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Transportation Engineering – II (Town Planning)
1/7/2018
Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 1
.
Course Learning Outcomes:
• At the end of this session, the student will be able to understand
contribution of town planners
Contribution from eminent Town
Planners
Prof. (Dr.) Sachin Kishor Patil
B.E. Civil, M.E. Civil Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. (IIT, Bombay)
❑ Professor & Head of Department
❑ Department of Civil Engineering
❑ AMGOI, Vathar, Kolhapur, MH, India.
1/7/2018
Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 2
Disclaimer and acknowledgment
The study material presented by Prof. S K Patil is licensed under
The study material presented herewith is web sourced made
available for community use under Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 unported License.
If you feel the ownership of some of the content, I can
acknowledge or remove as the case may be. Permissions beyond
the scope of this license can be requested at www.skpatil.com
Eminent Town Planners
3
 Patrick Geddes (Survey before plan)
 Ebenezer Howard (Garden city)
 Clarence Stein (The Neighborhood Unit, Rad burn)
 Patrick Abercrombie (Town and Country Planning)
 Le Corbusier (Sector planning, Chandigarh)
 Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker (Letchworth city)
 Frank Lloyd Wright (Broadacre City)
 Soria-y-Mata (Linear city)
 Charles Corea (Community housing)
 Charles Mulford Robinson (Modern Civic Art)
 H.K. Mewada and P.M. Apte (Sector planning, Gandhinagar)
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
1. Sir Patrick Geddes
4
 (1854 – 1932)
 Father of Modern Town Planning
 Relationship between people and cities and how they affect one
another.
 “People do not merely needed shelter, but also food and work, the
recreation and social life. “
 This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighborhood, the
city and the surrounding open country and the region.
 Concept survey before plan
 Diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills
from which the town suffers & then describe correct remedies.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
1. Sir Patrick Geddes
5
 Relationship among folk, places and work.
FOLK WORK PLACE
i.e. organism i.e. function i.e. environment
(Social aspect) (Economical aspect) (Physical aspect)
 City as physical utility, for collective living, and all living organisms governed
by laws of growth and interaction with environment.
 Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of Regional survey and
city survey. The sequence of planning is to be:
1. Regional survey
2. Rural development
3. Town planning
4. City design
 .
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
1. Sir Patrick Geddes
6
 The Outlook Tower.
 Regional Analysis
 Index Museum
 Sociological Laboratory
 Camera Obscura
 Edinburgh
 Scotland
 Europe
 World
 Geddes‟ hope was that visitors would exit
theTower with a new perspective on the
Scottish capital and an understanding of how
they could play an active role in its future
through schemes for social improvement
such as his own.
 The Outlook tower was a powerful tool in
communicating ideas about the wider
context in which cities exist and develop.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
1. Sir Patrick Geddes
7
Work in India
 His principles for town planning in Bombay demonstrate his views on the
relationship between social processes and spatial form. They included:
 Preservation of human life and energy, rather than superficial
beautification.
 Conformity to an orderly development plan carried out in stages.
 Land suitable for building.
 Promoting trade and commerce.
 Preserving historic buildings and buildings of religious significance.
 Developing a city worthy of civic pride, not an imitation of European cities.
Promoting the happiness, health and comfort of all residents, rather than
focusing on roads and parks available only to the rich.
 Control over future growth with adequate provision for future requirements
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
2. Sir Ebenezer Howard
8
 (1850-1928)
 Concept: The Garden city concept
 Book written "garden city of tomorrow“
 ideas of garden city by an impressive diagram of
"three magnets“
 Letchworth, Welwyn city planned.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Letchworth from the air
9
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
10
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Main features of garden city
11
 public building located centrally
 Around it, dwellings for all classes @ large central court
 shopping centre to be located on the edge
 To create employment, all types of industries to be started
 industries to be located on outskirts of the town Rural fresh
air, gardens, playfields, cottages etc. And amenities of urban
life schools, theatres, hospitals, recreation centres etc.
 land to be brought under co-operative basis/Trusts
 Eleiminate private ownerships,
 Control on finance
 Profit sharing to community
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Main features of garden city
12
 City with max. population 30-35K per 1K-acre
 City should be surrounded by permanent agri. Belt of 3-5 K
acres
 City should have advantages of both
 rural life- Fresh air, garden, Play grounds, cottages
 Urbn life amenities- schools, theaters, hospitals, recreation
centres
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
3. Clarence Stein - Rad Burn “Town of MOTOR AGE”
13
Concept: The Neighborhood Unit, Influence of Garden city
 Along with Henry Wright prepared the town Rad-Burn in new jersey in
New York, 1928
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
3. Clarence Stein
14
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
3. Clarence Stein
15
Concept: The Neighborhood Unit, Influence of Garden city
 Along with Henry Wright prepared the town Rad-Burn in new jersey in
New York, 1928
The principals
 No grid iron road pattern
 Overall planning of the whole neighbourly area NOT in terms of single
block “SUPER BLOCK”
 Superblocks enclosed by main road, which in turn enclose narrow
lanes.
 pedestrian should be safe and segregated from other vehicular traffic
 community park spreading on whole of the area
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
3. Clarence Stein
16
The Neighborhood Unit, The principals…….
 Express way with limited access from and to neighborhoods.
 House to be turn inside out
 Road and Back side of houses are not cleaned,
 Store/Kitchen facing road
 Living, dining, bed–rear side
 Radburn IDEA
(“Town of MOTOR AGE”)
 Community garden
spreading whole area
 Cul-de-sac streets
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
4. Patrick Abercrombie
17
 (1879 – 1957)
 Concept: Regional Planning
 planner of city like greater London, Bristol, etc.
principal
1. Civic survey before planning – “Diagnosis before
treatment”
2. town shall be considered as a whole unit
3. Uncontrolled growth of city should be stop
4. Industries should be located on the outer area of town
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
5. Le Corbusier (1887-1965)
18
Concept: City is a living organism
 “Towns are biological phenomenon such as hearts, limbs,
lungs and arteries”
 Govt. Buildings (HC, Assembly, Secretariat, Raj Bhavan)= Head
 City centre (Commercial buildings, Shops) = Heart
 Industry, Educational buildings = Limbs
 Parks, Play grounds, Green Belts = Lungs
 Roads, Footpaths = Arteries
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
5. Le Corbusier -
19
Principal
 Core of the city should be decongested by removing the excess
of population
 Satellite town connected to main city
 Provision of speedy transportation
 Provision open space in the form of garden, parks, etc.
 High density population spread over the entire area
 Family should not be enclose in compound wall instead it is to be
lifted up so landscape goes below and occupants can enjoy the
beauty of surrounding country
 High rise buildings
 Eg. Chandigarh sector wise city planner
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Arturo Soria-y-Mata
20
 (1844-1920)
 Concept: Linear city
 invented urban telephone networks
 of a subway system for Madrid
 established a magazine on urbanism called "La Ciudad Lineal“
 first linear city around Madrid to fruition intended to be 48 kilometres
long, ringing the city, with a 7 kilometre radial connection.
 Soria's linear city creates the infrastructure for a controlled process of
expansion that joins one growing city to the next in a rational way,
instead of letting them both sprawl.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Barry Parker & Raymond Unwin
21
 Richard Barry Parker (1867 – 1947) & Sir Raymond
Unwin (1863 – 1940) made Letchworth city planning
Letchworth Garden City
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
H.K.Mewada and P.M.Apte22
The city was planned and implemented between 1965-1970 by two Indian
planners, H.K.Mewada and P.M.Apte.
VIDHAN SABHA VIEW AND ROTARY GANDHINAGAR
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Charles Correa
23
 (born Sept 1, 1930)
 Concept: Different Community housing planning
 memorial Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Museum at the
Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to Kanchanjunga
Apartment tower in Mumbai, the Jawahar Kala Kendra in
Jaipur, the planning of Navi Mumbai.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com

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1.5 town planning contribution modern era

  • 1. Transportation Engineering – II (Town Planning) 1/7/2018 Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 1 . Course Learning Outcomes: • At the end of this session, the student will be able to understand contribution of town planners Contribution from eminent Town Planners
  • 2. Prof. (Dr.) Sachin Kishor Patil B.E. Civil, M.E. Civil Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. (IIT, Bombay) ❑ Professor & Head of Department ❑ Department of Civil Engineering ❑ AMGOI, Vathar, Kolhapur, MH, India. 1/7/2018 Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 2 Disclaimer and acknowledgment The study material presented by Prof. S K Patil is licensed under The study material presented herewith is web sourced made available for community use under Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 unported License. If you feel the ownership of some of the content, I can acknowledge or remove as the case may be. Permissions beyond the scope of this license can be requested at www.skpatil.com
  • 3. Eminent Town Planners 3  Patrick Geddes (Survey before plan)  Ebenezer Howard (Garden city)  Clarence Stein (The Neighborhood Unit, Rad burn)  Patrick Abercrombie (Town and Country Planning)  Le Corbusier (Sector planning, Chandigarh)  Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker (Letchworth city)  Frank Lloyd Wright (Broadacre City)  Soria-y-Mata (Linear city)  Charles Corea (Community housing)  Charles Mulford Robinson (Modern Civic Art)  H.K. Mewada and P.M. Apte (Sector planning, Gandhinagar) 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 4. 1. Sir Patrick Geddes 4  (1854 – 1932)  Father of Modern Town Planning  Relationship between people and cities and how they affect one another.  “People do not merely needed shelter, but also food and work, the recreation and social life. “  This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighborhood, the city and the surrounding open country and the region.  Concept survey before plan  Diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town suffers & then describe correct remedies. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 5. 1. Sir Patrick Geddes 5  Relationship among folk, places and work. FOLK WORK PLACE i.e. organism i.e. function i.e. environment (Social aspect) (Economical aspect) (Physical aspect)  City as physical utility, for collective living, and all living organisms governed by laws of growth and interaction with environment.  Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of Regional survey and city survey. The sequence of planning is to be: 1. Regional survey 2. Rural development 3. Town planning 4. City design  . 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 6. 1. Sir Patrick Geddes 6  The Outlook Tower.  Regional Analysis  Index Museum  Sociological Laboratory  Camera Obscura  Edinburgh  Scotland  Europe  World  Geddes‟ hope was that visitors would exit theTower with a new perspective on the Scottish capital and an understanding of how they could play an active role in its future through schemes for social improvement such as his own.  The Outlook tower was a powerful tool in communicating ideas about the wider context in which cities exist and develop. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 7. 1. Sir Patrick Geddes 7 Work in India  His principles for town planning in Bombay demonstrate his views on the relationship between social processes and spatial form. They included:  Preservation of human life and energy, rather than superficial beautification.  Conformity to an orderly development plan carried out in stages.  Land suitable for building.  Promoting trade and commerce.  Preserving historic buildings and buildings of religious significance.  Developing a city worthy of civic pride, not an imitation of European cities. Promoting the happiness, health and comfort of all residents, rather than focusing on roads and parks available only to the rich.  Control over future growth with adequate provision for future requirements 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 8. 2. Sir Ebenezer Howard 8  (1850-1928)  Concept: The Garden city concept  Book written "garden city of tomorrow“  ideas of garden city by an impressive diagram of "three magnets“  Letchworth, Welwyn city planned. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 9. Letchworth from the air 9 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 11. Main features of garden city 11  public building located centrally  Around it, dwellings for all classes @ large central court  shopping centre to be located on the edge  To create employment, all types of industries to be started  industries to be located on outskirts of the town Rural fresh air, gardens, playfields, cottages etc. And amenities of urban life schools, theatres, hospitals, recreation centres etc.  land to be brought under co-operative basis/Trusts  Eleiminate private ownerships,  Control on finance  Profit sharing to community 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 12. Main features of garden city 12  City with max. population 30-35K per 1K-acre  City should be surrounded by permanent agri. Belt of 3-5 K acres  City should have advantages of both  rural life- Fresh air, garden, Play grounds, cottages  Urbn life amenities- schools, theaters, hospitals, recreation centres 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 13. 3. Clarence Stein - Rad Burn “Town of MOTOR AGE” 13 Concept: The Neighborhood Unit, Influence of Garden city  Along with Henry Wright prepared the town Rad-Burn in new jersey in New York, 1928 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 15. 3. Clarence Stein 15 Concept: The Neighborhood Unit, Influence of Garden city  Along with Henry Wright prepared the town Rad-Burn in new jersey in New York, 1928 The principals  No grid iron road pattern  Overall planning of the whole neighbourly area NOT in terms of single block “SUPER BLOCK”  Superblocks enclosed by main road, which in turn enclose narrow lanes.  pedestrian should be safe and segregated from other vehicular traffic  community park spreading on whole of the area 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 16. 3. Clarence Stein 16 The Neighborhood Unit, The principals…….  Express way with limited access from and to neighborhoods.  House to be turn inside out  Road and Back side of houses are not cleaned,  Store/Kitchen facing road  Living, dining, bed–rear side  Radburn IDEA (“Town of MOTOR AGE”)  Community garden spreading whole area  Cul-de-sac streets 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 17. 4. Patrick Abercrombie 17  (1879 – 1957)  Concept: Regional Planning  planner of city like greater London, Bristol, etc. principal 1. Civic survey before planning – “Diagnosis before treatment” 2. town shall be considered as a whole unit 3. Uncontrolled growth of city should be stop 4. Industries should be located on the outer area of town 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 18. 5. Le Corbusier (1887-1965) 18 Concept: City is a living organism  “Towns are biological phenomenon such as hearts, limbs, lungs and arteries”  Govt. Buildings (HC, Assembly, Secretariat, Raj Bhavan)= Head  City centre (Commercial buildings, Shops) = Heart  Industry, Educational buildings = Limbs  Parks, Play grounds, Green Belts = Lungs  Roads, Footpaths = Arteries 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 19. 5. Le Corbusier - 19 Principal  Core of the city should be decongested by removing the excess of population  Satellite town connected to main city  Provision of speedy transportation  Provision open space in the form of garden, parks, etc.  High density population spread over the entire area  Family should not be enclose in compound wall instead it is to be lifted up so landscape goes below and occupants can enjoy the beauty of surrounding country  High rise buildings  Eg. Chandigarh sector wise city planner 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 20. Arturo Soria-y-Mata 20  (1844-1920)  Concept: Linear city  invented urban telephone networks  of a subway system for Madrid  established a magazine on urbanism called "La Ciudad Lineal“  first linear city around Madrid to fruition intended to be 48 kilometres long, ringing the city, with a 7 kilometre radial connection.  Soria's linear city creates the infrastructure for a controlled process of expansion that joins one growing city to the next in a rational way, instead of letting them both sprawl. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 21. Barry Parker & Raymond Unwin 21  Richard Barry Parker (1867 – 1947) & Sir Raymond Unwin (1863 – 1940) made Letchworth city planning Letchworth Garden City 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 22. H.K.Mewada and P.M.Apte22 The city was planned and implemented between 1965-1970 by two Indian planners, H.K.Mewada and P.M.Apte. VIDHAN SABHA VIEW AND ROTARY GANDHINAGAR 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 23. Charles Correa 23  (born Sept 1, 1930)  Concept: Different Community housing planning  memorial Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Museum at the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to Kanchanjunga Apartment tower in Mumbai, the Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur, the planning of Navi Mumbai. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com