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Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin Region
Dr. Abha Mishra
Co-Director, ACISAI Center, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand,
Team Leader, SRI-LMB
SRI-Rice, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 12 October 2015
12-10-2015
SRI @ AIT
SRI at AIT
Why SRI at AIT
 Global interest
 Major attraction at farmers‘field;
 Asia: largest producer of rice;
 Asia: largest consumer of agricultural water;
 Asia: 50-70% farmers are engaged in rice farming;
 Asia: Food security is linked to rice production;
SRI: Provides larger ambit to address the multiple issues
associated with sustainable agricultural development in the
context of climate change
 Out of 65 millions inhabitants, 60 millions
reside in LMB
 Agriculture, fishing and forestry employs
90%
 Rice cultivation in 10 million hectare out
of which 6 million hectare is rainfed
 wide spread poverty in the region, mostly
smallholder farmers who are engaged in
rice farming in rainfed area are poor
 Costly farming techniques are not applied
with the given level of uncertainty
 Rice contributes 75% towards people per
capita calorific supply
 Food insecurity
 Productivity of rice is low
12-10-2015
Why LMB region
Characteristics of the rainfed areas
Household characteristics
 Av. Landholding is 1-2 ha
 Average age of farmers is 50+
 More than 70% are women
 Grow only one crop of rice in wet season with very limited
diversification
 Subsistence type rice farming in Cambodia and Laos where as in
Thailand rice is grown for export and now also in Vietnam
 Average rice yield is 2-3 t/ha
 Increasing households loans
 Increasing out-migration of farmers
 Food insecurity
12-10-2015
WBI workshop and genesis of the
SRI-LMB
 Goal
• Development of adaptive measures to
protect against climate change so as to
address the food security and livelihood
issues of rainfed smallholders farmers in
lower Mekong river basin (LMB) countries
 Action
• Develop local, national and regional
platform for joint initiative and coordinated
actions
• Increase crop yield, productivity and
profitability on sustainable basis at
smallholders farmers’ field in rainfed areas
of LMB region. Partners stimulate and
support local innovation through farmers
participatory action research
http://www.ait.ac.th/research/workshop-reports/AIT-WBI-Workshop-
Report.pdf/view#.VWafG820jjA
12-10-2015
SRI
‘Menu’ for change
Capturing farmers imagination by enabling them to get higher
yield with reduced external inputs, and fuelling their capacity
for innovation
 Offers low cost solution
 Doesn’t require external
inputs
 Practices are amenable to
farmers experimentation
 Follows agro ecological
principles
 Transplanting younger
and fewer
seedlings/hill
 maintaining wider
spacing
 Avoiding continuous
soil saturation
 Applying compost as
much as possible
12-10-2015
SRI-LMB @ACISAI Center, AIT
Regional innovation platform for linking local to
global actors and institutions to meet the goals of food
security and environmental sustainability through
generating and providing innovative solutions under
the overall concept of sustainable agriculture
intensification.
AIT Research Strategy (2012-
2016)
12-10-2015
Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for
Innovation around the System of Rice Intensification in
Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB)
http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/
Royal University
of Agriculture
National
University of Laos
Hanoi University
of Agriculture
Rajabhat
University
12-10-2015
working in 30 districts of 10 food
insecure provinces
12-10-2015
 Increase productivity
 Reduce input cost
 Make rice cultivation
profitable
Implementation structure
and methodology
12-10-2015
SRI-LMB
Working in collaboration
Farmers
Researcher
Trainers
Local consortia
Ministry
Farmers group
Regional consortium
12-10-2015
PMU CAMBODIA
Implementing
consortia include
NGO, GO,
academics
PMU LAOS
Implementing
consortia include
NGO, GO, academics
PMU THAILAND
Implementing
consortia include
NGO GO,
academics
PMU VIETNAM
Implementing consortia
include NGO, GO
academics
P1
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
1
D
2
D
3
Provinces
Districts
Oxfam
policy dialogue
FAO
Action research
implementation at
national level
(Cambodia, Laos,
Vietnam)
P
2
P
3
P1
P
3
P2 P1
P
2
P
1
P
2
UQ
Advisory support
on FFS based action
research
SRI-Rice
Advisory
support on SRI
Local
consortia
National
consortia*
Regional
consortia*
12-10-2015
4th post FFS site (2 FT)
3rd post FFS site (2 FT)
2nd post FFS site (2 FT)
1st post FFS site (2 FT)
4th post FFS site (2 FT)
3rd post FFS site (2 FT)
2nd post FFS site (2 FT)
1st post FFS site (2 FT)
4th post FFS site (2 FT)
3rd post FFS site (2 FT)
2nd post FFS site (2 FT)
1st post FFS site (2 FT)
FPAR sites
FPAR sites
FPAR sites
FPAR structure at the local level
Each province has three districts and each district has 4 FPAR sites12-10-2015
Farmers participatory
action research findings (
year 2014)
12-10-2015
More than 120 sets of experiments
@ 62 FPAR sites in 2014
Cambodia & Thailand In five provinces
- 13 districts were rainfed and 2
were irrigated
- Broadly two options were
explored using experiments:
SRI demonstration (SRI-D) as
a ‘test site’ and (2) Integration
of SRI practices with existing
cultivation practices as
learning plot for location
specific adaptation (SRI-T)
- And compared with existing
conventional management
practices (CP) in target area set
up as a farmers’ practice.
15 districts, 3 in each province 12-10-2015
Implementation through FFS
approach
Season long training &
structured learning
sessions at different
growth stages
SRI seedbed Wetbed12-10-2015
Farmers applied different sets of
practices
Crop management
practices
Conventional practices
(CP)
SRI-T
(SRI-I & SRI-LAP)
SRI-D
Seedling age 40-60 day-old (established
by baseline)
39-20 day-old 8-19 day-old*
(8-15 day-old for
Cambodia and
Thailand)
Seed rate 100-150 kg/ha 20-30% less than CM 5-20 kg/ha
Transplanting
spacing
Crowded, 10 x 10 cm 10 x 15 to 19 x 19 cm 20 x 20 – 30 x 30
cm or more
Planting/hill >5-6 4-5 seedlings/hill 1-3 seedlings/hill
Soil condition Flooded (or no effort in
maintaining aerobic soil
condition
Relatively aerobic soil
condition with respect to
CM either through
shallow water level or
through intermittent
drying
Maintaining
aerobic soil
condition at least
for a week during
tillering stage
12-10-2015
Experimental method for field
testing and data handling
Design and data handling at
field
• Three treatments and 4
replications (minimum) for
each experiment
• Data collection and analysis
(average) by farmers at three
growth stages (Tillering,
flowering, and harvesting)
• Data recorded by farmers using
farmers diary
• Data were compiled by district
trainer and subsequently by
provincial coordinator
• Data collection process was
backstopped by researcher
12-10-2015
Data handling at national and
regional level
• System Architecture
INTERNET
Input Data
Download Output File
Save data into DB
Query Data
12-10-2015
12-10-2015
Analysis
Quantitative analysis
• ANOVA (significant difference)
• Meta analysis (regional trend)
• Cluster analysis (adoption response)
Qualitative analysis
• Group discussion (at local, national, and regional level)
• Farmers’ response
• Feedback from ministries, national & regional stakeholders
12-10-2015
FPAR results from more than
120 sets of experiments
involving 3200 farmers
12-10-2015
Higher productivity and fertilizer use
efficiency in SRI
kggrain/kginorganicfertilizerapplied
Yield Fertilizer use efficiency
Ton/ha
With reference to CP
 100% and 60% yield increment in SRI-D and SRI-T respectively
with reference to CP
 46.27% and 36.22% increment in fertilizer use efficiency
12-10-2015
Meta trend
SRI-I and SRI-LAP
and SRI-D indicated
significantly higher
yield benefit with
respect to
conventional practices
12-10-2015
Meta trend in rainfed areas
Positive and
significant large
effect size
confirmed the
benefit of applying
SRI practices even
in rainfed
environment.
12-10-2015
Higher productivity with less
input use
Cambodia Thailand
• Seed = 40% seed cost
saving
• Water = no difference
• Pesticide = 1/3rd cost
saving
• Seed = 93.27%
• Water = 2-3 irrigation
saving (only for irrigated
dist. (Tron and Pichai)
• Pesticide+ fungicide =
208 US$/ha (77% less
compared to last season)
12-10-2015
Economic productivity
USdollargained/US$spent/ha
With reference to CP
 339.47% and 284.21% higher in SRI-D and SRI-T respectively
 Cost of cultivation included cost of labour and water as well.
Higher economic productivity with
SRI
12-10-2015
1a (all inputs valued) Cambodia
rainfed
Thailand
rainfed
Thailand
irrigated
0.769±0.03 c
(0.05±0.01)
2.655±0.12 a
(0.4±0.01)
2.066±0.08 b
(0.05±0.01)
1b (labour inputs for
transplanting, weeding
and harvesting were
excluded from
Cambodia and cost of
water from Cambodia
and Surin province of
Thailand
2.10±0.06 b
(0.66±0.04)
2.9±0.13 a
(0.54±0.01)
2.06±0.08 b
(0.05±0.01)
With producer price @ 0.3 and 0.43 US$/kg paddy for Cambodia and
Thailand respectively
* Baseline @0.3 US$/kg in both countries
Economic productivity gain was
higher in rainfed
12-10-2015
2a (all inputs valued) Cambodia
rainfed
Thailand
rainfed
Thailand
irrigated
0.769±0.03 c
(0.05±0.01)*
2.17±0.11 a
(0.4±0.01)*
1.79±0.08 b
(0.05±0.01)
2b (labour inputs for
transplanting, weeding and
harvesting were excluded from
Cambodia and cost of water
from Cambodia and Surin
province of Thailand
2.08±0.06 b
(0.66±0.04)
2.4±0.12 a
(0.54±0.01)
1.79±0.08 b
(0.05±0.01)
Average paddy yield at FPAR
sites
4.3±0.73 c 5.82±1.29 b 6.26±0.82 a
With domestic price @ 0.3 and 0.38 US$/kg paddy for Cambodia and Thailand
respectively
* Baseline @0.3 US$/kg in both countries
Economic productivity gain was
higher in rainfed
12-10-2015
Adaptation response from farmers
for SRI practices
ClusterProfilePlots
1
SOILCONDITIO
SEEDAGE
SEEDRAISE
SPACING
SEEDPERHILL
2
SOILCONDITIO
SEEDAGE
SEEDRAISE
SPACING
SEEDPERHILL
SRI practices F ratio
Seedling/hill 7307.98
Spacing 412.39
Seedling raising
method
398.12
Seedling age 80.23
Aerobic soil condition
at least for a week at
vegetative stage
0.358
159 cases 47 cases
Seedling/hill and spacing have the highest impact in group formation than
any other SRI principles
12-10-2015
Learning
12-10-2015
Factors affecting adoption
 Less input use, higher yield
and higher net return (+)
 Quality of grain (+)
 No lodging (+)
 Less pest and diseases (+)
 Unreliable weather and water
availability (-)
 Market instability and price
volatility (-)
 No incentive for good work (-)
 Transplanting & labour use
(Thailand) (-)
12-10-2015
Factors that will speed up SRI
adoption
• SRI with direct seeding with low seed rate (Thailand)
• Support for critical irrigation
• Better incentive and market stability
• Green SRI from farm to fork REGIONAL REVIEW & PLANNING WORKSHOP
REPORT
Siem Reap, Cambodia
02-03 June 2015
Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation
and Learning around the System of Rice Intensification
(SRI) in the Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB)
This project is funded by
the European Union
A project implemented by the
Asian Institute of Technology
the European Union
http://www.sri-
lmb.ait.asia/country/doc/Regional%20Review%20and%20
Planning%20Workshop-REPORT%20(02-
03%20June%202015).pdf
12-10-2015
Conclusions and way forward
• Efforts to make SRI knowledge and practices available on a wider
scale can raise productivity and incomes and in turn can address
food insecurity of the broad population of smallholders without
further deteriorating the environment.
• Economic productivity was higher in rainfed compared to the
irrigated systems therefore only a small investment is needed to
make the rainfed system more productive and resilient.
• Bringing poor smallholding farmers more directly into the process
of economic growth can offer more hope at both micro and macro
levels.
12-10-2015
Visit SRI-LMB at: http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/
CONTACT US
Asian Center of Innovation for Sustainable
Agriculture Intensification (ACISAI) Asian
Institute of Technology (AIT) Gnd. Floor, Admin
Building PO Box: 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani,
Thailand 12120 Email : srilmb@ait.asia Phone :
+66-2-524-5823
Fax : +66-2-524-5828
12-10-2015

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1510 - Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin region

  • 1. Farmer Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Methods in the Lower Mekong Basin Region Dr. Abha Mishra Co-Director, ACISAI Center, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand, Team Leader, SRI-LMB SRI-Rice, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 12 October 2015 12-10-2015
  • 2. SRI @ AIT SRI at AIT Why SRI at AIT  Global interest  Major attraction at farmers‘field;  Asia: largest producer of rice;  Asia: largest consumer of agricultural water;  Asia: 50-70% farmers are engaged in rice farming;  Asia: Food security is linked to rice production; SRI: Provides larger ambit to address the multiple issues associated with sustainable agricultural development in the context of climate change
  • 3.  Out of 65 millions inhabitants, 60 millions reside in LMB  Agriculture, fishing and forestry employs 90%  Rice cultivation in 10 million hectare out of which 6 million hectare is rainfed  wide spread poverty in the region, mostly smallholder farmers who are engaged in rice farming in rainfed area are poor  Costly farming techniques are not applied with the given level of uncertainty  Rice contributes 75% towards people per capita calorific supply  Food insecurity  Productivity of rice is low 12-10-2015 Why LMB region
  • 4. Characteristics of the rainfed areas Household characteristics  Av. Landholding is 1-2 ha  Average age of farmers is 50+  More than 70% are women  Grow only one crop of rice in wet season with very limited diversification  Subsistence type rice farming in Cambodia and Laos where as in Thailand rice is grown for export and now also in Vietnam  Average rice yield is 2-3 t/ha  Increasing households loans  Increasing out-migration of farmers  Food insecurity 12-10-2015
  • 5. WBI workshop and genesis of the SRI-LMB  Goal • Development of adaptive measures to protect against climate change so as to address the food security and livelihood issues of rainfed smallholders farmers in lower Mekong river basin (LMB) countries  Action • Develop local, national and regional platform for joint initiative and coordinated actions • Increase crop yield, productivity and profitability on sustainable basis at smallholders farmers’ field in rainfed areas of LMB region. Partners stimulate and support local innovation through farmers participatory action research http://www.ait.ac.th/research/workshop-reports/AIT-WBI-Workshop- Report.pdf/view#.VWafG820jjA 12-10-2015
  • 6. SRI ‘Menu’ for change Capturing farmers imagination by enabling them to get higher yield with reduced external inputs, and fuelling their capacity for innovation  Offers low cost solution  Doesn’t require external inputs  Practices are amenable to farmers experimentation  Follows agro ecological principles  Transplanting younger and fewer seedlings/hill  maintaining wider spacing  Avoiding continuous soil saturation  Applying compost as much as possible 12-10-2015
  • 7. SRI-LMB @ACISAI Center, AIT Regional innovation platform for linking local to global actors and institutions to meet the goals of food security and environmental sustainability through generating and providing innovative solutions under the overall concept of sustainable agriculture intensification. AIT Research Strategy (2012- 2016) 12-10-2015
  • 8. Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation around the System of Rice Intensification in Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB) http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/ Royal University of Agriculture National University of Laos Hanoi University of Agriculture Rajabhat University 12-10-2015
  • 9. working in 30 districts of 10 food insecure provinces 12-10-2015  Increase productivity  Reduce input cost  Make rice cultivation profitable
  • 11. SRI-LMB Working in collaboration Farmers Researcher Trainers Local consortia Ministry Farmers group Regional consortium 12-10-2015
  • 12. PMU CAMBODIA Implementing consortia include NGO, GO, academics PMU LAOS Implementing consortia include NGO, GO, academics PMU THAILAND Implementing consortia include NGO GO, academics PMU VIETNAM Implementing consortia include NGO, GO academics P1 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 D 1 D 2 D 3 Provinces Districts Oxfam policy dialogue FAO Action research implementation at national level (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam) P 2 P 3 P1 P 3 P2 P1 P 2 P 1 P 2 UQ Advisory support on FFS based action research SRI-Rice Advisory support on SRI Local consortia National consortia* Regional consortia* 12-10-2015
  • 13. 4th post FFS site (2 FT) 3rd post FFS site (2 FT) 2nd post FFS site (2 FT) 1st post FFS site (2 FT) 4th post FFS site (2 FT) 3rd post FFS site (2 FT) 2nd post FFS site (2 FT) 1st post FFS site (2 FT) 4th post FFS site (2 FT) 3rd post FFS site (2 FT) 2nd post FFS site (2 FT) 1st post FFS site (2 FT) FPAR sites FPAR sites FPAR sites FPAR structure at the local level Each province has three districts and each district has 4 FPAR sites12-10-2015
  • 14. Farmers participatory action research findings ( year 2014) 12-10-2015
  • 15. More than 120 sets of experiments @ 62 FPAR sites in 2014 Cambodia & Thailand In five provinces - 13 districts were rainfed and 2 were irrigated - Broadly two options were explored using experiments: SRI demonstration (SRI-D) as a ‘test site’ and (2) Integration of SRI practices with existing cultivation practices as learning plot for location specific adaptation (SRI-T) - And compared with existing conventional management practices (CP) in target area set up as a farmers’ practice. 15 districts, 3 in each province 12-10-2015
  • 16. Implementation through FFS approach Season long training & structured learning sessions at different growth stages SRI seedbed Wetbed12-10-2015
  • 17. Farmers applied different sets of practices Crop management practices Conventional practices (CP) SRI-T (SRI-I & SRI-LAP) SRI-D Seedling age 40-60 day-old (established by baseline) 39-20 day-old 8-19 day-old* (8-15 day-old for Cambodia and Thailand) Seed rate 100-150 kg/ha 20-30% less than CM 5-20 kg/ha Transplanting spacing Crowded, 10 x 10 cm 10 x 15 to 19 x 19 cm 20 x 20 – 30 x 30 cm or more Planting/hill >5-6 4-5 seedlings/hill 1-3 seedlings/hill Soil condition Flooded (or no effort in maintaining aerobic soil condition Relatively aerobic soil condition with respect to CM either through shallow water level or through intermittent drying Maintaining aerobic soil condition at least for a week during tillering stage 12-10-2015
  • 18. Experimental method for field testing and data handling Design and data handling at field • Three treatments and 4 replications (minimum) for each experiment • Data collection and analysis (average) by farmers at three growth stages (Tillering, flowering, and harvesting) • Data recorded by farmers using farmers diary • Data were compiled by district trainer and subsequently by provincial coordinator • Data collection process was backstopped by researcher 12-10-2015
  • 19. Data handling at national and regional level • System Architecture INTERNET Input Data Download Output File Save data into DB Query Data 12-10-2015
  • 21. Analysis Quantitative analysis • ANOVA (significant difference) • Meta analysis (regional trend) • Cluster analysis (adoption response) Qualitative analysis • Group discussion (at local, national, and regional level) • Farmers’ response • Feedback from ministries, national & regional stakeholders 12-10-2015
  • 22. FPAR results from more than 120 sets of experiments involving 3200 farmers 12-10-2015
  • 23. Higher productivity and fertilizer use efficiency in SRI kggrain/kginorganicfertilizerapplied Yield Fertilizer use efficiency Ton/ha With reference to CP  100% and 60% yield increment in SRI-D and SRI-T respectively with reference to CP  46.27% and 36.22% increment in fertilizer use efficiency 12-10-2015
  • 24. Meta trend SRI-I and SRI-LAP and SRI-D indicated significantly higher yield benefit with respect to conventional practices 12-10-2015
  • 25. Meta trend in rainfed areas Positive and significant large effect size confirmed the benefit of applying SRI practices even in rainfed environment. 12-10-2015
  • 26. Higher productivity with less input use Cambodia Thailand • Seed = 40% seed cost saving • Water = no difference • Pesticide = 1/3rd cost saving • Seed = 93.27% • Water = 2-3 irrigation saving (only for irrigated dist. (Tron and Pichai) • Pesticide+ fungicide = 208 US$/ha (77% less compared to last season) 12-10-2015
  • 27. Economic productivity USdollargained/US$spent/ha With reference to CP  339.47% and 284.21% higher in SRI-D and SRI-T respectively  Cost of cultivation included cost of labour and water as well. Higher economic productivity with SRI 12-10-2015
  • 28. 1a (all inputs valued) Cambodia rainfed Thailand rainfed Thailand irrigated 0.769±0.03 c (0.05±0.01) 2.655±0.12 a (0.4±0.01) 2.066±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) 1b (labour inputs for transplanting, weeding and harvesting were excluded from Cambodia and cost of water from Cambodia and Surin province of Thailand 2.10±0.06 b (0.66±0.04) 2.9±0.13 a (0.54±0.01) 2.06±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) With producer price @ 0.3 and 0.43 US$/kg paddy for Cambodia and Thailand respectively * Baseline @0.3 US$/kg in both countries Economic productivity gain was higher in rainfed 12-10-2015
  • 29. 2a (all inputs valued) Cambodia rainfed Thailand rainfed Thailand irrigated 0.769±0.03 c (0.05±0.01)* 2.17±0.11 a (0.4±0.01)* 1.79±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) 2b (labour inputs for transplanting, weeding and harvesting were excluded from Cambodia and cost of water from Cambodia and Surin province of Thailand 2.08±0.06 b (0.66±0.04) 2.4±0.12 a (0.54±0.01) 1.79±0.08 b (0.05±0.01) Average paddy yield at FPAR sites 4.3±0.73 c 5.82±1.29 b 6.26±0.82 a With domestic price @ 0.3 and 0.38 US$/kg paddy for Cambodia and Thailand respectively * Baseline @0.3 US$/kg in both countries Economic productivity gain was higher in rainfed 12-10-2015
  • 30. Adaptation response from farmers for SRI practices ClusterProfilePlots 1 SOILCONDITIO SEEDAGE SEEDRAISE SPACING SEEDPERHILL 2 SOILCONDITIO SEEDAGE SEEDRAISE SPACING SEEDPERHILL SRI practices F ratio Seedling/hill 7307.98 Spacing 412.39 Seedling raising method 398.12 Seedling age 80.23 Aerobic soil condition at least for a week at vegetative stage 0.358 159 cases 47 cases Seedling/hill and spacing have the highest impact in group formation than any other SRI principles 12-10-2015
  • 32. Factors affecting adoption  Less input use, higher yield and higher net return (+)  Quality of grain (+)  No lodging (+)  Less pest and diseases (+)  Unreliable weather and water availability (-)  Market instability and price volatility (-)  No incentive for good work (-)  Transplanting & labour use (Thailand) (-) 12-10-2015
  • 33. Factors that will speed up SRI adoption • SRI with direct seeding with low seed rate (Thailand) • Support for critical irrigation • Better incentive and market stability • Green SRI from farm to fork REGIONAL REVIEW & PLANNING WORKSHOP REPORT Siem Reap, Cambodia 02-03 June 2015 Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation and Learning around the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB) This project is funded by the European Union A project implemented by the Asian Institute of Technology the European Union http://www.sri- lmb.ait.asia/country/doc/Regional%20Review%20and%20 Planning%20Workshop-REPORT%20(02- 03%20June%202015).pdf 12-10-2015
  • 34. Conclusions and way forward • Efforts to make SRI knowledge and practices available on a wider scale can raise productivity and incomes and in turn can address food insecurity of the broad population of smallholders without further deteriorating the environment. • Economic productivity was higher in rainfed compared to the irrigated systems therefore only a small investment is needed to make the rainfed system more productive and resilient. • Bringing poor smallholding farmers more directly into the process of economic growth can offer more hope at both micro and macro levels. 12-10-2015
  • 35. Visit SRI-LMB at: http://www.sri-lmb.ait.asia/ CONTACT US Asian Center of Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture Intensification (ACISAI) Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Gnd. Floor, Admin Building PO Box: 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani, Thailand 12120 Email : srilmb@ait.asia Phone : +66-2-524-5823 Fax : +66-2-524-5828 12-10-2015