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SP0169-2013
NACE International 21
6.2.4.1 Criteria that have been documented through empirical evidence to indicate corrosion control effectiveness on
specific piping systems may be used on those piping systems or others with the same characteristics.
6.2.4.2 A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization between the structure surface and a stable reference electrode
contacting the electrolyte. Either the formation or the decay of this polarization must be used in this criterion.
6.2.4.3 A polarized potential of –450 mV or more negative with respect to a CSE in neutral or alkaline conditions. In
acid conditions, the protection potential should be determined by testing.
6.2.4.4 Cautionary note: When operating pressure and conditions are conducive to high pH stress corrosion cracking,
polarized potentials in the cracking range relative to the temperature should be avoided. For austenitic stainless steels
in acid conditions, the safe negative potential limit shall be determined by testing. For ferritic, martensitic, and duplex
stainless steels, the safe potential limit shall be determined by testing.
74
6.3 Relevant Considerations
6.3.1 Potential measurements related to criteria are intended to be made with respect to reference electrodes at 25 °C (77
°F). Common practice does not require a temperature correction within 10 °C (18 °F) of this temperature. For temperature
correction factors, see Table 2.
6.3.2 When feasible and practicable, ILI of pipelines can be an effective method for determining the presence or absence of
corrosion damage. Absence of external corrosion damage or the halting of its growth can indicate adequate external
corrosion control. The appropriate use of ILI must be carefully considered. The ILI technique, however, might not be
capable of detecting all types of external corrosion damage, has limitations in its accuracy, and might report as anomalies
items that are not external corrosion. For example, longitudinal seam corrosion and general corrosion might not be readily
detected by in-line inspection when magnetic tools are used. Also, possible thickness variations, dents, gouges, and
external ferrous objects might be detected as corrosion.
6.3.3 The amount of cathodic polarization maintained on a metallic surface can be affected by changes in electrolyte
conditions, CP system or structure configuration changes, and changes in influencing sources of AC or DC. These factors
should be considered when tests are performed to satisfy the CP criteria.
6.3.4 In mixed-metal piping systems, CP can typically be achieved at a polarized potential that is 100 mV more negative
than the open-circuit potential of the most active metal in the system. Amphoteric materials, such as aluminum or lead,
which could be damaged by high alkalinity created by CP, might need to be electrically isolated and separately protected.
6.3.5 Cathodic polarization levels that result in excessive generation of atomic hydrogen should be avoided on all metals
susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.
6.3.6 On externally coated pipelines, as the level of cathodic polarization increases, the pH at the structure-to-electrolyte
interface increases, which can increase the risk of blistering or disbondment of the coating.
6.3.7 Reliable measurement of potentials and therefore interpretation of CP criteria can be significantly affected by the
presence of electrical shielding. Electrical shielding can be caused by disbonded coatings, thermal insulation, loose
wrappers, high-resistivity rock or soils, metal structures or pipelines that are close to the structure being protected, and other
man-made materials partially or completely surrounding the pipeline.
75
6.4 Alternative Reference Electrodes
6.4.1 Other standard reference electrodes may be substituted for the CSE. Three commonly used reference electrodes are
listed below. Refer to Table 2 for their voltage equivalents.
6.4.1.1 Saturated KCl calomel reference electrode.
6.4.1.2 Saturated silver/silver chloride reference electrode.
6.4.1.3 Zinc reference electrode.
In addition to these standard reference electrodes, an alternative metallic element in an electrolyte of fixed concentration may
be used in place of the CSE, if the stability of its electrode potential is ensured and if its voltage equivalent referred to a CSE
is established.
RogeliodelasCasas-InvoiceINV-819806-4HDKS7,downloadedon7/21/20148:48AM-Single-userlicenseonly,copying/networkingprohibited.

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1. sp0169-2013 formerly rp0169 control of external corrosion on underground...

  • 1. SP0169-2013 NACE International 21 6.2.4.1 Criteria that have been documented through empirical evidence to indicate corrosion control effectiveness on specific piping systems may be used on those piping systems or others with the same characteristics. 6.2.4.2 A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization between the structure surface and a stable reference electrode contacting the electrolyte. Either the formation or the decay of this polarization must be used in this criterion. 6.2.4.3 A polarized potential of –450 mV or more negative with respect to a CSE in neutral or alkaline conditions. In acid conditions, the protection potential should be determined by testing. 6.2.4.4 Cautionary note: When operating pressure and conditions are conducive to high pH stress corrosion cracking, polarized potentials in the cracking range relative to the temperature should be avoided. For austenitic stainless steels in acid conditions, the safe negative potential limit shall be determined by testing. For ferritic, martensitic, and duplex stainless steels, the safe potential limit shall be determined by testing. 74 6.3 Relevant Considerations 6.3.1 Potential measurements related to criteria are intended to be made with respect to reference electrodes at 25 °C (77 °F). Common practice does not require a temperature correction within 10 °C (18 °F) of this temperature. For temperature correction factors, see Table 2. 6.3.2 When feasible and practicable, ILI of pipelines can be an effective method for determining the presence or absence of corrosion damage. Absence of external corrosion damage or the halting of its growth can indicate adequate external corrosion control. The appropriate use of ILI must be carefully considered. The ILI technique, however, might not be capable of detecting all types of external corrosion damage, has limitations in its accuracy, and might report as anomalies items that are not external corrosion. For example, longitudinal seam corrosion and general corrosion might not be readily detected by in-line inspection when magnetic tools are used. Also, possible thickness variations, dents, gouges, and external ferrous objects might be detected as corrosion. 6.3.3 The amount of cathodic polarization maintained on a metallic surface can be affected by changes in electrolyte conditions, CP system or structure configuration changes, and changes in influencing sources of AC or DC. These factors should be considered when tests are performed to satisfy the CP criteria. 6.3.4 In mixed-metal piping systems, CP can typically be achieved at a polarized potential that is 100 mV more negative than the open-circuit potential of the most active metal in the system. Amphoteric materials, such as aluminum or lead, which could be damaged by high alkalinity created by CP, might need to be electrically isolated and separately protected. 6.3.5 Cathodic polarization levels that result in excessive generation of atomic hydrogen should be avoided on all metals susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. 6.3.6 On externally coated pipelines, as the level of cathodic polarization increases, the pH at the structure-to-electrolyte interface increases, which can increase the risk of blistering or disbondment of the coating. 6.3.7 Reliable measurement of potentials and therefore interpretation of CP criteria can be significantly affected by the presence of electrical shielding. Electrical shielding can be caused by disbonded coatings, thermal insulation, loose wrappers, high-resistivity rock or soils, metal structures or pipelines that are close to the structure being protected, and other man-made materials partially or completely surrounding the pipeline. 75 6.4 Alternative Reference Electrodes 6.4.1 Other standard reference electrodes may be substituted for the CSE. Three commonly used reference electrodes are listed below. Refer to Table 2 for their voltage equivalents. 6.4.1.1 Saturated KCl calomel reference electrode. 6.4.1.2 Saturated silver/silver chloride reference electrode. 6.4.1.3 Zinc reference electrode. In addition to these standard reference electrodes, an alternative metallic element in an electrolyte of fixed concentration may be used in place of the CSE, if the stability of its electrode potential is ensured and if its voltage equivalent referred to a CSE is established. RogeliodelasCasas-InvoiceINV-819806-4HDKS7,downloadedon7/21/20148:48AM-Single-userlicenseonly,copying/networkingprohibited.