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‘’PRESENTATION’’
Presented By : Laiba Yaseen
Subject : Intro. To Mythology
‘’12 Great Olympians’’
INTRODUCTION:
THE GODS AND GODDESS ALL LIVED IN THE SKY ON TOP OF A
HUGE MOUNTAIN CALLED MOUNT OLYMPUS. THE GREEK
BELIEVED THAT THIS MOUNTAIN WAS SO TALL THAT
TOUCHED THE SKY. THESE TWELVE GODS WERE THE
PRINCIPAL CHARACTER IN MANY OF THE GREEK MYTHS AND
THEY ALL PLAYED IMPORTANT ROLES IN EVERYDAY
CLASSICAL GREEK LIFE.
THE TWELVE OLYMPIANS:
• ZEUS
• HERA
• POSEIDON
• DEMETER
• ARES
• HEPHAESTUS
• APOLLO
• ARTEMES
• ATHENA
• HERMES
• DIONYSUS
• APHRODITE
ZEUS:
ZEUS IS THE FATHER OF GODS AND MEN WHO
RULES THE OLYMPIANS OF MOUNT OLYMPUS AS A
FATHER RULES A FAMILY ACCORDING TO
ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION.
HE IS GOD OF SKY AND THUNDER. ZEUS IS THE
CHILD OF CRONUS AND RHEA, AND IS THE
YOUNGEST OF HIS SIBLINGS. HE IS MARRIED TO
HERA ,ALTHOUGH, HE IS KNOWN TO HAVE
FATHERED MANY CHILDREN WITH OTHER WOMEN.
HIS WEAPON IS THE THUNDERBOLT ,AND HIS BIRD
IS THE EAGLE. THE CENTRAL FIGURE OF THE MYTH
, ZEUS EPITOMIZE THEIR COMPLEXITY. AT TIME HE
IS DIVINE AND REPRESENTS A PURE , ETERNAL
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
HERA:
HERA IS THE WIFE OF ZEUS . HER CHIEF FUNCTION
IS AS THE GODDESS OF WOMEN AND MARRIAGE.
THE ONLY CHILD THAT SHE HAD WITH ZEUS WAS
ARES. HERA WAS JEALOUS OF ZEUS GIVING BIRTH
TO ATHENA, SO, ACCORDING TO THE MYTH , SHE
GAVE BIRTH TO HEPHAESTUS WITHOUT HIM. HERA
WAS THEN DISGUSTED WITH HEPHAESTUS
UGLINESS AND THREW HIM FROM MOUT OLYMPUS
TO THE EARTH BELOW.
SHE IS OFTEN VICIOUS AND SPITEFUL, AND IT IS
USUALLY ZEUS INFIDELITY THAT INCITES HER.
MANY UNFORTUNATE MORTALS ENDURE
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
POSEIDON:
POSEIDON ROMAN NAME NEPTUNE, THE GOD OF THE SEA . POSEIDON IS
ZEUS’ BROTHER AND SECOND ONLY TO HIM IN POWER. POSEIDON
HOLDS A DECADE-LONG GRUDGE AGAINST ODYSSEUS. THE OFTEN
CRUEL AND UNPREDICTABLE VIOLENCE OF THE SEAS IS ASSUMED TO
BE A RESULT OF HIS ANGER.
POSEIDON WAS ALSO SEEN AS THE CREATOR OF NEW ISLAND AND CALM
SEAS. WHEN OFFENDED OR IGNORED, HE SUPPOSEDLY STRUNK THE
GROUND WITH HIS TRIDENT AND CAUSED CHAOTIC SPRINGS,
EARTHQUAKES, DRAWINGS AND SHIP WRECKS. SAILORS OFTEN
PRAYED TO POSEIDON FOR A SAFE VOYAGE.
POSEIDON RIDES ON CHARIOT THAT WAS PULLED BY HORSES THAT
COULD RIDE ON SEA. HE LIVED ON PALACE ON THE OCEAN FLOOR,
MADE OF CORAL AS GEMS.
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
DEMETER:
DEMETER ROMAN NAME WAS CERES , SHE WAS THE GODDESS OF GRAIN
OR CROPS . SHE PRESIDED ALSO OVER THE SANCTITY OF MARRIAGE,
AND THE CYCLE OF LIFE AND DEATH. DEMETERS’ EMBLEM IS THE
POPPY , A BRIGHT RED FLOWER THAT GROWS AMONG THE BARLEY.
DEMETER WAS USUALLY PORTRAYED ON A CHARIOT, AND
FREQUENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH IMAGES OF HARVEST, INCLUDING
FLOWERS, FRUIT AND GRAINS. SHE WAS ALSO SOMETIMES PICTURED
WITH HER DAUGHTER PERSEPHONE.
DEMETERS’ VIRGIN DAUGHTER PERSEPHONE WAS ABDUCTED TO THE
UNDERWORLD BY HADES AFTER HADES FELL IN LOVE WITH HER UPON
SEEING HER BEAUTY. DEMETER SEARCHED FOR HER WITHOUT
STOPPING , PREOCCUPIED WITH HER LOSS AND HER GRIEF. THE
SEASONS HALTED; LIVING THINGS CAUSED THEIR GROWTH, THEN
BEGAN TO DIE. FACED WITH THE EXTINCTION OF ALL LIFE ON EARTH,
ZEUS SENT HIS MESSENGER HERMOS TO THE TO BRING THE
PERSEPHONE BACK.
HADES AGREED TO RELEASE HER, BUT TRICKED HER INTO EATING AN
ENCHANTED POMEGRANATE. WHEN SHE ATE THE POMEGRANATE
SEEDS, SHE WAS BOUND TO HIM FOR ONE FOURTH OF THE YEAR.
THUS, DEMETER WAS ALLOWED TO BE WITH HER DAUGHTER FOR THE
THREE FOURTH OF THE YEAR( SPRING, SUMMER, AND FALL ) DURING
WHICH PLANTS BLOSSOM AND BLOOM AND CROPS PRODUCE FOOD
BECAUSE DEMETER IS HAPPY.
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
ARES:
THE ROMAN NAME OF ARES WAS MARS. HIS
SYMBOLS ARE THE SPERS , DOG ,HELMET
,CHARIOT AND THE BEAR. IN GREEK LITERATURE,
HE OFTEN REPRESENTS THE PHYSICAL OR VIOLENT
AND UNTAMED ASPECT OF WAR, IN CONTRAST TO
THE ARMORED ATHENA, WHOSE FUNCTIONS AS A
GODDESS OF INTELLIGENCE INCLUDE MILITARY
STRATEGY AND GENERALSHIP.
THE GREEKS WERE AMBIVALENT TOWARDS ARES:
ALTHOUGH HE EMBODIED THE PHYSICAL VALOR
NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS IN WAR, HE WAS
DANGEROUS FORCE, BATTLE, DESTRUCTIVE, AND
MEN SLAUGHTERING. FEAR AND TERROR WERE
THE HORSES THAT PULLED HIS BATTLE CHARIOT.
ARES IS THE SON OF ZEUS AND HERA, BUT HE
PLAYS A RELATIVELY LIMITED ROLE IN GREEK
MYTHOLOGY, THOUGH HIS NUMEROUS LOVE
AFFAIRS AND ABUNDANT OFFSPRING ARE
OFTEN ALLUDED TO. WHEN ARES DOES APPEAR
IN MYTHS, HE TYPICALLY FACE HUMILIATION.
HE IS WELL KNOWN AS THE LOVER OF
APHRODITE, THE GODDESS OF LOVE ,WHO WAS
MARRIED TO HEPHAESTUS, GOD OF
CRAFTSMANSHIP. THE MOST FAMOUS STORY
RELATED TO ARES AND APHRODITE SHOWS
THEM EXPOSED TO RIDICULS THROUGH THE
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
HEPHAESTUS:
THE ROMAN NAME OF HEPHAESTUS WAS THE VULCAN ,DOG OF THE FIRE
AND THE FORGE. HIS SYMOBLES ARE A SMITHS’ HAMMER ,ANVIL, AND
A PAIR OF TONGS. HE IS OFTEN DEPICTED HUNCHING OR SITTING
DOWN BECAUSE OF HIS INJURIES .AS A SMITING GOD, HEPHAESTUS
MADE ALL THE WEAPONS OF THE GODS IN OLYMPUS. HE
SERVED AS THE BLACKSMITH OF THE GODS
AND WAS WORSHIPPED IN THE INDUSTRIAL
CENTRES OF GREECE, PARTICULARLY ATHENS.
HE DESIGNED HERMES’ WINGED HELMET AND SANDLES,APHRODITES ’
FAMED GIRDLE. HEPHAESTUS ALSO CREATED THE GIFT THAT GOD
GAVE TO MEN , THE WOMEN PANDORA AND HER FAMOUS BOX. BEING
SKILLED BLACKSMITH, HEPHAESTUS CREATED ALL THE PLACE OF
OLYMPUS.
ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT SOURCES , HE IS
EITHER THE SON OF ZEUS AND HERA
TOGHTER, OR HERA GAVE BIRTH TO HIM BY
HERSELF. IN BOTH MYTHS HERA WAS THEN
DISGUSTED WITH HEPHAESTUS’ UGLISS AND
THREW HIM FROM MOUNT OLYMPUS TO THE
EARTH BELOW. HOWEVER HEPHAESTUS GAINED
A REVENGE AGAINST HERA.
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
APOLLO:
THE ROMAN NAME OF APOLLO WAS THE PHOEBUS
APOLLO, GOG OF LIGHT AND SUN.HIS SYMBOLS ARE
THE LYRE ,LAURELWREATH , RAVEN, AND THE BOW
AND THE ARROW. THE IDEAL OF THE KOUROS(A
BEARDLESS ,ATHLETIC YOUTH), APOLLO IS THE SON
OF ZEUS ANDLETO, ANDHAS A TWIN SISTER , THE
CHASTE HUNTRESS ARTEMIS.
AS THE PATRON OF DELPHI APOLLO WAS AN
ORACULAR GOD- THE PROPHETIC DEITY OF THE
DELPHIC ORACLE. MEDICINE AND HEALING ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH APOLLO, YET APOLLO WAS ALSO
SEEN AS GOD WHO COULD BRING ILL-HEALTH AND
DEADLY PLAGUE. AS THE LEADER OF THE MUSES AND
HERMES CREATED THE LYRE FOR HIM , AND THE
INSTRUMENT BECAME A COMMON ATTRIBUTE OF
APOLLO. HYMNS SUNG TO APOLLO WERE CALLED
PAEANS.
WHEN THE ZEUS WIFE HERA DISCOVERED THAT
LETO WAS PREGNANT, SHE BANNED LETO FROM
GIVING BIRTH ON LAND. LETO FOUND THE NEWLY
CREATED FLOATING ISLAND OF DELOS, WHICH
WAS NEITHER MAINLAND NOR ISLAND. SHE GAVE
BIRTH THERE AND WAS ACCEPTED BY THE PEOPLE,
OFFERING THEM HER PROMISE THAT HER SON
WOULD BE ALWAYS FAVORABLE TOWARD THE
CITY. AFTERWARDS, ZEUS SECURED DELOS TO
THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN. THIS ISLAND LATER
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
ARTEMIS:
VIRGINITY .HER SYMBOLS ARE THE STAGE, CYPRESS,
TREE AND THE MOON. SHE IS PROTECTOR OF YOUNG
GIRLS, BRINGING AND RELIEVING DISEASE IN WOMEN.
SHE CARRYING A BOW AND ARROW.ARTEMIS IS
NORMALLY GOOD AND JUST, BUT DEMANDS A
HUMAN SACRIFICE DURING THE TROJAN HORSE.
THE ROMAN NAME OF ARTEMIS WAS DIANA, GODDESS
OF HUNT WILD, ANIMALS ,WILDNESS, CHILDBIRTH.
ARTEMIS IS THE DAUGHTER OF ZEUS AND LETO, AND
HAS A TWIN BROTHER, APOLLO. WHEN ZEUS WIFE
HERA DISCOVERED THAT LETO WAS PREGNANT AND
THE ZEUS WAS THE FATHER, SHE BANNED LETO FROM
GIVING BIRTH ON LAND. IN HER WANDERING , LETO
DELOS, WHICH WAS NEITHER MAINLAND NOR A
REAL ISLAND. SHE GAVE BIRTH THERE AND
WAS ACCEPTED BY THE PEOPLE, OFFERING
THEM HER PROMISE THAT HER SON WOULD BE
ALWAYS FAVORABLE TOWARD THE CITY.
AFTARWARD, ZEUS SECURED DELOS TO THE
BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN. IT IS ALSO STATED
THAT HERA KIDNAPPED EILEITHYIA, THE
GODDESS OF CHILDBIRTH, TO PREVENT LETO
FROM GOING INTO LABOR. THE OTHER GOD
TRICKED HERA INTO LETTING HER GO BY
OFFERING HER A NECKLACE, NINE YARD(8M)
LONG, OF AMBER. MOST BELIEVED THAT
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
DIONYSUS:
THE ROMAN NAME OF DIONYSUS WAS THE
BACCHUS, THE GOD OF THE GRAPE
HARVEST,WINEMAKIND AND WINE ,OF RITUAL
AND ECSTASY. HIS SYMBOLS ARE THE BULL,
SERPENT, IVY, AND WINE. IN GREEK
MYTHOLOGY, HE IS PRESENTED AS A SON OF
ZEUS AND THE MORTAL SEMELE, THUS SEMI-
DIVINE. DIONYSUS WAS THE LAST GOD TO BE
ACCEPTED INTO MT.OLYMPUS. HE WAS THE
YOUNGEST AND THE ONLY ONE TO HAVE A
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
ATHENA:
THE GREEK NAME OF ATHENA WAS MINERVA, GODDESS
OF WISDOM , COURAGE,CIVILZATION,LAW AND
JUSTICE STRATEGE AND THE ARTS. HER SYMBOLS ARE
THE OWL ,OLIVE TREE, SNAKE, THE HELMET AND THE
SPEAR. SHE IS A COMPANION OF HEROES AND IS THE
GODDESS OF HEROIC ENDEAVOUR. SHE IS THE VIRGIN
PATRON SAINT OF ATHENS. THE ATHENIANS
FOUNDED THE PARTHENON ON THE ACROPOLIS OF
HER NAMESAKE CITY, ATHENS(ATHENA PARTHENOS),
IN HER HONOR.
ATHENA WAS THE FAVORITE DAUGHTER OF ZEUS,
BORN FULLY ARMED FROM HIS FOREHEAD. ATHENA
BECAME THE PATRON GODDESS OF THE CITY OF
THE PRIESTS OF ATHENA AND THE PRIEST OF
POSEIDON AGREED THAT EACH WOULD GIVE
THE ATHENIANS ONE GIFT AND THE
ATHENIANS WOULD CHOOSE WHICHEVER GIFT
THEY PREFERRED. POSEIDON STRUNK THE
GROUND WITH HIS TRIDENT AND A SPRING
SPRANGE UP; THE WATER WAS SALTY AND
NOT VERY USEFUL, WHEREAS ATHENA OFFERED
THEM AN OLIVE TREE. THE ATHENIANS
ACCEPTED THE OLIVE TREE AND ALONG WITH
IT ATHENA AS THEIR PATRON, FOR THE TREE
BROUGHT THE WOOD, OIL, AND FOOD.
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
HERMES:
THE GREEK NAME OF HERMES WAS THE MERCURY,
GOD OF TRANSITIONS AND BOUNDARIES’, HIS
SYMBOLS ARE THE ROOSTER AND THE TORTOISE,
PURSE AND POUCH WINGED SANDALS AND
WINGED CAP.
HIS GREAT SYMBOL WAS THE HERALDS’ STAFF,
CADUCEUS WHICH CONSISTED OF TWO SNAKES
WRAPPED AROUND A WINGED STAFF. HE WAS
QUICK AND CUNNING, AND MOVED FREELY
BETWEEN THE WORLD OF THE MORTAL AND
DIVINE ,AS EMISSARY AND MESSENGER OF THE
ACCORDING TO LEGEND, HERMES WAS BORN IN
A MOUNT CYLLENE IN ARCADIA. HE WAS
PROTECTOR AND PATRON OF TRAVELERS,
HERDSMEN, THIEVES, ORATORS AND WIT,
LITERATURE AND POETS, ATHLETICS AND
SPORTS, INVENTION AND TRADE. IN SOME
MYTHS HE IS A TRICKSTER, AND OUTWITS
OTHER GOD FOR HIS OWN SATISFACTION OR
THE SAKE OF HUMANKIND. HIS NAME COMING
FROM HERMA, A SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR
PILLAR IN EITHER STONE OR BRONZE, WITH
THE HEAD OF HERMES WHICH ADORNED THE
12 Great Olympians In Mythology
APHRODITE:
THE ROMAN NAME OF APHRODITE WAS THE VENUS, GODDESS
OF LOVE ,BEAUTY, PLEASURE AND PROCREATION. HER
SYMBOLS ARE THE DOLPHIN, ROSE, SCALLOPSHELL, MYRTLE
TREE, DOVE, SPARROW.
APHRODITE IS USUALLY SAID TO HAVE BEEN BORN NEAR HER
CHIEF CENTRE OF WORSHIP, PAPHOS, ON THE ISLAND OF
CYPRUS. SHE WAS BORN OUT OF SEA FOAM AS IT WASHED
UPON THE SHORE. BECAUSE OF HER BEAUTY, OTHER GODS
FEARED THAT THEIR RIVALRY OVER HER WOULD INTERRUPT
THE PEACE AMONG THEM AND LEAD TO WAR, ZEUS MARRIED
HER TO HEPHAESTUS, WHO BECAUSE OF HIS UGLINESS AND
DEFORMITY, WAS NOT SEEN AS A THREAT. HEPHAESTUS IS
OVERJOYED TO BE MARRIED TO THE GODDESS OF BEAUTY,
AND FORGES HER BEAUTIFUL JEWELRY, INCLUDING THE
CESTUS, A GIRDLE THAT MAKES HER MORE IRRESISTIBLE TO
MEN. BUT APHRODITE DID NOT LOVE HEPHAESTUS AND HAD
MANY LOVERS BOTH GODS, SUCH AS ARES,AND MEN.

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12 Great Olympians In Mythology

  • 1. ‘’PRESENTATION’’ Presented By : Laiba Yaseen Subject : Intro. To Mythology ‘’12 Great Olympians’’
  • 2. INTRODUCTION: THE GODS AND GODDESS ALL LIVED IN THE SKY ON TOP OF A HUGE MOUNTAIN CALLED MOUNT OLYMPUS. THE GREEK BELIEVED THAT THIS MOUNTAIN WAS SO TALL THAT TOUCHED THE SKY. THESE TWELVE GODS WERE THE PRINCIPAL CHARACTER IN MANY OF THE GREEK MYTHS AND THEY ALL PLAYED IMPORTANT ROLES IN EVERYDAY CLASSICAL GREEK LIFE. THE TWELVE OLYMPIANS: • ZEUS • HERA • POSEIDON • DEMETER • ARES • HEPHAESTUS • APOLLO • ARTEMES
  • 3. • ATHENA • HERMES • DIONYSUS • APHRODITE
  • 4. ZEUS: ZEUS IS THE FATHER OF GODS AND MEN WHO RULES THE OLYMPIANS OF MOUNT OLYMPUS AS A FATHER RULES A FAMILY ACCORDING TO ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION. HE IS GOD OF SKY AND THUNDER. ZEUS IS THE CHILD OF CRONUS AND RHEA, AND IS THE YOUNGEST OF HIS SIBLINGS. HE IS MARRIED TO HERA ,ALTHOUGH, HE IS KNOWN TO HAVE FATHERED MANY CHILDREN WITH OTHER WOMEN. HIS WEAPON IS THE THUNDERBOLT ,AND HIS BIRD IS THE EAGLE. THE CENTRAL FIGURE OF THE MYTH , ZEUS EPITOMIZE THEIR COMPLEXITY. AT TIME HE IS DIVINE AND REPRESENTS A PURE , ETERNAL
  • 6. HERA: HERA IS THE WIFE OF ZEUS . HER CHIEF FUNCTION IS AS THE GODDESS OF WOMEN AND MARRIAGE. THE ONLY CHILD THAT SHE HAD WITH ZEUS WAS ARES. HERA WAS JEALOUS OF ZEUS GIVING BIRTH TO ATHENA, SO, ACCORDING TO THE MYTH , SHE GAVE BIRTH TO HEPHAESTUS WITHOUT HIM. HERA WAS THEN DISGUSTED WITH HEPHAESTUS UGLINESS AND THREW HIM FROM MOUT OLYMPUS TO THE EARTH BELOW. SHE IS OFTEN VICIOUS AND SPITEFUL, AND IT IS USUALLY ZEUS INFIDELITY THAT INCITES HER. MANY UNFORTUNATE MORTALS ENDURE
  • 8. POSEIDON: POSEIDON ROMAN NAME NEPTUNE, THE GOD OF THE SEA . POSEIDON IS ZEUS’ BROTHER AND SECOND ONLY TO HIM IN POWER. POSEIDON HOLDS A DECADE-LONG GRUDGE AGAINST ODYSSEUS. THE OFTEN CRUEL AND UNPREDICTABLE VIOLENCE OF THE SEAS IS ASSUMED TO BE A RESULT OF HIS ANGER. POSEIDON WAS ALSO SEEN AS THE CREATOR OF NEW ISLAND AND CALM SEAS. WHEN OFFENDED OR IGNORED, HE SUPPOSEDLY STRUNK THE GROUND WITH HIS TRIDENT AND CAUSED CHAOTIC SPRINGS, EARTHQUAKES, DRAWINGS AND SHIP WRECKS. SAILORS OFTEN PRAYED TO POSEIDON FOR A SAFE VOYAGE. POSEIDON RIDES ON CHARIOT THAT WAS PULLED BY HORSES THAT COULD RIDE ON SEA. HE LIVED ON PALACE ON THE OCEAN FLOOR, MADE OF CORAL AS GEMS.
  • 10. DEMETER: DEMETER ROMAN NAME WAS CERES , SHE WAS THE GODDESS OF GRAIN OR CROPS . SHE PRESIDED ALSO OVER THE SANCTITY OF MARRIAGE, AND THE CYCLE OF LIFE AND DEATH. DEMETERS’ EMBLEM IS THE POPPY , A BRIGHT RED FLOWER THAT GROWS AMONG THE BARLEY. DEMETER WAS USUALLY PORTRAYED ON A CHARIOT, AND FREQUENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH IMAGES OF HARVEST, INCLUDING FLOWERS, FRUIT AND GRAINS. SHE WAS ALSO SOMETIMES PICTURED WITH HER DAUGHTER PERSEPHONE.
  • 11. DEMETERS’ VIRGIN DAUGHTER PERSEPHONE WAS ABDUCTED TO THE UNDERWORLD BY HADES AFTER HADES FELL IN LOVE WITH HER UPON SEEING HER BEAUTY. DEMETER SEARCHED FOR HER WITHOUT STOPPING , PREOCCUPIED WITH HER LOSS AND HER GRIEF. THE SEASONS HALTED; LIVING THINGS CAUSED THEIR GROWTH, THEN BEGAN TO DIE. FACED WITH THE EXTINCTION OF ALL LIFE ON EARTH, ZEUS SENT HIS MESSENGER HERMOS TO THE TO BRING THE PERSEPHONE BACK. HADES AGREED TO RELEASE HER, BUT TRICKED HER INTO EATING AN ENCHANTED POMEGRANATE. WHEN SHE ATE THE POMEGRANATE SEEDS, SHE WAS BOUND TO HIM FOR ONE FOURTH OF THE YEAR. THUS, DEMETER WAS ALLOWED TO BE WITH HER DAUGHTER FOR THE THREE FOURTH OF THE YEAR( SPRING, SUMMER, AND FALL ) DURING WHICH PLANTS BLOSSOM AND BLOOM AND CROPS PRODUCE FOOD BECAUSE DEMETER IS HAPPY.
  • 13. ARES: THE ROMAN NAME OF ARES WAS MARS. HIS SYMBOLS ARE THE SPERS , DOG ,HELMET ,CHARIOT AND THE BEAR. IN GREEK LITERATURE, HE OFTEN REPRESENTS THE PHYSICAL OR VIOLENT AND UNTAMED ASPECT OF WAR, IN CONTRAST TO THE ARMORED ATHENA, WHOSE FUNCTIONS AS A GODDESS OF INTELLIGENCE INCLUDE MILITARY STRATEGY AND GENERALSHIP. THE GREEKS WERE AMBIVALENT TOWARDS ARES: ALTHOUGH HE EMBODIED THE PHYSICAL VALOR NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS IN WAR, HE WAS DANGEROUS FORCE, BATTLE, DESTRUCTIVE, AND MEN SLAUGHTERING. FEAR AND TERROR WERE THE HORSES THAT PULLED HIS BATTLE CHARIOT.
  • 14. ARES IS THE SON OF ZEUS AND HERA, BUT HE PLAYS A RELATIVELY LIMITED ROLE IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY, THOUGH HIS NUMEROUS LOVE AFFAIRS AND ABUNDANT OFFSPRING ARE OFTEN ALLUDED TO. WHEN ARES DOES APPEAR IN MYTHS, HE TYPICALLY FACE HUMILIATION. HE IS WELL KNOWN AS THE LOVER OF APHRODITE, THE GODDESS OF LOVE ,WHO WAS MARRIED TO HEPHAESTUS, GOD OF CRAFTSMANSHIP. THE MOST FAMOUS STORY RELATED TO ARES AND APHRODITE SHOWS THEM EXPOSED TO RIDICULS THROUGH THE
  • 16. HEPHAESTUS: THE ROMAN NAME OF HEPHAESTUS WAS THE VULCAN ,DOG OF THE FIRE AND THE FORGE. HIS SYMOBLES ARE A SMITHS’ HAMMER ,ANVIL, AND A PAIR OF TONGS. HE IS OFTEN DEPICTED HUNCHING OR SITTING DOWN BECAUSE OF HIS INJURIES .AS A SMITING GOD, HEPHAESTUS MADE ALL THE WEAPONS OF THE GODS IN OLYMPUS. HE SERVED AS THE BLACKSMITH OF THE GODS AND WAS WORSHIPPED IN THE INDUSTRIAL CENTRES OF GREECE, PARTICULARLY ATHENS. HE DESIGNED HERMES’ WINGED HELMET AND SANDLES,APHRODITES ’ FAMED GIRDLE. HEPHAESTUS ALSO CREATED THE GIFT THAT GOD GAVE TO MEN , THE WOMEN PANDORA AND HER FAMOUS BOX. BEING SKILLED BLACKSMITH, HEPHAESTUS CREATED ALL THE PLACE OF OLYMPUS.
  • 17. ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT SOURCES , HE IS EITHER THE SON OF ZEUS AND HERA TOGHTER, OR HERA GAVE BIRTH TO HIM BY HERSELF. IN BOTH MYTHS HERA WAS THEN DISGUSTED WITH HEPHAESTUS’ UGLISS AND THREW HIM FROM MOUNT OLYMPUS TO THE EARTH BELOW. HOWEVER HEPHAESTUS GAINED A REVENGE AGAINST HERA.
  • 19. APOLLO: THE ROMAN NAME OF APOLLO WAS THE PHOEBUS APOLLO, GOG OF LIGHT AND SUN.HIS SYMBOLS ARE THE LYRE ,LAURELWREATH , RAVEN, AND THE BOW AND THE ARROW. THE IDEAL OF THE KOUROS(A BEARDLESS ,ATHLETIC YOUTH), APOLLO IS THE SON OF ZEUS ANDLETO, ANDHAS A TWIN SISTER , THE CHASTE HUNTRESS ARTEMIS. AS THE PATRON OF DELPHI APOLLO WAS AN ORACULAR GOD- THE PROPHETIC DEITY OF THE DELPHIC ORACLE. MEDICINE AND HEALING ARE ASSOCIATED WITH APOLLO, YET APOLLO WAS ALSO SEEN AS GOD WHO COULD BRING ILL-HEALTH AND DEADLY PLAGUE. AS THE LEADER OF THE MUSES AND
  • 20. HERMES CREATED THE LYRE FOR HIM , AND THE INSTRUMENT BECAME A COMMON ATTRIBUTE OF APOLLO. HYMNS SUNG TO APOLLO WERE CALLED PAEANS. WHEN THE ZEUS WIFE HERA DISCOVERED THAT LETO WAS PREGNANT, SHE BANNED LETO FROM GIVING BIRTH ON LAND. LETO FOUND THE NEWLY CREATED FLOATING ISLAND OF DELOS, WHICH WAS NEITHER MAINLAND NOR ISLAND. SHE GAVE BIRTH THERE AND WAS ACCEPTED BY THE PEOPLE, OFFERING THEM HER PROMISE THAT HER SON WOULD BE ALWAYS FAVORABLE TOWARD THE CITY. AFTERWARDS, ZEUS SECURED DELOS TO THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN. THIS ISLAND LATER
  • 22. ARTEMIS: VIRGINITY .HER SYMBOLS ARE THE STAGE, CYPRESS, TREE AND THE MOON. SHE IS PROTECTOR OF YOUNG GIRLS, BRINGING AND RELIEVING DISEASE IN WOMEN. SHE CARRYING A BOW AND ARROW.ARTEMIS IS NORMALLY GOOD AND JUST, BUT DEMANDS A HUMAN SACRIFICE DURING THE TROJAN HORSE. THE ROMAN NAME OF ARTEMIS WAS DIANA, GODDESS OF HUNT WILD, ANIMALS ,WILDNESS, CHILDBIRTH. ARTEMIS IS THE DAUGHTER OF ZEUS AND LETO, AND HAS A TWIN BROTHER, APOLLO. WHEN ZEUS WIFE HERA DISCOVERED THAT LETO WAS PREGNANT AND THE ZEUS WAS THE FATHER, SHE BANNED LETO FROM GIVING BIRTH ON LAND. IN HER WANDERING , LETO
  • 23. DELOS, WHICH WAS NEITHER MAINLAND NOR A REAL ISLAND. SHE GAVE BIRTH THERE AND WAS ACCEPTED BY THE PEOPLE, OFFERING THEM HER PROMISE THAT HER SON WOULD BE ALWAYS FAVORABLE TOWARD THE CITY. AFTARWARD, ZEUS SECURED DELOS TO THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN. IT IS ALSO STATED THAT HERA KIDNAPPED EILEITHYIA, THE GODDESS OF CHILDBIRTH, TO PREVENT LETO FROM GOING INTO LABOR. THE OTHER GOD TRICKED HERA INTO LETTING HER GO BY OFFERING HER A NECKLACE, NINE YARD(8M) LONG, OF AMBER. MOST BELIEVED THAT
  • 25. DIONYSUS: THE ROMAN NAME OF DIONYSUS WAS THE BACCHUS, THE GOD OF THE GRAPE HARVEST,WINEMAKIND AND WINE ,OF RITUAL AND ECSTASY. HIS SYMBOLS ARE THE BULL, SERPENT, IVY, AND WINE. IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY, HE IS PRESENTED AS A SON OF ZEUS AND THE MORTAL SEMELE, THUS SEMI- DIVINE. DIONYSUS WAS THE LAST GOD TO BE ACCEPTED INTO MT.OLYMPUS. HE WAS THE YOUNGEST AND THE ONLY ONE TO HAVE A
  • 27. ATHENA: THE GREEK NAME OF ATHENA WAS MINERVA, GODDESS OF WISDOM , COURAGE,CIVILZATION,LAW AND JUSTICE STRATEGE AND THE ARTS. HER SYMBOLS ARE THE OWL ,OLIVE TREE, SNAKE, THE HELMET AND THE SPEAR. SHE IS A COMPANION OF HEROES AND IS THE GODDESS OF HEROIC ENDEAVOUR. SHE IS THE VIRGIN PATRON SAINT OF ATHENS. THE ATHENIANS FOUNDED THE PARTHENON ON THE ACROPOLIS OF HER NAMESAKE CITY, ATHENS(ATHENA PARTHENOS), IN HER HONOR. ATHENA WAS THE FAVORITE DAUGHTER OF ZEUS, BORN FULLY ARMED FROM HIS FOREHEAD. ATHENA BECAME THE PATRON GODDESS OF THE CITY OF
  • 28. THE PRIESTS OF ATHENA AND THE PRIEST OF POSEIDON AGREED THAT EACH WOULD GIVE THE ATHENIANS ONE GIFT AND THE ATHENIANS WOULD CHOOSE WHICHEVER GIFT THEY PREFERRED. POSEIDON STRUNK THE GROUND WITH HIS TRIDENT AND A SPRING SPRANGE UP; THE WATER WAS SALTY AND NOT VERY USEFUL, WHEREAS ATHENA OFFERED THEM AN OLIVE TREE. THE ATHENIANS ACCEPTED THE OLIVE TREE AND ALONG WITH IT ATHENA AS THEIR PATRON, FOR THE TREE BROUGHT THE WOOD, OIL, AND FOOD.
  • 30. HERMES: THE GREEK NAME OF HERMES WAS THE MERCURY, GOD OF TRANSITIONS AND BOUNDARIES’, HIS SYMBOLS ARE THE ROOSTER AND THE TORTOISE, PURSE AND POUCH WINGED SANDALS AND WINGED CAP. HIS GREAT SYMBOL WAS THE HERALDS’ STAFF, CADUCEUS WHICH CONSISTED OF TWO SNAKES WRAPPED AROUND A WINGED STAFF. HE WAS QUICK AND CUNNING, AND MOVED FREELY BETWEEN THE WORLD OF THE MORTAL AND DIVINE ,AS EMISSARY AND MESSENGER OF THE
  • 31. ACCORDING TO LEGEND, HERMES WAS BORN IN A MOUNT CYLLENE IN ARCADIA. HE WAS PROTECTOR AND PATRON OF TRAVELERS, HERDSMEN, THIEVES, ORATORS AND WIT, LITERATURE AND POETS, ATHLETICS AND SPORTS, INVENTION AND TRADE. IN SOME MYTHS HE IS A TRICKSTER, AND OUTWITS OTHER GOD FOR HIS OWN SATISFACTION OR THE SAKE OF HUMANKIND. HIS NAME COMING FROM HERMA, A SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR PILLAR IN EITHER STONE OR BRONZE, WITH THE HEAD OF HERMES WHICH ADORNED THE
  • 33. APHRODITE: THE ROMAN NAME OF APHRODITE WAS THE VENUS, GODDESS OF LOVE ,BEAUTY, PLEASURE AND PROCREATION. HER SYMBOLS ARE THE DOLPHIN, ROSE, SCALLOPSHELL, MYRTLE TREE, DOVE, SPARROW. APHRODITE IS USUALLY SAID TO HAVE BEEN BORN NEAR HER CHIEF CENTRE OF WORSHIP, PAPHOS, ON THE ISLAND OF CYPRUS. SHE WAS BORN OUT OF SEA FOAM AS IT WASHED UPON THE SHORE. BECAUSE OF HER BEAUTY, OTHER GODS FEARED THAT THEIR RIVALRY OVER HER WOULD INTERRUPT THE PEACE AMONG THEM AND LEAD TO WAR, ZEUS MARRIED HER TO HEPHAESTUS, WHO BECAUSE OF HIS UGLINESS AND DEFORMITY, WAS NOT SEEN AS A THREAT. HEPHAESTUS IS OVERJOYED TO BE MARRIED TO THE GODDESS OF BEAUTY, AND FORGES HER BEAUTIFUL JEWELRY, INCLUDING THE CESTUS, A GIRDLE THAT MAKES HER MORE IRRESISTIBLE TO MEN. BUT APHRODITE DID NOT LOVE HEPHAESTUS AND HAD MANY LOVERS BOTH GODS, SUCH AS ARES,AND MEN.