B1) bicycle paths with priority to
cyclists at the crossings
B2) bicycle paths together with
pedestrian facilities,
B3) bicycle paths with no priority to
cyclists at the crossings.
80
4
4
10
1
1
55
3
11
28
3
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Pass. cars
trucks
motor cycle
bicycle
pedestrian
others
% of all involved road users
all accidents
injury accidents

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16 0648 a

  • 1. Abstract Roundabouts have an excellent reputation in traffic safety. This is based on investigations with smaller sample sizes from the initial stage of modern roundabouts. In our days many countries operate a larger number of roundabouts. This is the fundament for safety research with larger samples in recent years in many countries.Asaconclusionfromallstudies,thereisnodoubtthatroundaboutsarethe safest type of intersection. Especially the single-lane roundabouts reveal the highest level of safety. Also Mini-roundabouts have an extraordinary good safety record. Turbo-roundabouts - regarding safety -are on the same level as the single-laned. This high degree of traffic safety is strictly depending on the speed-reducing design of the whole intersection. In comparison to conventional types of intersections like signalized or 2-way-stop intersections, the car occupants and the pedestrians enjoy the highest gains from roundabout safety. On the other hand bicyclists can become a problemfortrafficsafetyatroundabouts.However,alsocyclistscanbeoperatedwith asufficientdegreeofsafety–butonlyiftherequirementsforasafedesignarestrictly obeyed. Conclusions ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Single lane roundabouts are much safer than each alternative for intersection design. Mini-roundabouts are particularly safe. Turbo-roundabouts have an adequate level of safety. Car occupants and pedestrians enjoy highest benefits from roundabouts. Bicyclists at roundabouts are problematic. The safest solution for cyclists is to guide them on the circle or on separate cycle tracks with no priority at the crossings. Design rules from guidelines should be strictly obeyed.
  • 2. Safety of Roundabouts: an International Overview Werner Brilon 16-0648 Ruhr-University Bochum D-44780 Bochum, Germany e-mail: werner.brilon@rub.de Early findings : France: Switzerland: Germany: Gambard (1988): fatalities reduced by 88% Alphand (1991): only 50% of accidents compered to signalized intersections 77% reduction of accidents for 2-wheelers 90% of roundabouts without personal injury accident single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts Buehlmann (1994): significant improvement of safety by converting into roundabouts Stuwe (1993): -88% of accident costs by conversion into a roundabout single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts best improvements for pedestrians van Minnen (1992 - 1998): 48% less accidents, 71% less injured persons Schoon (1994): 70% reduction in injury accidents single-lane significantly better then multi-lane roundabouts Elvik (2003): roundabouts reduce injury accidents by 30% to 50% and fatal accidents by 50% to 70% Netherlands: Norway: large rural roundabout in Norway origin: A.Aakre
  • 3. Recent findings : (with larger sample sizes) USA: Germany: Rodegerdts (2007): conversion to roundabout: -35% all accidents & -77% injury accidents accident prediction model Bill (2014): Wisconsin: no. of accidents with injuries decreased by 38% Bondzio (2012): high degree of safety for pedestrians / Zebra crossings are problematic large variability of risk average accident cost rate = 6.3 €/1000veh no influence of the diameter (25m < D < 50m) more than 4 arms: negative effect on safety single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts conversion to roundabout: -47% injury accidents & -60% injuries single-lane better then multi-lane roundabouts 3-arm roundabouts are problematic cycle-tracks with no priority to cyclists are safer (-81% accidents) Denmark: Underlien-Jensen (2015): Involvement of different road users into all accidents and into injury accidents (in %) Accident cost rates for the various designs for cyclists A) cycles mixed with other traffic on the circle B1) bicycle paths with priority to cyclists at the crossings B2) bicycle paths together with pedestrian facilities, B3) bicycle paths with no priority to cyclists at the crossings. 80 4 4 10 1 1 55 3 11 28 3 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Pass. cars trucks motor cycle bicycle pedestrian others % of all involved road users all accidents injury accidents