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Rio de Janeiro, 20-24 Agosto 2018
Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho
Instituto de Geociências - UNICAMP
MULTI-SCALE SPECTRAL SENSING APPLIED
TO MINERAL AND HYDROCARBON
EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION – PART I
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Radiowaves
Microvave
Thermal
Infrared (>3mm; <1mm)
Infrared
Near (0.7-1.0mm)
Short (1.-3 mm)
e Mid (3-5mm)
Ultraviolet
(0.28-0,38mm)
X Rays
g Rays
Wavelength (mm)
UV
Visible
IV
10-6
0.4 0.70.5 0.6
RedGreenBlue
10-410-5 10-3
10-2 10-1 1 10 10210-7 103
107104 106105
108
1mm 1m
Spaceborne
Subsurface
Drill core
Drill chips
Airborne
Field
3D-4D MINERAL MEASUREMENT AND MAPPING
Mineral Spectroscopy
Detection of Multiple Minerals and Mixtures
Mineral Detection vs Sensor Spectral Resolution
Contact Probe
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
Measurements in the Field
FieldSpec
TerraSpec Halo
oreXpress
Mineral Spectroscopy
Detection of Multiple Minerals and Mixtures
Mineral Detection vs Sensor Spectral Resolution
0.45
0.65
0.85
1.05
1.25
1.45
1.65
1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5
Wavelength (micrometer) =>
Laboratory
(ultraspectral)
(>1000 bands)
AISA Fenix
/ AVIRIS
(hyperspectral)
(>200 bands)
HYMAP
(hyperspectral)
(>100 bands)
ASTER
Landsat
Spectral Resolution
“multispectral”
1-10 bands
(um)
Reflectance(%)
pyrophyllite
talc
calcite
dolomite
halloisite
illite
Kaolinite
Montmorillon.
Muscovita
Vermiculite
Compositional Variation (chemistry) within the same Mineral Group
Muscovite
Phengite
(Mg,Fe)oct Sitet = Aloct Al tet
Wavelength (nm)
4.00
3.40
3.60
3.80
3.20
3.00
2190 2205 2210 22152195 2200
muscovite
phengite
ALIV
• Tschermak substitution
• Phengite > Longer  => less Al, more Si
and divalent cations (Mg and Fe++)
• Used as vector for a number of deposit
and ore types
Mineral Spectroscopy
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
APPLICATION IN ORE CONTROL AND
GEOMETALLURGY IN IRON MINES
SERRA DO SAPO MINE – CONCEIÇÃO DO MATO
DENTRO (MG)
Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho (IG-UNICAMP)
Diego Fernando Ducart (IG-UNICAMP)
Rebecca Scafutto (IG-UNICAMP)
Fernando Rosa Guimarães (Anglo American)
Geraldo Sarquis Dias (Anglo American)
Cláudia Mara Sperandio Neves (Anglo American)
Fernando Morais (Anglo American)
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
• Mineralogical studies using reflectance spectroscopy were carried out
at the Serra do Sapo iron deposit – near Conceição do Mato Dentro
town (MG), aiming to complement the block models.
• This additional information proved useful for optimization of processes in
the beneficiation plant.
• CHALENGES:
 (i) identify areas in the mine with predominance of clay minerals
(kaolinite, gibbsite) from those with predominance of white micas;
 (ii) quantify the hematite/goethite ratio, defining the spatial
distribution of these oxides;
 (iii) predict the percentage of alumina;
 (iv) understand the plant behavior according to specific
mineralogical characteristics.
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
Searching for best way to approach the problems
using field reflectance spectroscopy ...
Mine Wall?
Full borehole?
Reverse Circulation chips ?
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
• A FieldSpec-4 FR (ASD) spectroradiometer was used to measure the
spectral signatures (reflectance) of the samples in the 450-2500 nm
wavelength range.
• The data was collected from samples of 400 reverse circulation (RC)
drill holes.
• The measurements were taken meter by meter on the RC fine
fraction of each sample, totalizing 5,705 spectra (i.e. 5,705 m).
• Quantitative information was extracted from the geometry of the
absorption-band features, such as wavelength position, depth,
width, slope, area and asymmetry.
• Since the spectral geometry is a function of the crystalline structure
and chemical composition of the material, these parameters are unique
and characteristic for each mineral.
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
Hematite Goethite
900nm
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
Spectral Metrics
IronContent(geochemistry–FRX)
Prediction of Fe abundance based on spectral metrics
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
(%) predicted
from spectra
(%) from XRF
Hematite
Goethite
Depth
KlnKln
Fe3+
Core Logging – IRON Deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
Spatial Distribution of Lithologies Around Studied Area and Clay Minerals
Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals and Predominance Levels– Calculated
by Indicator Kriging
Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals and Predominance Levels– Calculated
by Indicator Kriging
Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals and Predominance Levels– Calculated
by Indicator Kriging
Distribution of Hematite/Goethite – Reflectance
Schematic 3D View of Estimated Block Model
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors)
Airborne
• Exploration phase
• Surface analysis
• Good tool for indication
minerals
• Large areas imaged quickly
Drawback:
- vegetation limitations
Mine Face
• Distribution and location
of minerals
• Mineral boundaries
• Treatment planning
Drill Core Rocks & Soils
Aisa-Eagle/Hawk
Aisa-Fenix
SiSuRock SiSuChema
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors)
Dril Cores
Each pixel in the hyperspectral image of
the drill core (spatial resolution up to ~30
mm) comprises a reflectance spectrum
between 0.4-2.5 um (VNIR-SWIR) with
more than 300 bands
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors)
Hyperspectral Core
Logging
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors)
Specim’s AISA-Fenix (VNIR-SWIR) can be used onboard of a
plane, tripod in the field and mounted in the lab for core scanning
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors - IRON)
absorption depth between 760 and 985 nm corresponding to the amount of iron oxide (with Ar: red
spectrum at 900 nm; Bg: green spectrum at 880 nm; Cb: blue spectrum at 873 nm).
grayscale image and absorption at 2205 nm corresponding to the amount of kaolinite on the mine
face.
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors - GOLD)
Benoit
Rivard &
University
of Alberta
team
Core Logging – GOLD deposit
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors)
Core Logging – GOLD deposit
Wall Imaging - Au
High resolution mine wall scan at
standoff distance of 15m. Red
polygon shows area imaged and
shown below.
White mica chemistry (upper figure), most abundant white mica from SAM (middle), color
composite R=2074nm, G=2205nm, B=2324nm (lower)
White mica chemistry in
Au system
white mica unitChlor/biotite
Reference Spectral Library for REE-standards
REE-standards (glass doped with REEs)
Spectral Libraries (UNICAMP )
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
REE-bearing Minerals
Spectral Libraries (UNICAMP )
PROFILERS
(ultraspectral point sensing)
Europium
Neodymium
Reference Spectral Library for REE-standards
Wavelength
Reflectance(%)
IMAGING SYSTEMS
(hyperspectral sensors)
Wall Imaging - REEs
Boescheetal.(2015)
Neodymium enriched areas are flagged in red color
ProspecTIR VS hyperspectral 3D cube of the
Sossego-Curral open pits, using 357
channels along the spectral dimension
between 398-2455nm
Classification results using SWIR
channels only.
Raymond F. Kokaly*,
Garth E. Graham, Karen D.
Kelley, Todd M. Hoefen,
Michaela R. Johnson,
Bernard E. Hubbard,
Marcel Buchhorn, and
Anupma Prakash
Orange Hill/
Bond Creek
porphyry
copper
study area
Orange Hill/ Bond Creek porphyry copper study area
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo
Amphibole+chlorite
Calcite+DolomiteMixedlyr clay(illite/smectite)
Chlorite/clinochlore/epidote
• Empirical line correction to reflectance using ASD FS4 measurements of
light and dark materials in the scene
• Multiple scans corrected to reflectance and composited to increase
signal to noise ratio
Hyperspectral Outcrop Mapping
western exposure of Orange Hill
VNIR 6 cm pixel (true color composite)
SWIR 30 cm pixel (false color composite r2200nm g1200nm b1700nm) 60 m
Mineral predominance maps
Analysis of airborne HyMap (top) and field-based HySpex
(bottom)
White mica wavelength position maps
Analysis of airborne HyMap (top) and field-based HySpex (bottom)
Analysis of
Corescan HCI-III data
Laboratory
Hyperspectral Imaging
Orange Hill samples
Thank you !
Institute of Geosciencies
University of Campinas
(UNICAMP)
www.ige.unicamp.br
www.ige.unicamp.br/sdm
beto@ige.unicamp.br

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10h10 carlos roberto 21 08 botafogo

  • 1. Rio de Janeiro, 20-24 Agosto 2018 Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho Instituto de Geociências - UNICAMP MULTI-SCALE SPECTRAL SENSING APPLIED TO MINERAL AND HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION – PART I
  • 3. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radiowaves Microvave Thermal Infrared (>3mm; <1mm) Infrared Near (0.7-1.0mm) Short (1.-3 mm) e Mid (3-5mm) Ultraviolet (0.28-0,38mm) X Rays g Rays Wavelength (mm) UV Visible IV 10-6 0.4 0.70.5 0.6 RedGreenBlue 10-410-5 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 10210-7 103 107104 106105 108 1mm 1m
  • 5. Mineral Spectroscopy Detection of Multiple Minerals and Mixtures Mineral Detection vs Sensor Spectral Resolution Contact Probe
  • 6. PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) Measurements in the Field FieldSpec TerraSpec Halo oreXpress
  • 7. Mineral Spectroscopy Detection of Multiple Minerals and Mixtures Mineral Detection vs Sensor Spectral Resolution 0.45 0.65 0.85 1.05 1.25 1.45 1.65 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 Wavelength (micrometer) => Laboratory (ultraspectral) (>1000 bands) AISA Fenix / AVIRIS (hyperspectral) (>200 bands) HYMAP (hyperspectral) (>100 bands) ASTER Landsat Spectral Resolution “multispectral” 1-10 bands (um) Reflectance(%) pyrophyllite talc calcite dolomite halloisite illite Kaolinite Montmorillon. Muscovita Vermiculite
  • 8. Compositional Variation (chemistry) within the same Mineral Group Muscovite Phengite (Mg,Fe)oct Sitet = Aloct Al tet Wavelength (nm) 4.00 3.40 3.60 3.80 3.20 3.00 2190 2205 2210 22152195 2200 muscovite phengite ALIV • Tschermak substitution • Phengite > Longer  => less Al, more Si and divalent cations (Mg and Fe++) • Used as vector for a number of deposit and ore types Mineral Spectroscopy
  • 9. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) APPLICATION IN ORE CONTROL AND GEOMETALLURGY IN IRON MINES SERRA DO SAPO MINE – CONCEIÇÃO DO MATO DENTRO (MG) Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho (IG-UNICAMP) Diego Fernando Ducart (IG-UNICAMP) Rebecca Scafutto (IG-UNICAMP) Fernando Rosa Guimarães (Anglo American) Geraldo Sarquis Dias (Anglo American) Cláudia Mara Sperandio Neves (Anglo American) Fernando Morais (Anglo American)
  • 10. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) • Mineralogical studies using reflectance spectroscopy were carried out at the Serra do Sapo iron deposit – near Conceição do Mato Dentro town (MG), aiming to complement the block models. • This additional information proved useful for optimization of processes in the beneficiation plant. • CHALENGES:  (i) identify areas in the mine with predominance of clay minerals (kaolinite, gibbsite) from those with predominance of white micas;  (ii) quantify the hematite/goethite ratio, defining the spatial distribution of these oxides;  (iii) predict the percentage of alumina;  (iv) understand the plant behavior according to specific mineralogical characteristics.
  • 12. Searching for best way to approach the problems using field reflectance spectroscopy ... Mine Wall? Full borehole? Reverse Circulation chips ?
  • 13. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) • A FieldSpec-4 FR (ASD) spectroradiometer was used to measure the spectral signatures (reflectance) of the samples in the 450-2500 nm wavelength range. • The data was collected from samples of 400 reverse circulation (RC) drill holes. • The measurements were taken meter by meter on the RC fine fraction of each sample, totalizing 5,705 spectra (i.e. 5,705 m). • Quantitative information was extracted from the geometry of the absorption-band features, such as wavelength position, depth, width, slope, area and asymmetry. • Since the spectral geometry is a function of the crystalline structure and chemical composition of the material, these parameters are unique and characteristic for each mineral.
  • 16. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing)
  • 18. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) Hematite Goethite 900nm
  • 19. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) Spectral Metrics IronContent(geochemistry–FRX) Prediction of Fe abundance based on spectral metrics
  • 22. Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing)
  • 23. (%) predicted from spectra (%) from XRF Hematite Goethite Depth KlnKln Fe3+ Core Logging – IRON Deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing)
  • 25. Spatial Distribution of Lithologies Around Studied Area and Clay Minerals
  • 26. Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals and Predominance Levels– Calculated by Indicator Kriging
  • 27. Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals and Predominance Levels– Calculated by Indicator Kriging
  • 28. Spatial Distribution of Clay Minerals and Predominance Levels– Calculated by Indicator Kriging
  • 30. Schematic 3D View of Estimated Block Model
  • 32. Airborne • Exploration phase • Surface analysis • Good tool for indication minerals • Large areas imaged quickly Drawback: - vegetation limitations Mine Face • Distribution and location of minerals • Mineral boundaries • Treatment planning Drill Core Rocks & Soils Aisa-Eagle/Hawk Aisa-Fenix SiSuRock SiSuChema IMAGING SYSTEMS (hyperspectral sensors)
  • 33. Dril Cores Each pixel in the hyperspectral image of the drill core (spatial resolution up to ~30 mm) comprises a reflectance spectrum between 0.4-2.5 um (VNIR-SWIR) with more than 300 bands IMAGING SYSTEMS (hyperspectral sensors) Hyperspectral Core Logging
  • 34. IMAGING SYSTEMS (hyperspectral sensors) Specim’s AISA-Fenix (VNIR-SWIR) can be used onboard of a plane, tripod in the field and mounted in the lab for core scanning
  • 35. IMAGING SYSTEMS (hyperspectral sensors - IRON) absorption depth between 760 and 985 nm corresponding to the amount of iron oxide (with Ar: red spectrum at 900 nm; Bg: green spectrum at 880 nm; Cb: blue spectrum at 873 nm). grayscale image and absorption at 2205 nm corresponding to the amount of kaolinite on the mine face.
  • 36. IMAGING SYSTEMS (hyperspectral sensors - GOLD) Benoit Rivard & University of Alberta team
  • 37. Core Logging – GOLD deposit PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing)
  • 39. Wall Imaging - Au High resolution mine wall scan at standoff distance of 15m. Red polygon shows area imaged and shown below. White mica chemistry (upper figure), most abundant white mica from SAM (middle), color composite R=2074nm, G=2205nm, B=2324nm (lower) White mica chemistry in Au system white mica unitChlor/biotite
  • 40. Reference Spectral Library for REE-standards REE-standards (glass doped with REEs) Spectral Libraries (UNICAMP ) PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing)
  • 41. REE-bearing Minerals Spectral Libraries (UNICAMP ) PROFILERS (ultraspectral point sensing) Europium Neodymium Reference Spectral Library for REE-standards Wavelength Reflectance(%)
  • 42. IMAGING SYSTEMS (hyperspectral sensors) Wall Imaging - REEs Boescheetal.(2015) Neodymium enriched areas are flagged in red color
  • 43. ProspecTIR VS hyperspectral 3D cube of the Sossego-Curral open pits, using 357 channels along the spectral dimension between 398-2455nm Classification results using SWIR channels only. Raymond F. Kokaly*, Garth E. Graham, Karen D. Kelley, Todd M. Hoefen, Michaela R. Johnson, Bernard E. Hubbard, Marcel Buchhorn, and Anupma Prakash Orange Hill/ Bond Creek porphyry copper study area Orange Hill/ Bond Creek porphyry copper study area
  • 47. • Empirical line correction to reflectance using ASD FS4 measurements of light and dark materials in the scene • Multiple scans corrected to reflectance and composited to increase signal to noise ratio Hyperspectral Outcrop Mapping western exposure of Orange Hill VNIR 6 cm pixel (true color composite) SWIR 30 cm pixel (false color composite r2200nm g1200nm b1700nm) 60 m
  • 48. Mineral predominance maps Analysis of airborne HyMap (top) and field-based HySpex (bottom)
  • 49. White mica wavelength position maps Analysis of airborne HyMap (top) and field-based HySpex (bottom)
  • 50. Analysis of Corescan HCI-III data Laboratory Hyperspectral Imaging Orange Hill samples
  • 51. Thank you ! Institute of Geosciencies University of Campinas (UNICAMP) www.ige.unicamp.br www.ige.unicamp.br/sdm beto@ige.unicamp.br