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RELIGIONAND SOCIETY
ANINTRODUCTION/
SPIRITUALAND SOCIAL
WORK
What is
Religion?
Pioneer sociologist Émile Durkheim
described it with the ethereal
statement that it consists of
“things that surpass the limits of
our knowledge”.
RELIGION
Religion is “a unified system of
beliefs and practices relative to
sacred things, that is to say set
apart and forbidden, beliefs
and practices which unite into
one single moral community,
called a church, all those who
adhere to them”
TheSociological
approach toReligion
From the Latin religio (respect for what is
sacred) and religare (to bind, in the
sense of an obligation)
the term religion describes various
systems of belief and practice concerning
what people determine to be sacred or
spiritual (Durkheim 1915; Fasching and
deChant 2001
).
Throughout history, and in societies
across the world, leaders have used
religious narratives, symbols, and
traditions in an attempt to give more
meaning to life and understand the
universe.
music and art,
meditation or initiation,
sacrifice or service, and
other aspects of culture.
feasts and
festivals,
God or gods,
marriage and
funeral services
The practice of religion can include:
religion is also a social institution.
Social scientists recognize that
religion exists as an organized
and integrated set of beliefs,
behaviours, and norms centred
on basic social needs and
values.
Moreover, religion is a cultural
universal found in all social
groups.
In studying religion, sociologists
distinguish between what they
term the experience, beliefs,
and rituals of a religion.
Religious
experience
refers to the conviction
or sensation that one is
connected to “the
divine.”
Religious beliefs
are specific ideas that
members of a particular
faith hold to be true, such
as that Jesus Christ was
the son of God, or
believing in reincarnation.
are behaviours or practices that
are either required or expected
of the members of a particular
group.
Religious rituals
TheHistory of Religion
asaSociological
Concept
Three
attempted
social
to
theorists
examine the
relationship between religion
and society:
Émile Durkheim,
Max Weber, and
Karl Marx
French sociologist, defined
religion as a “unified system
of beliefs and practices
relative to sacred things”
(1915).
Émile Durkheim (1858–1917)
He argued that “religion
happens” in society when
there is
between
(ordinary
a separation
the profane
life) and the
sacred (1915).
Durkheim believed that religion is about
community:
it binds people together (social
cohesion),
promotes behaviour consistency
(social control), and
offers strength for people during
life’s transitions and tragedies
(meaning and purpose).
He held that the source of
religion and morality is
the collective mind-set of
society and that the
cohesive bonds of social
order result from common
values in a society.
Religion then provided differing
degrees of “social cement” that
held societies and cultures
together.
But what would
happen if
religion were to
decline?
This question led Durkheim
to posit that religion is not
just a social creation but
something that represents
the power of society: when
people celebrate sacred
things, they celebrate the
power of their society.
In this work he was not interested in the
theological questions of God’s existence
or purpose, but in developing a very
secular, sociological question: Whether
God exists or not, how does religion
function socially in a society?
Durkheim sociological analysis of
religion in The Elementary Forms of
the Religious Life (1912)
“There are no religions which
are false” (Durkheim 1912)
key
social
Religion performs the
function of providing
solidarity in a society.
The rituals, the worship
of icons, and the belief
in supernatural beings
“excite, maintain or
recreate certain mental
states” (Durkheim 1912)
that bring people
together, provide a
ritual and symbolic
focus, and unify them.
German sociologist and political
economist, believed that religion was
a precipitator of social change.
He wrote the The Protestant Work
Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
(1905)
Max Weber (1864–1920)
He contends that the Protestant work ethic
influenced the development of capitalism by
overturning the traditional anti-materialist
Christian values of poverty.
Weber noted that certain kinds of
Protestantism supported the pursuit
of material gain by motivating
believers to work hard, be successful,
and not spend their profits on
frivolous things.
Material wealth was no longer seen
as a sign of sin, but as a sign of
God’s favour.
German philosopher, journalist, and
revolutionary socialist, also studied the
social impact of religion.
He believed religion reflects the social
stratification of society and that it
maintains inequality and perpetuates the
status quo.
Karl Marx (1818–1883)
For him,
extension
religion was just an
of working-class
(proletariat) economic suffering.
“Religion is the sigh of the
oppressed creature, the heart of a
heartless world, and the soul of
soulless conditions. It is the opium
of the people” (1844).
Theoretical
Perspectives
on Religion
Sociologists often apply one of three
major theoretical perspectives.
These views offer different lenses
through which to study and
understand society:
functionalism,
symbolic interactionism,
and critical sociology.
Functionalists contend that religion
serves several functions in society.
Religion, in fact, depends on society
for its existence, value, and
significance, and vice versa.
Functionalism
From this perspective, religion
serves several purposes like:
providing answers to spiritual
mysteries,
offering emotional comfort,
and
creating a place for social
interaction and social control.
One of the most important
functions of religion, from a
functionalist perspective, is
the opportunities it creates
for social interaction and
the formation of groups.
Religion promotes social
control: it reinforces social
norms such as appropriate
styles of dress, following
the law, and regulating
sexual behaviour.
Critical theorists view religion as
an institution that helps maintain
patterns of social inequality.
Critical Sociology
According to this
perspective, religion has
been used to support the
“divine right” of
oppressive monarchs and
to justify unequal social
structures, like India’s
caste system.
But humankind has a way of
responding to perceived injustices
and religions that lose relevancy.
One of the fastest growing
arenas of global Christianity are
the Evangelical churches that are
making formidable inroads not
only in North America, but even
more so in South America.
Critical theorists
about the way
are concerned
many religions
promote the idea that one should
be satisfied
circumstances
with existing
because they are
divinely ordained.
Critical theorists also point out that
those in power in a religion are often
able to dictate practices, rituals, and
beliefs through their interpretation of
religious texts or via proclaimed direct
communication from the divine.
The feminist perspective focuses
specifically on gender inequality.
In terms
theorists
of
assert
religion,
that,
feminist
although
women are typically the ones to
socialize children into a religion,
they have traditionally held very
few positions of power within
religions.
To interactionists, beliefs and
experiences are not sacred
unless individuals in a society
regard them as sacred.
Symbolic Interactionism
The Star of David in Judaism,
the cross in Christianity, and the
crescent and star in Islam are
examples of sacred symbols.
Interactionists are interested in
what these symbols
communicate.
As interactionists study one-
on-one everyday interactions
between individuals, a scholar
using this approach might ask
questions focused on this
dynamic;
The interaction between
religious leaders and
practitioners,
the role of religion in
the banal components
of everyday life, and
the ways people express
religious values in social
interactions—all might
be topics of study to an
interactionist.
Typesof
Religious
Organization
Religions organize themselves—
their institutions, practitioners, and
structures—in a variety of fashions.
Sociologists use different terms,
like ecclesia, denomination, and
sect, to define these types of
organizations.
are new religious groups. In
popular usage, this term often
carries pejorative connotations.
Today, the term “cult” is used
interchangeably with the term
new religious movement (NRM).
Cults
a sect is breakaway group that
may be in tension with larger
society. They sometimes claim to
be returning to “the
fundamentals” or to contest the
veracity of a particular doctrine.
Sect
a small and relatively new group.
When membership in a sect
increases over time, it may grow
into a denomination.
Often a sect begins as an offshoot
of a denomination, when a group
of members believes they should
separate from the larger group.
Some sects evolve without growing into
denominations. Sociologists call these
established sects.
a large, mainstream religious
organization, but it does not
claim to be official or state
sponsored.
It is one religion among many.
Denomination
a political
in ancient
refers to a
originally referring to
assembly of citizens
Athens, Greece, now
congregation.
In sociology, the term is used to
refer to a religious group that most
members of a society belong to.
Ecclesia
It is considered a nationally
recognized, or official,
religion that holds a religious
monopoly and is closely
allied with state and secular
powers.
Types of Religions
Religionand
SocialChange
Religion has historically been a
major impetus to social change. In
early Europe, the translation of
sacred texts into everyday, non-
scholarly language empowered
people to shape their religions.
Disagreements between
religious groups and
instances of religious
persecution have led to
mass resettlement, war,
and even genocide.
as a social and historical process has
been outlined by the sociologist Jose
Casanova as three interrelated trends,
all open to debate:
1)the decline of religious beliefs and
practices in modern societies,
2) the privatization of religion, and
Secularization
3) the differentiation of the secular
spheres (state, economy, science),
usually understood as “emancipation”
from religious institutions and norms
(Casanova 2006).
Historical sociologists Émile
Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx
and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
anticipated secularization,
that the modernization of
claiming
society
would bring about a decrease in the
influence of religion.
Conversely, some people
contend that secularization is
a root cause of many social
problems, such as;
divorce,
drug use, and
educational downturn
Spirituality
and
SocialWork
Whatis
spirituality?
is an aspect of religious
traditions, and also of existential
value systems.
It comes from the Latin word
spiritus, meaning breath of life.
Spirituality
Spirituality is a broad concept
with room for many perspectives.
In general, it includes a sense of
connection to something bigger
than ourselves, and it typically
involves a search for meaning in
life.
People may describe a
spiritual experience as
sacred or transcendent
or simply a deep sense
of aliveness and
interconnectedness.
Spiritual questions
For many, spirituality is connected to large
questions about life and identity, such as:
1.Am Ia good person?
2.What is the meaning of my suffering?
3.What is my connection to the world
around me?
4.Do things happen for a reason?
5.How can Ilive my life in the best way
possible?
Spirituality is not a single
path or belief system. There
are many ways to
experience spirituality and
the benefits of a spiritual
experience.
Asking deep questions about topics such
as suffering and what happens after death
Deepening connections with other people
Experiencing compassion and empathy for
others
Experiencing feelings of
interconnectedness
Signs of Spirituality
Feelings of awe and wonder
Seeking happiness beyond
material possessions or other
external rewards
Seeking meaning and purpose
Wanting to make the world a
better place
Buddhism
Christianity
Hinduism
Humanism
Islam
Judaism
New age
spirituality
Sikhism
Types of Spirituality
There are a number of different
reasons why people may turn to
spirituality, including but not limited to:
To find purpose and meaning
To cope with feelings of stress,
depression, and anxiety
To restore hope and optimism.
To find a sense of community and
support
Relationshipbetweenreligionandspirituality
Prayer and spirituality have been linked
to:
Better health
Greater psychological well-being
Less depression
Less hypertension
Less stress, even during difficult times
More positive feelings
Superior ability to handle stress
Impact of Spirituality
Some things you can do to start
exploring spirituality include:
Pay attention to how you are
feeling
Focus on others
Meditate
Practice gratitude
Try mindfulness
One potential pitfall of spirituality is a
phenomenon known as spiritual bypassing.
This involves a tendency to use spirituality
as a way to avoid or sidestep problems,
emotions, or conflicts.
Potential Pitfalls
Spirituality can enrich your
life and lead to a number of
benefits, but it is important
to be cautious to not let
spiritual ideals lead to pitfalls
such as dogmatism or a
reason to ignore the needs
of others.
Whatis
SocialWork?
Social work is a practice-based
profession that promotes social
change, development, cohesion
and the empowerment of
people and communities.
Social work professionals working with families
and institutions have helped to provide and
advance the following social impacts:
Civil Rights
Unemployment Insurance
Disability Pay
Worker’s Compensation
Reduced Mental Health Stigma
Medicaid and Medicare
Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention
Social workers are
professionals who aim
to enhance overall well-
and help meet
and complex
being
basic
needs of communities
and people.
The roles of a social worker include many
diverse specializations. Here are some
common responsibilities of social workers
organized by different specialty areas:
Child, family, and school social workers
Medical and public health social workers
Mental health and substance abuse
social workers
Empathy
Organization
Communication
Problem-Solving
Patience
Social Worker Skills
Whyare
social
workers
important?
The work of a social worker goes beyond just
helping people in need.
From promoting core values of compassion and
service to others to framing research within the
field to informing policy, social workers actively
address and stand up for human rights and
social injustices.
They strengthen individual people, communities,
and try to give voice to the unheard.
Thank you
for listening!
Reported by:Group
1
1BSED 2A

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11. Religion and Society An Intro. and Sprituality and Social Work.pptx

  • 3. Pioneer sociologist Émile Durkheim described it with the ethereal statement that it consists of “things that surpass the limits of our knowledge”. RELIGION
  • 4. Religion is “a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say set apart and forbidden, beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community, called a church, all those who adhere to them”
  • 6. From the Latin religio (respect for what is sacred) and religare (to bind, in the sense of an obligation) the term religion describes various systems of belief and practice concerning what people determine to be sacred or spiritual (Durkheim 1915; Fasching and deChant 2001 ).
  • 7. Throughout history, and in societies across the world, leaders have used religious narratives, symbols, and traditions in an attempt to give more meaning to life and understand the universe.
  • 8. music and art, meditation or initiation, sacrifice or service, and other aspects of culture. feasts and festivals, God or gods, marriage and funeral services The practice of religion can include:
  • 9. religion is also a social institution. Social scientists recognize that religion exists as an organized and integrated set of beliefs, behaviours, and norms centred on basic social needs and values.
  • 10. Moreover, religion is a cultural universal found in all social groups. In studying religion, sociologists distinguish between what they term the experience, beliefs, and rituals of a religion.
  • 11. Religious experience refers to the conviction or sensation that one is connected to “the divine.”
  • 12. Religious beliefs are specific ideas that members of a particular faith hold to be true, such as that Jesus Christ was the son of God, or believing in reincarnation.
  • 13. are behaviours or practices that are either required or expected of the members of a particular group. Religious rituals
  • 15. Three attempted social to theorists examine the relationship between religion and society: Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx
  • 16. French sociologist, defined religion as a “unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things” (1915). Émile Durkheim (1858–1917)
  • 17. He argued that “religion happens” in society when there is between (ordinary a separation the profane life) and the sacred (1915).
  • 18. Durkheim believed that religion is about community: it binds people together (social cohesion), promotes behaviour consistency (social control), and offers strength for people during life’s transitions and tragedies (meaning and purpose).
  • 19. He held that the source of religion and morality is the collective mind-set of society and that the cohesive bonds of social order result from common values in a society.
  • 20. Religion then provided differing degrees of “social cement” that held societies and cultures together.
  • 21. But what would happen if religion were to decline?
  • 22. This question led Durkheim to posit that religion is not just a social creation but something that represents the power of society: when people celebrate sacred things, they celebrate the power of their society.
  • 23. In this work he was not interested in the theological questions of God’s existence or purpose, but in developing a very secular, sociological question: Whether God exists or not, how does religion function socially in a society? Durkheim sociological analysis of religion in The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912)
  • 24. “There are no religions which are false” (Durkheim 1912) key social Religion performs the function of providing solidarity in a society.
  • 25. The rituals, the worship of icons, and the belief in supernatural beings “excite, maintain or recreate certain mental states” (Durkheim 1912) that bring people together, provide a ritual and symbolic focus, and unify them.
  • 26. German sociologist and political economist, believed that religion was a precipitator of social change. He wrote the The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) Max Weber (1864–1920)
  • 27. He contends that the Protestant work ethic influenced the development of capitalism by overturning the traditional anti-materialist Christian values of poverty.
  • 28. Weber noted that certain kinds of Protestantism supported the pursuit of material gain by motivating believers to work hard, be successful, and not spend their profits on frivolous things. Material wealth was no longer seen as a sign of sin, but as a sign of God’s favour.
  • 29. German philosopher, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, also studied the social impact of religion. He believed religion reflects the social stratification of society and that it maintains inequality and perpetuates the status quo. Karl Marx (1818–1883)
  • 30. For him, extension religion was just an of working-class (proletariat) economic suffering. “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people” (1844).
  • 32. Sociologists often apply one of three major theoretical perspectives. These views offer different lenses through which to study and understand society: functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and critical sociology.
  • 33. Functionalists contend that religion serves several functions in society. Religion, in fact, depends on society for its existence, value, and significance, and vice versa. Functionalism
  • 34. From this perspective, religion serves several purposes like: providing answers to spiritual mysteries, offering emotional comfort, and creating a place for social interaction and social control.
  • 35. One of the most important functions of religion, from a functionalist perspective, is the opportunities it creates for social interaction and the formation of groups.
  • 36. Religion promotes social control: it reinforces social norms such as appropriate styles of dress, following the law, and regulating sexual behaviour.
  • 37. Critical theorists view religion as an institution that helps maintain patterns of social inequality. Critical Sociology
  • 38. According to this perspective, religion has been used to support the “divine right” of oppressive monarchs and to justify unequal social structures, like India’s caste system.
  • 39. But humankind has a way of responding to perceived injustices and religions that lose relevancy. One of the fastest growing arenas of global Christianity are the Evangelical churches that are making formidable inroads not only in North America, but even more so in South America.
  • 40. Critical theorists about the way are concerned many religions promote the idea that one should be satisfied circumstances with existing because they are divinely ordained.
  • 41. Critical theorists also point out that those in power in a religion are often able to dictate practices, rituals, and beliefs through their interpretation of religious texts or via proclaimed direct communication from the divine.
  • 42. The feminist perspective focuses specifically on gender inequality. In terms theorists of assert religion, that, feminist although women are typically the ones to socialize children into a religion, they have traditionally held very few positions of power within religions.
  • 43. To interactionists, beliefs and experiences are not sacred unless individuals in a society regard them as sacred. Symbolic Interactionism
  • 44. The Star of David in Judaism, the cross in Christianity, and the crescent and star in Islam are examples of sacred symbols. Interactionists are interested in what these symbols communicate.
  • 45. As interactionists study one- on-one everyday interactions between individuals, a scholar using this approach might ask questions focused on this dynamic; The interaction between religious leaders and practitioners,
  • 46. the role of religion in the banal components of everyday life, and the ways people express religious values in social interactions—all might be topics of study to an interactionist.
  • 48. Religions organize themselves— their institutions, practitioners, and structures—in a variety of fashions. Sociologists use different terms, like ecclesia, denomination, and sect, to define these types of organizations.
  • 49. are new religious groups. In popular usage, this term often carries pejorative connotations. Today, the term “cult” is used interchangeably with the term new religious movement (NRM). Cults
  • 50. a sect is breakaway group that may be in tension with larger society. They sometimes claim to be returning to “the fundamentals” or to contest the veracity of a particular doctrine. Sect a small and relatively new group.
  • 51. When membership in a sect increases over time, it may grow into a denomination. Often a sect begins as an offshoot of a denomination, when a group of members believes they should separate from the larger group.
  • 52. Some sects evolve without growing into denominations. Sociologists call these established sects.
  • 53. a large, mainstream religious organization, but it does not claim to be official or state sponsored. It is one religion among many. Denomination
  • 54. a political in ancient refers to a originally referring to assembly of citizens Athens, Greece, now congregation. In sociology, the term is used to refer to a religious group that most members of a society belong to. Ecclesia
  • 55. It is considered a nationally recognized, or official, religion that holds a religious monopoly and is closely allied with state and secular powers.
  • 58. Religion has historically been a major impetus to social change. In early Europe, the translation of sacred texts into everyday, non- scholarly language empowered people to shape their religions.
  • 59. Disagreements between religious groups and instances of religious persecution have led to mass resettlement, war, and even genocide.
  • 60. as a social and historical process has been outlined by the sociologist Jose Casanova as three interrelated trends, all open to debate: 1)the decline of religious beliefs and practices in modern societies, 2) the privatization of religion, and Secularization
  • 61. 3) the differentiation of the secular spheres (state, economy, science), usually understood as “emancipation” from religious institutions and norms (Casanova 2006).
  • 62. Historical sociologists Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Karl Marx and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud anticipated secularization, that the modernization of claiming society would bring about a decrease in the influence of religion.
  • 63. Conversely, some people contend that secularization is a root cause of many social problems, such as; divorce, drug use, and educational downturn
  • 66. is an aspect of religious traditions, and also of existential value systems. It comes from the Latin word spiritus, meaning breath of life. Spirituality
  • 67. Spirituality is a broad concept with room for many perspectives. In general, it includes a sense of connection to something bigger than ourselves, and it typically involves a search for meaning in life.
  • 68. People may describe a spiritual experience as sacred or transcendent or simply a deep sense of aliveness and interconnectedness.
  • 69. Spiritual questions For many, spirituality is connected to large questions about life and identity, such as: 1.Am Ia good person? 2.What is the meaning of my suffering? 3.What is my connection to the world around me? 4.Do things happen for a reason? 5.How can Ilive my life in the best way possible?
  • 70. Spirituality is not a single path or belief system. There are many ways to experience spirituality and the benefits of a spiritual experience.
  • 71. Asking deep questions about topics such as suffering and what happens after death Deepening connections with other people Experiencing compassion and empathy for others Experiencing feelings of interconnectedness Signs of Spirituality
  • 72. Feelings of awe and wonder Seeking happiness beyond material possessions or other external rewards Seeking meaning and purpose Wanting to make the world a better place
  • 74. There are a number of different reasons why people may turn to spirituality, including but not limited to: To find purpose and meaning To cope with feelings of stress, depression, and anxiety To restore hope and optimism. To find a sense of community and support
  • 76. Prayer and spirituality have been linked to: Better health Greater psychological well-being Less depression Less hypertension Less stress, even during difficult times More positive feelings Superior ability to handle stress Impact of Spirituality
  • 77. Some things you can do to start exploring spirituality include: Pay attention to how you are feeling Focus on others Meditate Practice gratitude Try mindfulness
  • 78. One potential pitfall of spirituality is a phenomenon known as spiritual bypassing. This involves a tendency to use spirituality as a way to avoid or sidestep problems, emotions, or conflicts. Potential Pitfalls
  • 79. Spirituality can enrich your life and lead to a number of benefits, but it is important to be cautious to not let spiritual ideals lead to pitfalls such as dogmatism or a reason to ignore the needs of others.
  • 81. Social work is a practice-based profession that promotes social change, development, cohesion and the empowerment of people and communities.
  • 82. Social work professionals working with families and institutions have helped to provide and advance the following social impacts: Civil Rights Unemployment Insurance Disability Pay Worker’s Compensation Reduced Mental Health Stigma Medicaid and Medicare Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention
  • 83. Social workers are professionals who aim to enhance overall well- and help meet and complex being basic needs of communities and people.
  • 84. The roles of a social worker include many diverse specializations. Here are some common responsibilities of social workers organized by different specialty areas: Child, family, and school social workers Medical and public health social workers Mental health and substance abuse social workers
  • 87. The work of a social worker goes beyond just helping people in need. From promoting core values of compassion and service to others to framing research within the field to informing policy, social workers actively address and stand up for human rights and social injustices. They strengthen individual people, communities, and try to give voice to the unheard.
  • 88. Thank you for listening! Reported by:Group 1 1BSED 2A