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Stress refers to external forces applied to a material, while strain refers to the deformation or change in shape of the material resulting from those stresses. Hooke's law states that within the elastic limit, the amount of strain produced is directly proportional to the stress applied. Different moduli describe the relationship between stress and strain, including Young's modulus, the bulk modulus, and the shear modulus. Stress and strain can be longitudinal, relating to changes in length, or transverse, relating to changes in width or thickness. The elastic limit is the maximum stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation, after which plastic deformation or fracture may occur.

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Introduction to Elasticity of materials

Introduction to Elasticity of materials

Young’s modulus

Young’s modulus

Stress and strain

Stress and strain

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Introduction to Elasticity of materials

The PPT gives insight into the fundamentals of elastic properties materials. Hook's law, stress strain graph, torsional pendulum, bending of beam etc.

Young’s modulus

This document defines key terms related to Young's modulus including:
- Stress is the force applied per cross-sectional area of a material.
- Strain is the extension in length resulting from stress.
- Brittle materials break without plastic deformation.
- Elastic materials return to their original shape after deformation.
It also provides examples of materials that exhibit properties such as being stiff, elastic, plastic, ductile, malleable, strong, brittle, tough, smooth, and durable. The document outlines measurements needed to calculate stress and strain and discusses working out uncertainty when multiplying or dividing units.

Stress and strain

This document summarizes stress and strain concepts contributed by five authors from the Department of Geology at the University of Haripur. It defines stress and strain, related terminology, types of stress including normal and combined stresses, types of strain including tensile, compressive, shear and volumetric strains. It also describes Hooke's law which states that within the elastic limit, the ratio of stress to strain is constant, known as Young's modulus. Diagrams are included to illustrate different types of stresses and strains.

Stress strain curve

The document discusses stress-strain curves, which plot the stress and strain of a material sample under load. It describes the typical stress-strain behavior of ductile materials like steel and brittle materials like concrete. For ductile materials, the curve shows an elastic region, yield point, strain hardening region, and ultimate strength before failure. The yield point marks the transition between elastic and plastic deformation. The document also discusses factors that influence a material's yield stress, such as temperature and strain rate, and implications for structural engineering like reduced buckling strength after yielding.

A study on _ buckling

The document discusses buckling and its theories. It defines buckling as the failure of a slender structural member subjected to compressive loads. It provides examples of structures that can experience buckling. It explains Euler's theory of buckling which derived an equation for the critical buckling load of a long column based on its bending stress. The assumptions of Euler's theory are listed. Four cases of long column buckling based on end conditions are examined: both ends pinned, both ends fixed, one end fixed and one end pinned, one end fixed and one end free. Effective lengths are defined for each case and the corresponding critical buckling loads given. Limitations of Euler's theory are noted. Rankine's empirical formula for calculating ultimate

Capacitor

Capacitors are electrical components that can store electric charge. They consist of two conductors separated by an insulator. The amount of charge a capacitor can store depends on its capacitance, which is determined by the size, number, and distance between the conductors and the dielectric material between them. When voltage is applied across a capacitor's plates, electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite polarity build up on each plate. Capacitors are used widely in electrical circuits to filter signals or store energy. They can be connected in series or parallel configurations, which affects how voltage and charge are distributed across the capacitors.

Stress and strain- mechanics of solid

detailed ppt about stress and strain
introduction
stress strain curve
equations for stress and strain

elastic constants

This document discusses elastic constants in isotropic materials. It defines four elastic constants: modulus of elasticity (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), shear modulus (G), and bulk modulus (K). It provides formulas for the relationships between these constants, specifically that K=E/3(1-2ν) and G=E/2(1+ν). An example problem is shown to calculate E and ν for a prismatic specimen under uniaxial loading. Various elastic properties of common materials like metals and composites are also listed.

Free body diagram

Free body diagrams show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting on an object. They include only physical forces touching the object like gravity, applied forces, friction, and reactions, drawn as arrows from a dot representing the object. To analyze motion, forces are resolved into horizontal and vertical components and Newton's second law is applied to each direction separately. For example, with an applied force at an angle on a block, the horizontal force component gives acceleration along the plane while the vertical forces sum to zero for no jump.

Simple stresses and strains

The document discusses stress and strain in engineering structures. It defines load, stress, strain and different types of each. Stress is the internal resisting force per unit area within a loaded component. Strain is the ratio of dimensional change to original dimension of a loaded body. Loads can be tensile, compressive or shear. Hooke's law states stress is proportional to strain within the elastic limit. The elastic modulus defines this proportionality. A tensile test measures the stress-strain curve, identifying elastic limit and other failure points. Multi-axial stress-strain relationships follow Poisson's ratio definitions.

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

This document provides an overview of fundamental mechanical engineering concepts including stress, strain, Hooke's law, stress-strain diagrams, elastic constants, and mechanical properties. It defines stress as force per unit area and strain as the deformation of a material from stress. Hooke's law states that stress is directly proportional to strain within the elastic limit. Stress-strain diagrams are presented for ductile and brittle materials. Key elastic constants like Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are defined along with their relationships. Mechanical properties of materials like elasticity, plasticity, ductility, strength, brittleness, toughness, hardness, and stiffness are also summarized.

D alemberts principle

D'Alembert's Principle states that the resultant of all external forces and inertia forces acting on a body is zero for the body to be in dynamic equilibrium. Inertia forces are represented as minus mass times acceleration. The principle allows equations of static equilibrium to be applied to bodies undergoing translational motion by considering an imaginary inertia force equal and opposite to actual inertia. Several example problems are provided applying the principle to analyze motion of connected bodies over pulleys, motion on inclined planes, and motion within elevators.

Friction, types of friction and different laws of friction

Friction. Do you know what is friction and how it plays different roles in our general life. There are many section in our life where friction is necessary like - in playing sitar and guitar, walking on the road and to hold something in our hand or in any mechanical devices. But there are many field where friction is not required like - in machines where two surfaces meet at a point. Due to this the life of the machine parts get decreased and failure may be occur there. Know more about different laws of friction, types of friction, elimination of the friction.

Stress and strain

This document discusses stress and strain in materials under loading. It defines three types of stress - tensile, compressive, and shear stress - as well as three corresponding types of strain. Hooke's law is introduced, stating that stress is proportional to strain within the elastic range, with the constant of proportionality being the modulus of elasticity for direct stress/strain and the modulus of rigidity for shear stress/strain. The modulus of elasticity, E, refers to axial loading while the modulus of rigidity, G, refers to shear loading. Their units are the same as the stress they relate - normally N/m^2 or GPa. The document poses five questions but does not provide the answers.

Strength of materials

The document provides an introduction to mechanics of deformable solids. It defines stress as force per unit area and distinguishes between normal and shear stresses. Normal stresses are stresses acting perpendicular to a surface, and can be tensile or compressive. Shear stresses act parallel to a surface. The general state of stress at a point involves six independent stress components - normal stresses on three perpendicular planes and shear stresses on those planes. Notation for stresses depends on the coordinate system used.

Buckling of Columns

Columns are the most important structural elements used in buildings. The material given here helps to understand the basics

Strain energy

The document discusses different types of strain energy stored in materials when subjected to loads. It defines strain energy as the work done or energy stored in a body during elastic deformation. The types of strain energy discussed include: elastic strain energy, strain energy due to gradual, sudden, impact, shock and shear loading. Formulas are provided to calculate strain energy due to these different loadings. Examples of calculating strain energy in axially loaded bars and beams subjected to bending and torsional loads are also presented.

MOMENT OF INERTIA

This document discusses the concept of moment of inertia. It defines moment of inertia and provides formulas for calculating it for different objects like thin rods, rings, spheres, and rectangular shapes. It also discusses related concepts like torque, angular acceleration, angular momentum, angular impulse, work done by torque, and angular kinetic energy. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculations for these concepts. The key objectives are to understand moment of inertia and be able to calculate it for basic shapes, as well as understand how it relates to other rotational motion concepts.

Lecture 1 stresses and strains

The document discusses Deepak's academic and professional background, including an MBA from IE Business School in Spain and experience founding perfectbazaar.com. It also provides an overview of the topics to be covered in the Strength of Materials course, such as stresses, strains, Hooke's law, and analysis of bars with varying cross-sections. The grading policy and syllabus are outlined which divide the course into 5 units covering various strength of materials concepts.

Torque

Most of the contents came from other presentations I found here on slideshare.. Hope it help someone.. :)

Introduction to Elasticity of materials

Introduction to Elasticity of materials

Young’s modulus

Young’s modulus

Stress and strain

Stress and strain

Stress strain curve

Stress strain curve

A study on _ buckling

A study on _ buckling

Capacitor

Capacitor

Stress and strain- mechanics of solid

Stress and strain- mechanics of solid

elastic constants

elastic constants

Free body diagram

Free body diagram

Simple stresses and strains

Simple stresses and strains

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

Stress & Strain PPT.ppt

D alemberts principle

D alemberts principle

Friction, types of friction and different laws of friction

Friction, types of friction and different laws of friction

Stress and strain

Stress and strain

Strength of materials

Strength of materials

Buckling of Columns

Buckling of Columns

Strain energy

Strain energy

MOMENT OF INERTIA

MOMENT OF INERTIA

Lecture 1 stresses and strains

Lecture 1 stresses and strains

Torque

Torque

3z03 lec7(1)

1. Dynamic analysis determines the direction, magnitude of forces and stresses acting on geological structures. Stress is defined as the intensity of forces acting on a rock body, while strain is the change in size or shape of the rock resulting from applied forces.
2. The lithostatic stress, or vertical stress produced by the mass of overlying rock, increases linearly with depth and is approximately 26.5 MPa per kilometer in the upper crust.
3. Stress is a vector quantity that can be resolved into normal and shear stress components on any plane. The principal stresses are the maximum normal stresses that have no shear component.

Unit 1 (1)

This document provides information on stress, strain, elasticity, Hooke's law, and other fundamental concepts in strength of materials. Some key points:
- Stress is defined as the internal resisting force per unit area within a material when subjected to external forces. It is proportional to applied load and inversely proportional to cross-sectional area.
- Strain is the ratio of deformation to original dimension of a material. There are different types including tensile, compressive, and shear strains.
- Hooke's law states that within the elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain. The proportionality constant is known as modulus of elasticity.
- Materials behave elastically and return to their original shape when

elasticity

Elasticity is a property of an object or material which will restore it to its original shape after distortion

Mechanics of materials

This document provides an introduction and overview of mechanics of materials. It defines key terms like stress, strain, normal stress, shear stress, factor of safety, and allowable stress. It also gives examples of calculating stresses in structural members subjected to various loads. The document is an introductory reading for a mechanics of materials course that will analyze the relationship between external forces and internal stresses and strains in structural elements.

1 - 29 Jan 2023.pptx

1) Materials deform when stressed, returning to original shape within the elastic limit. Beyond this, deformation is permanent.
2) Hooke's law describes the linear relationship between stress and strain within the elastic limit. The slope is Young's modulus, a measure of stiffness.
3) Poisson's ratio defines the lateral contraction that occurs when a material is stretched. Most materials contract laterally to some degree.

Megha.pdf

This document provides an overview of the syllabus and objectives for the course CE8395 Strength of materials for Mechanical Engineers. It outlines the 5 units that will be covered: 1) Stress, Strain and Deformation of Solids, 2) Transverse Loading on Beams and Stresses in Beam, 3) Torsion, 4) Deflection of Beams, and 5) Thin Cylinders, Spheres and Thick Cylinders. Key concepts that will be studied include stresses, strains, principal stresses, shear force and bending moment in beams, torsion, deflections, and stresses in thin shells and cylinders. The document also provides two mark questions and answers related to stress, strain, elastic properties

Parth

1. The document defines key terms related to loads, stresses, strains, and elastic behavior of materials. It describes different types of loads, stresses, strains and their relationships based on Hooke's law.
2. Formulas are provided for calculating tensile stress, compressive stress, shear stress, elastic modulus, and deformation of tapered and composite bars.
3. The principles of superposition and self-weight induced stresses in cantilever beams are also summarized.

3RD AND 4TH LECTURE.pptx

This document discusses rheological properties of food materials. It defines rheology as the science studying deformation and flow of materials. Rheological data is needed for product quality evaluation, engineering calculations, and process design. The document classifies and describes different types of stresses, strains, moduli, and behaviors exhibited by materials under stress including elastic, plastic, viscous, and viscoelastic. It provides examples of evaluating the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio for dry pasta fibers under tensile stress.

Ms chapter 5

The document discusses the behavior of materials under stress and strain. It defines stress as the internal resistance of a material to external loads, and strain as the deformation or change in shape of a material under stress. The key types of stress are tensile, compressive, and shear stress. Hooke's law states that stress is proportional to strain within the material's elastic limit, after which plastic deformation occurs. The elastic modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus describe a material's response to different types of stress.

Concept of Simple Stress & Strain

Contain Types Body, Effects of force, Concept of Stress and Strain and their types with solutions of numerical, Varieties of numerical

Prof.N.B.HUI Lecture of solid mechanics

This document provides information about the Solid Mechanics course ME 302 taught by Dr. Nirmal Baran Hui at NIT Durgapur in West Bengal, India. It lists four required textbooks for the course and provides a detailed syllabus covering topics like stress, strain, elasticity, bending, deflection, columns, torsion, pressure vessels, combined loadings, springs, and failure theories. The document also includes examples of lecture content on stress analysis, stresses on oblique planes, and material subjected to pure shear.

MOM Simple Stress & Strain Chapter I .pptx

Mechanics of Material : Simple Stress & Strain

Stress,strain,load

Loads can be tensile (pulling) or compressive (pushing) forces. Common types of loads include dead loads from structural weight, live loads from moving objects, impact loads from vibrations, and cyclic loads from repeated forces. When loads are applied, they cause stress in materials. Stress is the internal resisting force per unit area. Stresses can be tensile (pulling), compressive (pushing), or shear (tangential). Corresponding strains are the changes in dimensions from stresses. Hooke's law states that within the elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain by a constant modulus of elasticity.

1-Machine design - Stresses in Machine Members (2) - Copy.pptx

Types of stresses include tensile, compressive, shear, torsional, and bearing. Stresses are caused by external forces and loads acting on a body. Stress is equal to force divided by cross-sectional area. Strain is the deformation or change in length caused by stresses. Hooke's law states stress is proportional to strain. Shear stress is caused by tangential forces across a section and shear strain is the resulting angular deformation. Torsional shear stress results from opposing torque or twisting moments.

Stress_and_Strain_Analysis[1].pptx

This document is a presentation on stress and strain analysis given by Mr. Oduor Wafulah. It defines stress and strain, discusses related terminology, and outlines the different types of stress and strain. It also covers Hooke's law, which states that stress is proportional to strain, and stress-strain diagrams. Factors like elasticity, elastic limits, and modulus of elasticity are examined in relation to the stress-strain relationship. Beams theory and the theories of Timoshenko and torsion are also briefly introduced.

Som complete unit 01 notes

This document provides an overview of strength of materials and introduces key concepts. It discusses stress and strain, ductile and brittle materials, and stress-strain diagrams. Stress is defined as the internal resisting force per unit area acting on a material. Strain is the ratio of change in dimension to the original dimension when a body is subjected to external force. Ductile materials show deformation under stress, while brittle materials do not. The stress-strain diagram shows the relationship between stress and strain for ductile and brittle materials.

Chapter 1 stress and strain

The document discusses stress and strain in materials. It introduces the key concepts of normal stress, shear stress, bearing stress, and thermal stress. Normal stress acts perpendicular to a cross-section, shear stress acts tangentially, and bearing stress occurs at contact points. The relationships between stress, strain, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio are explained. Methods for calculating stress and strain in axial loading, torsion, bending and combined loading are presented through examples. The stress-strain diagram is discussed to show material properties like yield strength and ductility.

Strengthofmaterialsbyskmondal 130102103545-phpapp02

This document contains a table of contents for a book on strength of materials with 16 chapters covering topics like stress and strain, bending, torsion, columns, and failure theories. It also contains introductory material on stress, strain, Hooke's law, true stress and strain, volumetric strain, Young's modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus. Key definitions provided include normal stress, shear stress, tensile strain, compressive strain, engineering stress and strain, true stress and strain, Hooke's law, and the relationships between elastic constants.

Diploma sem 2 applied science physics-unit 2-chap-1 elasticity

Elastic and plastic deformation are described. Elastic deformation is reversible and no permanent change occurs. Plastic deformation results in a permanent change in shape as interatomic bonds are broken. Stress is defined as force over area, and strain as the ratio of deformation to original length. Hooke's law states that stress is proportional to strain within the elastic limit. The elastic moduli - Young's modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus - are defined relating stress and strain. Poisson's ratio describes the lateral contraction that occurs during stretching. Examples show calculations of stress, strain, and dimensions based on given loads and properties.

3z03 lec7(1)

3z03 lec7(1)

Unit 1 (1)

Unit 1 (1)

elasticity

elasticity

Mechanics of materials

Mechanics of materials

1 - 29 Jan 2023.pptx

1 - 29 Jan 2023.pptx

Megha.pdf

Megha.pdf

Parth

Parth

3RD AND 4TH LECTURE.pptx

3RD AND 4TH LECTURE.pptx

stressstrainppt-221103091641-788d72e2.ppt

stressstrainppt-221103091641-788d72e2.ppt

Ms chapter 5

Ms chapter 5

Concept of Simple Stress & Strain

Concept of Simple Stress & Strain

Prof.N.B.HUI Lecture of solid mechanics

Prof.N.B.HUI Lecture of solid mechanics

MOM Simple Stress & Strain Chapter I .pptx

MOM Simple Stress & Strain Chapter I .pptx

Stress,strain,load

Stress,strain,load

1-Machine design - Stresses in Machine Members (2) - Copy.pptx

1-Machine design - Stresses in Machine Members (2) - Copy.pptx

Stress_and_Strain_Analysis[1].pptx

Stress_and_Strain_Analysis[1].pptx

Som complete unit 01 notes

Som complete unit 01 notes

Chapter 1 stress and strain

Chapter 1 stress and strain

Strengthofmaterialsbyskmondal 130102103545-phpapp02

Strengthofmaterialsbyskmondal 130102103545-phpapp02

Diploma sem 2 applied science physics-unit 2-chap-1 elasticity

Diploma sem 2 applied science physics-unit 2-chap-1 elasticity

Uniform and exponential distribution ppt

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The decibel is a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio of two power levels or amplitudes. It is commonly used to measure sound levels or power in electronic systems. A decibel represents one tenth of a bel, with 0 dB representing a ratio of 1. Power gain in decibels is calculated as 10 times the log of the ratio between output and input power. A doubling of power equals a 3 dB gain. Total system gain is the sum of individual stage gains. Attenuation is expressed as a negative decibel value. Voltage and current gains can also be expressed in decibels by taking the log of the ratio of output to input levels.

mas-150813232504-lva1-app6892.pdf

This document discusses various topics in engineering including electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical/civil engineering, sports and exercise engineering, energy systems engineering, and engineering applications. It provides examples of using different engineering disciplines like modeling traffic volumes, designing airplane landing gear, and developing sun-tracking mirrors for solar power plants.

evs ppt (2).pptx

This document discusses threats to biodiversity such as habitat loss from deforestation, wetland destruction, and fragmentation for agriculture, development, and raw materials. Poaching of wildlife for traditional use, commercial trade, and illegal wildlife products also reduces biodiversity. Man-wildlife conflicts have increased due to competition over limited resources from agricultural expansion, urbanization, and infrastructure development. Solutions proposed include strengthening biodiversity laws, adjusting cropping patterns and compensation schemes, and providing food and water for wildlife.

chemistry ppt modified-1.pptx

The document is a presentation by team 6 on types of batteries. It introduces the team members and provides an agenda that covers an introduction to batteries, types of batteries, advantages of batteries, and usage of batteries. The main types discussed are primary batteries, which are single-use, and secondary batteries, which are rechargeable. Examples of primary batteries include zinc carbon and manganese dioxide cells, while common secondary batteries are nickel-cadmium, lead acid, and lithium-ion. The presentation notes that lithium batteries currently provide the highest energy density and are widely used in electronics like smartphones, tablets, and laptops.

maths diff.calculus ppt (1).pptx

This document provides an overview of differential calculus concepts including:
1. It defines differential calculus as dealing with finding exact derivatives directly from a function's formula without using graphical methods, and as a method that deals with the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another.
2. It introduces key concepts like the derivative, which represents the slope of a function at every point, and covers derivative rules for logarithmic, trigonometric, and other common functions.
3. It explains derivative techniques like the product rule, quotient rule, and squeeze/sandwich theorem, and provides examples of applying these rules to find derivatives of various functions.

E-Textiles.doc

The document discusses electronic textiles (e-textiles) and their applications for military use. E-textiles are fabrics that can function electrically like electronics while behaving physically like textiles, enabling computing and digital components to be embedded. The document outlines a brief history of e-textiles development from the 1990s to present. It then lists several potential military applications of e-textiles such as sensing tank movements, monitoring homes for chemicals, and helping firefighters navigate smoky buildings.

Pspp_Game_development(final).pptx

The document discusses using Python for game development, including popular game engines like Pygame and Panda3D that can be used to create 2D and 3D games in Python. It provides guidelines for designing a game, such as brainstorming ideas, writing pseudocode, adding assets, and testing. The document also includes code for a sample quiz game in Python to demonstrate how games can be created using the language.

maths diff.calculus ppt.pptx

This document provides an overview of differential calculus concepts including:
1) Differential calculus deals with finding exact derivatives directly from a function's formula without using graphs. It examines the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another.
2) Key concepts covered include derivative rules, the product rule, quotient rule, derivatives of trigonometric functions, and the squeeze/sandwich theorem.
3) Real-life applications of differential calculus include calculating profit/loss, rates of change like temperature, deriving physical equations, and calculating speed or distance over time.

An Introduction to Metaverse.pdf

The document provides an introduction and overview of the metaverse. It defines the metaverse as a virtual space combining technologies like blockchain, VR, AR and digital assets. NFTs can be used to represent real-world assets in the metaverse. The metaverse consists of elements like web 3.0, blockchain protocols, NFTs, games, cryptocurrencies, VR, AR and mixed reality. Various industries are exploring applications of metaverse technologies in areas like finance, gaming, fashion, marketing and more. While still early, the metaverse may eventually become a fully immersive virtual world for all types of digital experiences.

ranjithreddy123-220304124409.pdf

The document discusses the metaverse, which is described as a hypothetical iteration of the Internet as a single, universal virtual world facilitated by virtual and augmented reality headsets. It will consist of a network of 3D virtual worlds focused on social connection. Various companies are working to develop different aspects of the metaverse using technologies like virtual reality, augmented reality, blockchain, and more. Meta (formerly Facebook) is a leading company aiming to create a metaverse platform for users to interact in virtual worlds while maintaining their identity and payment history across worlds.

Uniform and exponential distribution ppt

Uniform and exponential distribution ppt

Varsha.pptx

Varsha.pptx

mas-150813232504-lva1-app6892.pdf

mas-150813232504-lva1-app6892.pdf

evs ppt (2).pptx

evs ppt (2).pptx

chemistry ppt modified-1.pptx

chemistry ppt modified-1.pptx

maths diff.calculus ppt (1).pptx

maths diff.calculus ppt (1).pptx

E-Textiles.doc

E-Textiles.doc

Pspp_Game_development(final).pptx

Pspp_Game_development(final).pptx

maths diff.calculus ppt.pptx

maths diff.calculus ppt.pptx

An Introduction to Metaverse.pdf

An Introduction to Metaverse.pdf

ranjithreddy123-220304124409.pdf

ranjithreddy123-220304124409.pdf

Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...

Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...University of Maribor

Slides from:
Aleš Zamuda:
Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intelligent Systems.
Central European Exchange Program for University Studies (CEEPUS). TU Graz, Austria
OeAD Austria, CEEPUS network ``Modelling, Simulation and Computer-aided Design in Engineering and Management''Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...

LHS 1140 b is the second-closest temperate transiting planet to the Earth with an equilibrium temperature low enough to support surface liquid water. At 1.730±0.025 R⊕, LHS 1140 b falls within
the radius valley separating H2-rich mini-Neptunes from rocky super-Earths. Recent mass and radius
revisions indicate a bulk density significantly lower than expected for an Earth-like rocky interior,
suggesting that LHS 1140 b could either be a mini-Neptune with a small envelope of hydrogen (∼0.1%
by mass) or a water world (9–19% water by mass). Atmospheric characterization through transmission
spectroscopy can readily discern between these two scenarios. Here, we present two JWST/NIRISS
transit observations of LHS 1140 b, one of which captures a serendipitous transit of LHS 1140 c. The
combined transmission spectrum of LHS 1140 b shows a telltale spectral signature of unocculted faculae (5.8 σ), covering ∼20% of the visible stellar surface. Besides faculae, our spectral retrieval analysis
reveals tentative evidence of residual spectral features, best-fit by Rayleigh scattering from an N2-
dominated atmosphere (2.3 σ), irrespective of the consideration of atmospheric hazes. We also show
through Global Climate Models (GCM) that H2-rich atmospheres of various compositions (100×, 300×,
1000×solar metallicity) are ruled out to >10 σ. The GCM calculations predict that water clouds form
below the transit photosphere, limiting their impact on transmission data. Our observations suggest
that LHS 1140 b is either airless or, more likely, surrounded by an atmosphere with a high mean molecular weight. Our tentative evidence of an N2-rich atmosphere provides strong motivation for future
transmission spectroscopy observations of LHS 1140 b.

Liver & Gall Bladder 23098463278654387654328765439875.pptx

Liver and Gall Bladder, causes, symptoms and Clinical significance

Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective

Review on Gasification LCA. Presentation given by Cecilia Hofmann at Advanced Recycling Conference in Cologne, 2023.

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....

Cosmic hydrogen reionization and cosmic production of the first metals are major phase transitions of the Universe
occurring during the first billion years after the Big Bang; however, these are still underexplored observationally.
Using the JWST/NIRSpec prism spectroscopy, we report the discovery of a sub-L* galaxy at zspec =
8.1623 ± 0.0007, dubbed RX J2129–z8He II, via the detection of a series of strong rest-frame UV/optical nebular
emission lines and the clear Lyman break. RX J2129–z8He II shows a pronounced UV continuum with an
extremely steep (i.e., blue) spectral slope of 2.53 0.07
0.06 b = - -
+ , the steepest among all spectroscopically confirmed
galaxies at zspec 7, in support of its very hard ionizing spectrum that could lead to a significant leakage of its
ionizing flux. Therefore, RX J2129–z8He II is representative of the key galaxy population driving the cosmic
reionization. More importantly, we detect a strong He II λ1640 emission line in its spectrum, one of the highest
redshifts at which such a line is robustly detected. Its high rest-frame equivalent width (EW = 21 ± 4 Å) and
extreme flux ratios with respect to UV metal and Balmer lines raise the possibility that part of RX J2129–z8He II’s
stellar population could be Pop III (Pop III)-like. Through careful photoionization modeling, we show that the
physically calibrated phenomenological models of the ionizing spectra of Pop III stars with strong mass loss can
successfully reproduce the emission line flux ratios observed in RX J2129–z8He II. Assuming the Eddington limit,
the total mass of the Pop III stars within this system is estimated to be 7.8 ± 1.4 × 105 Me. To date, this galaxy
presents the most compelling case in the early Universe where trace Pop III stars might coexist with metal-enriched
populations.

Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance

detail information about active and passive surveillance

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...

Collaborative team recommendation involves selecting users with certain skills to form a team who will, more likely than not, accomplish a complex task successfully. To automate the traditionally tedious and error-prone manual process of team formation, researchers from several scientific spheres have proposed methods to tackle the problem. In this tutorial, while providing a taxonomy of team recommendation works based on their algorithmic approaches to model skilled users in collaborative teams, we perform a comprehensive and hands-on study of the graph-based approaches that comprise the mainstream in this field, then cover the neural team recommenders as the cutting-edge class of approaches. Further, we provide unifying definitions, formulations, and evaluation schema. Last, we introduce details of training strategies, benchmarking datasets, and open-source tools, along with directions for future works.

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Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...

This work assesses the potential of midsized and large human landing systems to deliver water from their exhaust
plumes to cold traps within lunar polar craters. It has been estimated that a total of between 2 and 60 T of surficial
water was sensed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lyman Alpha Mapping Project on the floors of the larger
permanently shadowed south polar craters. This intrinsic surficial water sensed in the far-ultraviolet is thought to be
in the form of a 0.3%–2% icy regolith in the top few hundred nanometers of the surface. We find that the six past
Apollo Lunar Module midlatitude landings could contribute no more than 0.36 T of water mass to this existing,
intrinsic surficial water in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). However, we find that the Starship landing
plume has the potential, in some cases, to deliver over 10 T of water to the PSRs, which is a substantial fraction
(possibly >20%) of the existing intrinsic surficial water mass. This anthropogenic contribution could possibly
overlay and mix with the naturally occurring icy regolith at the uppermost surface. A possible consequence is that
the origin of the intrinsic surficial icy regolith, which is still undetermined, could be lost as it mixes with the
extrinsic anthropogenic contribution. We suggest that existing and future orbital and landed assets be used to
examine the effect of polar landers on the cold traps within PSRs

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory

limits of detection, quantification and blank

A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...

The shape of the dark matter (DM) halo is key to understanding the
hierarchical formation of the Galaxy. Despite extensive eforts in recent
decades, however, its shape remains a matter of debate, with suggestions
ranging from strongly oblate to prolate. Here, we present a new constraint
on its present shape by directly measuring the evolution of the Galactic
disk warp with time, as traced by accurate distance estimates and precise
age determinations for about 2,600 classical Cepheids. We show that the
Galactic warp is mildly precessing in a retrograde direction at a rate of
ω = −2.1 ± 0.5 (statistical) ± 0.6 (systematic) km s−1 kpc−1 for the outer disk
over the Galactocentric radius [7.5, 25] kpc, decreasing with radius. This
constrains the shape of the DM halo to be slightly oblate with a fattening
(minor axis to major axis ratio) in the range 0.84 ≤ qΦ ≤ 0.96. Given the
young nature of the disk warp traced by Cepheids (less than 200 Myr), our
approach directly measures the shape of the present-day DM halo. This
measurement, combined with other measurements from older tracers,
could provide vital constraints on the evolution of the DM halo and the
assembly history of the Galaxy.

Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...

Fertility, plants, layering, growth, health of seeds

BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx

Interaction of molecules

THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics

The essence of change,law, energy, conversion

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx

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Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)

Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)

[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf

[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf

Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...

Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...

Transmission Spectroscopy of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet LHS 1140 b with JWS...

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Liver & Gall Bladder 23098463278654387654328765439875.pptx

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Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective

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SCIENCEgfvhvhvkjkbbjjbbjvhvhvhvjkvjvjvjj.pptx

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A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....

Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance

Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...

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MCQ in Electrostatics. for class XII pptx

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HAZARDOUS ENERGIES -LOTO Training Program.pptx

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Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...

Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory

A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...

A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...

Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...

Direct instructions, towards hundred fold yield,layering,budding,grafting,pla...

BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx

BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx

THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics

THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx

smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx

smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx

Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)

Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)

- 1. UNIT 1.3 Stress & Strain Relationship of Hooke’s Law, Elastic Moduli, Stress–Strain Diagram Department of Physics
- 2. Restoring force or recovering force per unit area is called stress. Stress is expressed in or Pascal. Types of Stress •Normal stress •Tangential stress -2 Nm Department of Physics Stress Restoringforce F Stress= = Area A
- 3. Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM o s = F A Simple compression Here compressive structure member (s < 0 here). OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES Ao Balanced Rock, Arches National Park Department of Physics
- 4. Ratio of the change in dimension produced by an external force to its original dimension is known as strain. Strain Change in volume Volumetric strain= Original volume Change in length Longitudinal strain= Original length Shearing strain=Angular displacement of the plane perpendicular to the fixed surface Department of Physics
- 5. Stress and Strain Stress refers to the cause of a deformation, and strain refers to the effect of the deformation. stress is the force strain is the elongation Department of Physics The downward force F causes the displacement x
- 6. Types of Modulus 1. Young’s Modulus (Y) 2. Bulk Modulus (K) 3. Rigidity Modulus (n) Department of Physics
- 7. Longitudinal Stress and Strain L DL A A F For wires, rods, and bars, there is a longitudinal stress F/A that produces a change in length per unit length. In such cases: F Stress A = L Strain L D = Young’s Modulus ' longitudinal stress Young s modulus longitudinal strain = / / F A FL Y L L A L = = D D Department of Physics
- 8. Shearing Stress and Shearing Strain A F F f l d A shearing stress alters only the shape of the body, leaving the volume unchanged. F F f l d A F Stress A = The strain is the angle expressed in radians d Strain l f = = Shearing Modulus The shearing modulus Units are in Pascal. F A S f = Department of Physics F
- 9. Bulk Modulus Volume stress F A K Volume strain V V = = D Since F/A is generally pressure P, we may write: / P PV K V V V = = D D Unit is Pascal Department of Physics
- 10. • When a spring is stretched, there is a restoring force that is proportional to the displacement. • Within the elastic limit, the ratio of the stress to the strain is constant (E). • E is the modulus of elasticity. Hooke’s Law Department of Physics 2 Stress strain Stress E Strain Stress E Nm Strain = =
- 11. Poisson’s Ratio (σ) Lateral strain σ = ------------------------------- = Longitudinal strain β = a constant α Department of Physics l d F D
- 12. Department of Physics Elastic Limit Maximum stress a body can experience without becoming permanently deformed. Fatigue If a body is continuously subjected to Stress or Strain, it gets fatigued (weak), called Elastic Fatigue.
- 13. 10 m steel wire stretches 3.08 mm due to the 200 N load. What is the longitudinal strain? Srain 3 Data Given : L 10m; L 3.08 10 m = = -3 ΔL 3.08 10 Strain = = L 10m m -4 Longitudinal strain = 3.08×10 Department of Physics
- 14. Young’s modulus for brass is 8.96 x 1011Pa. A 120N weight is attached to an 8 m length of brass wire; the diameter is 1.5 mm. Find the increase in length. . Area of the wire Department of Physics -3 ΔL= 0.6×10 m 11 Y= 8.96 10 Pa, F=120N -6 2 L=8m A=1.77×10 m 2 -3 2 -6 2 A=πr = 3.14×(0.75×10 m) =1.77×10 m -6 11 1 FL Increase in Length ΔL = AY 120N 8m = (1.77 10 )m (8.96 10 )Nm