SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Part 1: IntroductionPart 1: Introduction
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Chapter 1
Managers
and
Management
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–2
L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S
After reading this chapter, I will be able to:
1. Describe the difference between managers and
operative employees.
2. Explain what is meant by the term management.
3. Differentiate between efficiency and
effectiveness.
4. Describe the four primary processes of
management.
5. Classify the three levels of managers and
identify the primary responsibility of each
group.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–3
L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S (cont’d)
After reading this chapter, I will be able to:
6. Summarize the essential roles performed by
managers.
7. Discuss whether the manager’s job is generic.
8. Describe the four general skills necessary for
becoming a successful manager.
9. Describe the value of studying management.
10. Identify the relevance of popular humanities
and social science courses to management
practices.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–4
Organizations
• Organization
A systematic arrangement of people brought together
to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all
organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit
organizations.
Where managers work (manage)
• Common characteristics
Goals
Structure
People
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–5
Common Characteristics of Organizations
EXHIBIT 1.1
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–6
People Differences
• Operatives
People who work directly on a job or task and have
no responsibility for overseeing the work of others
• Managers
Individuals in an organization who direct the activities
of others
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–7
Organizational Levels
EXHIBIT 1.2
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–8
Identifying Managers
• First-line managers
Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day
activities of operative employees
• Middle managers
Individuals at levels of management between the first-
line manager and top management
• Top managers
Individuals who are responsible for making decisions
about the direction of the organization and
establishing policies that affect all organizational
members
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–9
Management Defined
• Management
The process of getting things done, effectively and
efficiently, through and with other people
Efficiency
 Means doing the thing correctly; refers to the
relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to
minimize resource costs
Effectiveness
 Means doing the right things; goal attainment
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–10
Efficiency and Effectiveness
EXHIBIT 1.3
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–11
Management
Process
Activities
EXHIBIT 1.4
Management process:
planning, organizing,
leading, and controlling
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–12
Management Process
• Planning
Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and
developing plans to coordinate activities
• Organizing
Includes determining what tasks
to be done, who is to do them,
how the tasks are to be
grouped, who reports to
whom, and where
decisions are to be made
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–13
Management Process
• Leading
Includes motivating employees, directing the activities
of others, selecting the most effective communication
channel, and resolving conflicts
• Controlling
The process of monitoring performance,
comparing it with goals, and
correcting any significant
deviations
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–14
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
• Interpersonal
Figurehead
Leader
Liaison
• Informational
Monitor
Disseminator
Spokesperson
• Decisional
Entrepreneur
Disturbance hander
Resource allocator
Negotiator
EXHIBIT 1.5Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work (paperback) by H. Mintzberg, Table 2, pp.92–93.
Copyright © 1973 Addison Wesley Longman. Reprinted by permission of Addison Wesley Longman.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–15
Is The Manager’s Job Universal?
• Level in the organization
 Do managers manage differently based on where they are in the
organization?
• Profit versus not-for-profit
 Is managing in a commercial enterprise different than managing
in a non-commercial organization?
• Size of organization
 Does the size of an organization affect how managers function in
the organization?
• Management concepts and national borders
 Is management the same in all economic, cultural, social and
political systems?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–16
Distribution of Time per Activity by
Organizational Level
EXHIBIT 1.6Source: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll,
“The Job(s) of Management,” Industrial Relations 4, No.2 (1965), p.103.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–17
Importance of
Managerial Roles
in Small and Large
Businesses
EXHIBIT 1.7Source: Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo, “The Manager’s Self Assessments of Managerial Roles:
Small vs. Large Firms,” American Journals of Small Business, January–March 1984, pp.61–62.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–18
General Skills for Managers
• Conceptual skills
 A manager’s mental ability to coordinate all of the
organization’s interests and activities
• Interpersonal skills
 A manager’s ability to work with, understand, mentor, and
motivate others, both individually and in groups
• Technical skills
 A manager’s ability to use the tools, procedures, and
techniques of a specialized field
• Political skills
 A manager’s ability to build a power base and establish the
right connections
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–19
Specific Skills for Managers
• Behaviors related to a manager’s effectiveness:
Controlling the organization’s environment and its
resources.
Organizing and coordinating.
Handling information.
Providing for growth and development.
Motivating employees and handling conflicts.
Strategic problem solving.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–20
Management Charter Initiative Competencies
for Middle Managers
1. Initiate and implement change
and improvement in services,
products, and systems
2. Monitor maintain, and improve
service and product delivery
3. Monitor and control the use of
resources
4. Secure effective resource
allocation for activities and
projects
5. Recruit and select personnel
6. Develop teams, individuals,
and self to enhance
performance
7. Plan, allocate, and evaluate
work carried out by teams,
individuals and self
8. Create, maintain, and enhance
effective working relationships
9. Seek, evaluate, and organize
information for action
10. Exchange information to solve
problems and make decisions
EXHIBIT 1.8
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–21
How Much Importance Does The
Marketplace Put On Managers?
• Good (effective) managerial skills are a scarce
commodity.
Managerial compensation packages are one measure
of the value that organizations place on them.
Management compensation reflects the market forces
of supply and demand.
 Management superstars, like superstar athletes in
professional sports, are wooed with signing bonuses,
interest-free loans, performance incentive packages,
and guaranteed contracts.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–22
Why Study Management?
• We all have a vested interest in improving the
way organizations are managed.
Better organizations are, in part, the result of good
management.
• You will eventually either manage or be
managed
Gaining an understanding of the management
process provides the foundation for developing
management skills and insight into the behavior of
individuals and the organizations.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–23
How Does Management Relate To Other
Disciplines?
AnthropologyAnthropology
EconomicsEconomics PhilosophyPhilosophy
Political SciencePolitical Science PsychologyPsychology
SociologySociology
ManagementManagement
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–24
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–25
The Pre-modern Era
• Ancient massive construction projects
Egyptian pyramids
Great Wall of China
• Michelangelo the manager
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–26
Adam Smith’s Contribution To The Field
Of Management
• Wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776)
Advocated the economic advantages that
organizations and society would reap from the
division of labor:
 Increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill
and dexterity.
 Time saved that is commonly lost in changing tasks.
 The creation of labor-saving inventions and machinery.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–27
The Industrial Revolution’s Influence On
Management Practices
• Industrial revolution
Machine power began to substitute for human power
 Lead to mass production of economical goods
Improved and less costly transportation systems
became available
 Created larger markets for goods.
Larger organizations developed to serve larger
markets
 Created the need for formalized management practices.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–28
Classical Contributions
• Classical approach
The term used to describe the hypotheses of the
scientific management theorists and the general
administrative theorists.
 Scientific management theorists
– Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry
Gantt
 General administrative theorists
– Henri Fayol and Max Weber
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–29
Scientific Management
• Frederick W. Taylor
The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
 Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the
“one best way” for a job to be done
Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved
by selecting the right people for the job and training
them to do it precisely in the one best way.
To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage
plans.
Separated managerial work from operative work.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–30
Taylor’s Four Principles of Management
• Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which
replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
• Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.
(Previously, workers chose their own work and trained themselves
as best they could.)
• Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is
done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been
developed.
• Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management
and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better
fitted than the workers. (Previously, almost all the work and the
greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the workers).
EXHIBIT HM–1
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–31
Scientific Management Contributors
• Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Bricklaying efficiency improvements
Time and motion studies (therbligs)
• Henry Gantt
Incentive compensation systems
Gantt chart for scheduling work operations
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–32
Administrative Management
• General administrative theorists
Writers who developed general theories of what
managers do and what constitutes good management
practice
Henri Fayol (France)
 Fourteen Principles of Management: Fundamental or
universal principles of management practice
Max Weber (Germany)
 Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized
by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed
rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–33
Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management
• Division of work
• Authority
• Discipline
• Unity of command
• Unity of direction
• Subordination of the
individual
• Remuneration
• Centralization
• Scalar chain
• Order
• Equity
• Stability of tenure of
personnel
• Initiative
• Esprit de corps
EXHIBIT HM–2
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–34
Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
• Division of Labor
• Authority Hierarchy
• Formal Selection
• Formal Rules and Regulations
• Impersonality
• Career Orientation
EXHIBIT HM–3
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–35
Human Resources Approach
• Robert Owen
Claimed that a concern for employees was profitable
for management and would relieve human misery.
• Hugo Munsterberg
Created the field of industrial psychology—the
scientific study of individuals at work to maximize their
productivity and adjustment.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–36
Human Resources Approach
• Mary Parker Follett
Recognized that organizations could be viewed from
the perspective of individual and group behavior.
• Chester Barnard
Saw organizations as social systems that require
human cooperation.
Expressed his views in his book The Functions of the
Executive (1938).
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–37
Hawthorne Studies
• A series of studies done during the 1920s and
1930s that provided new insights into group
norms and behaviors
Hawthorne effect
 Social norms or standards of the group are the key
determinants of individual work behavior.
• Changed the prevalent view of the time that
people were no different than machines.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–38
Human Relations Movement
• Based on a belief in the importance of employee
satisfaction—a satisfied worker was believed to
be a productive worker.
• Advocates were concerned with making
management practices more humane.
Dale Carnegie
Abraham Maslow
Douglas McGregor
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–39
The Quantitative Approach
• Operations research (management science)
Evolved out of the development of mathematical and
statistical solutions to military problems during World
War II.
Involves the use of statistics, optimization models,
information models, and computer simulations to
improve management decision making for planning
and control.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–40
Social Events That Shaped Management
Approaches
• Classical approach
Desire for increased efficiency of labor intensive
operations
• Human resources approach
The backlash to the overly mechanistic view of
employees held by the classicists.
The Great Depression.
• The quantitative approaches
World War II
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–41
The Process Approach
• Management theory jungle (Harold Koontz)
The diversity of approaches to the study of
management—functions, quantitative emphasis,
human relations approaches—each offer something
to management theory, but many are only managerial
tools.
• Planning, leading, and controlling activities are
circular and continuous functions of
management.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–42
The Systems Approach
• Defines a system as a set of interrelated and
interdependent parts arranged in a manner that
produces a unified whole
Closed system : a system that is not influenced by
and does not interact with its environment
Open system: a system that dynamically interacts
with its environment
Stakeholders: any group that is affected by
organizational decisions and policies
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–43
The Organization and
its Environment
EXHIBIT HM–4
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–44
The Contingency Approach
• The situational approach to management that
replaces more simplistic systems and integrates
much of management theory
• Four popular contingency variables
Organization size
Routineness of task technology
Environmental uncertainty
Individual differences

More Related Content

What's hot

Evolution of management thought
Evolution of  management thoughtEvolution of  management thought
Evolution of management thought
Naveen Raj
 
Organising
OrganisingOrganising
Organising
Rarichan Mathew
 
History of Management
History of ManagementHistory of Management
History of Management
Syed Sami Ulla
 
Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1
Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1 Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1
Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1
Farhad Khan
 
Management ppt
Management pptManagement ppt
Management ppt
Yen Garcia
 
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
Dr. Durgaprasad Navulla
 
Managers roles and skills
Managers roles and skillsManagers roles and skills
Managers roles and skills
Sabik T S
 
Contribution of F.W Taylor (1) (1).ppt
Contribution of  F.W Taylor (1) (1).pptContribution of  F.W Taylor (1) (1).ppt
Contribution of F.W Taylor (1) (1).ppt
ssuser339828
 
Role of manager
Role of managerRole of manager
Role of manager
Umesh Singh
 
Behavioural Approach in Management
Behavioural Approach in ManagementBehavioural Approach in Management
Behavioural Approach in Management
simplyidontcare
 
Organizational behaviour
Organizational behaviourOrganizational behaviour
Organizational behaviour
Dr.Priyanka Phonde
 
Modern Management Theories
Modern Management TheoriesModern Management Theories
Modern Management Theories
Iqbal Novramadani
 
F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific Management,
F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific  Management, F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific  Management,
F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific Management,
PROF. PUTTU GURU PRASAD
 
Evolution of management
Evolution of managementEvolution of management
Evolution of management
Yasir Yousuf
 
Principles and practices of management
Principles and practices of managementPrinciples and practices of management
Principles and practices of management
Nandu Warrier
 
Introduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - Presentation
Introduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - PresentationIntroduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - Presentation
Introduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - Presentation
Amir Hussain
 
The Evolution of Management Thinking
The Evolution of Management ThinkingThe Evolution of Management Thinking
The Evolution of Management Thinking
Knight1040
 
Im101 Chap1
Im101 Chap1Im101 Chap1
Im101 Chap1
Chanpohlai
 
Evolution of management theory
Evolution of management theoryEvolution of management theory
Evolution of management theory
shrinivas kulkarni
 
Presentation on Administrative management theory
Presentation on Administrative management theoryPresentation on Administrative management theory
Presentation on Administrative management theory
Mandeep Neupanem
 

What's hot (20)

Evolution of management thought
Evolution of  management thoughtEvolution of  management thought
Evolution of management thought
 
Organising
OrganisingOrganising
Organising
 
History of Management
History of ManagementHistory of Management
History of Management
 
Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1
Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1 Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1
Fundamentals of Management Lecture, chapter 1
 
Management ppt
Management pptManagement ppt
Management ppt
 
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
 
Managers roles and skills
Managers roles and skillsManagers roles and skills
Managers roles and skills
 
Contribution of F.W Taylor (1) (1).ppt
Contribution of  F.W Taylor (1) (1).pptContribution of  F.W Taylor (1) (1).ppt
Contribution of F.W Taylor (1) (1).ppt
 
Role of manager
Role of managerRole of manager
Role of manager
 
Behavioural Approach in Management
Behavioural Approach in ManagementBehavioural Approach in Management
Behavioural Approach in Management
 
Organizational behaviour
Organizational behaviourOrganizational behaviour
Organizational behaviour
 
Modern Management Theories
Modern Management TheoriesModern Management Theories
Modern Management Theories
 
F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific Management,
F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific  Management, F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific  Management,
F.w. taylor , Principles of Scientific Management,
 
Evolution of management
Evolution of managementEvolution of management
Evolution of management
 
Principles and practices of management
Principles and practices of managementPrinciples and practices of management
Principles and practices of management
 
Introduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - Presentation
Introduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - PresentationIntroduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - Presentation
Introduction to H.R.M - Chapter#01 - Presentation
 
The Evolution of Management Thinking
The Evolution of Management ThinkingThe Evolution of Management Thinking
The Evolution of Management Thinking
 
Im101 Chap1
Im101 Chap1Im101 Chap1
Im101 Chap1
 
Evolution of management theory
Evolution of management theoryEvolution of management theory
Evolution of management theory
 
Presentation on Administrative management theory
Presentation on Administrative management theoryPresentation on Administrative management theory
Presentation on Administrative management theory
 

Similar to 1. fundamental of management

Mang mba 1 st morning
Mang mba  1 st morningMang mba  1 st morning
Mang mba 1 st morning
Waseem Sadiq
 
02 ch01 robbins ipe 491
02 ch01 robbins ipe 49102 ch01 robbins ipe 491
02 ch01 robbins ipe 491
Zahir Jhon
 
Ch01(pom)
Ch01(pom)Ch01(pom)
Ch01(pom)
komaliqbal19
 
ch-02-management-functions.ppt
ch-02-management-functions.pptch-02-management-functions.ppt
ch-02-management-functions.ppt
Premkumar Balaraman
 
Fundamentalsofmanagement.ppt
Fundamentalsofmanagement.pptFundamentalsofmanagement.ppt
Fundamentalsofmanagement.ppt
Divya Aggarwal
 
ch2m2a1
ch2m2a1ch2m2a1
OB First chapter.ppt
OB First chapter.pptOB First chapter.ppt
OB First chapter.ppt
ShreyanshJain602904
 
fom_01.ppt
fom_01.pptfom_01.ppt
fom_01.ppt
GaneshKumar80723
 
what is organizational behavior
what is organizational behaviorwhat is organizational behavior
what is organizational behavior
deni kurniawan
 
robbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.ppt
robbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.pptrobbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.ppt
robbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.ppt
SharminAkter728093
 
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptxChapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptx
shahjehan31
 
9erobbins_PPT01.ppt
9erobbins_PPT01.ppt9erobbins_PPT01.ppt
9erobbins_PPT01.ppt
SmartWorld13
 
Chap001
Chap001Chap001
Chap001
Veena Prasad
 
Fundamentals Of Management
Fundamentals Of ManagementFundamentals Of Management
Fundamentals Of Management
Sani Jabo
 
Unit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptx
Unit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptxUnit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptx
Unit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptx
njones002
 
01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt
01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt
01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt
RafiqulIslam653804
 
robbins_PPT02 Historical Background.ppt
robbins_PPT02 Historical Background.pptrobbins_PPT02 Historical Background.ppt
robbins_PPT02 Historical Background.ppt
SharminAkter728093
 
Chapter 9.ppt
Chapter 9.pptChapter 9.ppt
Chapter 9.ppt
IrshadAliSolangi1
 
Intoducation to manegment and organization
Intoducation to manegment and organizationIntoducation to manegment and organization
Intoducation to manegment and organization
FahimUllah40
 
Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01
Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01
Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01
karizad
 

Similar to 1. fundamental of management (20)

Mang mba 1 st morning
Mang mba  1 st morningMang mba  1 st morning
Mang mba 1 st morning
 
02 ch01 robbins ipe 491
02 ch01 robbins ipe 49102 ch01 robbins ipe 491
02 ch01 robbins ipe 491
 
Ch01(pom)
Ch01(pom)Ch01(pom)
Ch01(pom)
 
ch-02-management-functions.ppt
ch-02-management-functions.pptch-02-management-functions.ppt
ch-02-management-functions.ppt
 
Fundamentalsofmanagement.ppt
Fundamentalsofmanagement.pptFundamentalsofmanagement.ppt
Fundamentalsofmanagement.ppt
 
ch2m2a1
ch2m2a1ch2m2a1
ch2m2a1
 
OB First chapter.ppt
OB First chapter.pptOB First chapter.ppt
OB First chapter.ppt
 
fom_01.ppt
fom_01.pptfom_01.ppt
fom_01.ppt
 
what is organizational behavior
what is organizational behaviorwhat is organizational behavior
what is organizational behavior
 
robbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.ppt
robbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.pptrobbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.ppt
robbins_PPT01 Introduction ud-21-11-16.ppt
 
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptxChapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptx
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Management and Organization.pptx
 
9erobbins_PPT01.ppt
9erobbins_PPT01.ppt9erobbins_PPT01.ppt
9erobbins_PPT01.ppt
 
Chap001
Chap001Chap001
Chap001
 
Fundamentals Of Management
Fundamentals Of ManagementFundamentals Of Management
Fundamentals Of Management
 
Unit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptx
Unit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptxUnit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptx
Unit 1 Part 2- Introduction to management (1).pptx
 
01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt
01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt
01. Session-One-Introduction-to-Management-and-OB-.ppt
 
robbins_PPT02 Historical Background.ppt
robbins_PPT02 Historical Background.pptrobbins_PPT02 Historical Background.ppt
robbins_PPT02 Historical Background.ppt
 
Chapter 9.ppt
Chapter 9.pptChapter 9.ppt
Chapter 9.ppt
 
Intoducation to manegment and organization
Intoducation to manegment and organizationIntoducation to manegment and organization
Intoducation to manegment and organization
 
Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01
Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01
Intro to Mgt and Organisations -Robbins9 ppt01
 

More from Mushlihatun Syarifah

Hakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan Matematika
Hakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan MatematikaHakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan Matematika
Hakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan Matematika
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Pendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEM
Pendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEMPendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEM
Pendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEM
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Penelitian pendidikan
Penelitian pendidikanPenelitian pendidikan
Penelitian pendidikan
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi
TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi
TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran STEM
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran STEMPenilaian dalam pembelajaran STEM
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran STEM
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM
Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM
Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
STEM pada pembelajaran IPA rev
STEM pada pembelajaran IPA revSTEM pada pembelajaran IPA rev
STEM pada pembelajaran IPA rev
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013
Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013
Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Karakteristik STEM
Karakteristik STEMKarakteristik STEM
Karakteristik STEM
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Pengenalan Perpustakaan
Pengenalan PerpustakaanPengenalan Perpustakaan
Pengenalan Perpustakaan
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Pedoman PKP
Pedoman PKPPedoman PKP
Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis Zonasi
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis ZonasiBuku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis Zonasi
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis Zonasi
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Buku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis Zonasi
Buku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis ZonasiBuku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis Zonasi
Buku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis Zonasi
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTSBuku pegangan penilaian HOTS
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Pedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLN
Pedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLNPedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLN
Pedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLN
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Panduan praktis GLS
Panduan praktis GLSPanduan praktis GLS
Panduan praktis GLS
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Panduan GLS di SMP
Panduan GLS di SMPPanduan GLS di SMP
Panduan GLS di SMP
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 
Panduan GLS di SD
Panduan GLS di SDPanduan GLS di SD
Panduan GLS di SD
Mushlihatun Syarifah
 

More from Mushlihatun Syarifah (20)

Hakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan Matematika
Hakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan MatematikaHakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan Matematika
Hakikat Teknologi Enjiniring dan Matematika
 
Pendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEM
Pendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEMPendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEM
Pendidikan Abad 21 dalam filosofi STEM
 
Penelitian pendidikan
Penelitian pendidikanPenelitian pendidikan
Penelitian pendidikan
 
TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi
TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi
TIK pendukung daring STEM revisi
 
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran STEM
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran STEMPenilaian dalam pembelajaran STEM
Penilaian dalam pembelajaran STEM
 
Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM
Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM
Pengembangan RPP berbasis STEM
 
STEM pada pembelajaran IPA rev
STEM pada pembelajaran IPA revSTEM pada pembelajaran IPA rev
STEM pada pembelajaran IPA rev
 
Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013
Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013
Analisa STEM pada Kurikulum 2013
 
Karakteristik STEM
Karakteristik STEMKarakteristik STEM
Karakteristik STEM
 
Pengenalan Perpustakaan
Pengenalan PerpustakaanPengenalan Perpustakaan
Pengenalan Perpustakaan
 
Pedoman PKP
Pedoman PKPPedoman PKP
Pedoman PKP
 
Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
Juknis PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
 
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis Zonasi
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis ZonasiBuku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis Zonasi
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS program PKP berbasis Zonasi
 
Buku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis Zonasi
Buku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis ZonasiBuku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis Zonasi
Buku Pegangan Pembekalan Instruktur PKP Berbasis Zonasi
 
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTSBuku pegangan penilaian HOTS
Buku pegangan penilaian HOTS
 
PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
PKP (Peningkatan Kompetensi Pembelajaran)
 
Pedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLN
Pedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLNPedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLN
Pedoman penilaian dan evaluasi GLN
 
Panduan praktis GLS
Panduan praktis GLSPanduan praktis GLS
Panduan praktis GLS
 
Panduan GLS di SMP
Panduan GLS di SMPPanduan GLS di SMP
Panduan GLS di SMP
 
Panduan GLS di SD
Panduan GLS di SDPanduan GLS di SD
Panduan GLS di SD
 

Recently uploaded

innovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptx
innovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptxinnovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptx
innovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptx
TulsiDhidhi1
 
From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...
From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...
From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...
Rokibul Hasan
 
9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)
9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)
9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)
experienceprosarah
 
Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...
Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...
Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...
SOFTTECHHUB
 
m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...
m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...
m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...
LinghuaKong2
 
Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024
Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024
Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024
Neal Elbaum
 
All the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/Bozen
All the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/BozenAll the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/Bozen
All the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/Bozen
Alberto Brandolini
 
Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...
Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...
Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...
ssuserf63bd7
 
A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...
A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...
A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...
Samirsinh Parmar
 
Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...
Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...
Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...
Alexey Krivitsky
 

Recently uploaded (10)

innovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptx
innovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptxinnovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptx
innovation in nursing practice, education and management.pptx
 
From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...
From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...
From Concept to reality : Implementing Lean Managements DMAIC Methodology for...
 
9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)
9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)
9 Ways Managers Kill Morale (and What to Do Instead)
 
Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...
Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...
Maximize Your Efficiency with This Comprehensive Project Management Platform ...
 
m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...
m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...
m249-saw PMI To familiarize the soldier with the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon ...
 
Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024
Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024
Neal Elbaum Shares Top 5 Trends Shaping the Logistics Industry in 2024
 
All the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/Bozen
All the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/BozenAll the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/Bozen
All the Small Things - XP2024 Bolzano/Bozen
 
Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...
Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...
Small Business Management An Entrepreneur’s Guidebook 8th edition by Byrd tes...
 
A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...
A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...
A comprehensive-study-of-biparjoy-cyclone-disaster-management-in-gujarat-a-ca...
 
Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...
Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...
Designing and Sustaining Large-Scale Value-Centered Agile Ecosystems (powered...
 

1. fundamental of management

  • 1. Part 1: IntroductionPart 1: Introduction PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 Managers and Management
  • 2. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–2 L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 1. Describe the difference between managers and operative employees. 2. Explain what is meant by the term management. 3. Differentiate between efficiency and effectiveness. 4. Describe the four primary processes of management. 5. Classify the three levels of managers and identify the primary responsibility of each group.
  • 3. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–3 L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S (cont’d) After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 6. Summarize the essential roles performed by managers. 7. Discuss whether the manager’s job is generic. 8. Describe the four general skills necessary for becoming a successful manager. 9. Describe the value of studying management. 10. Identify the relevance of popular humanities and social science courses to management practices.
  • 4. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–4 Organizations • Organization A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations. Where managers work (manage) • Common characteristics Goals Structure People
  • 5. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–5 Common Characteristics of Organizations EXHIBIT 1.1
  • 6. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–6 People Differences • Operatives People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others • Managers Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others
  • 7. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–7 Organizational Levels EXHIBIT 1.2
  • 8. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–8 Identifying Managers • First-line managers Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees • Middle managers Individuals at levels of management between the first- line manager and top management • Top managers Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members
  • 9. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–9 Management Defined • Management The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people Efficiency  Means doing the thing correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs Effectiveness  Means doing the right things; goal attainment
  • 10. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–10 Efficiency and Effectiveness EXHIBIT 1.3
  • 11. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–11 Management Process Activities EXHIBIT 1.4 Management process: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
  • 12. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–12 Management Process • Planning Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities • Organizing Includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made
  • 13. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–13 Management Process • Leading Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts • Controlling The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations
  • 14. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–14 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles • Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison • Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson • Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance hander Resource allocator Negotiator EXHIBIT 1.5Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work (paperback) by H. Mintzberg, Table 2, pp.92–93. Copyright © 1973 Addison Wesley Longman. Reprinted by permission of Addison Wesley Longman.
  • 15. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–15 Is The Manager’s Job Universal? • Level in the organization  Do managers manage differently based on where they are in the organization? • Profit versus not-for-profit  Is managing in a commercial enterprise different than managing in a non-commercial organization? • Size of organization  Does the size of an organization affect how managers function in the organization? • Management concepts and national borders  Is management the same in all economic, cultural, social and political systems?
  • 16. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–16 Distribution of Time per Activity by Organizational Level EXHIBIT 1.6Source: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll, “The Job(s) of Management,” Industrial Relations 4, No.2 (1965), p.103.
  • 17. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–17 Importance of Managerial Roles in Small and Large Businesses EXHIBIT 1.7Source: Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo, “The Manager’s Self Assessments of Managerial Roles: Small vs. Large Firms,” American Journals of Small Business, January–March 1984, pp.61–62.
  • 18. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–18 General Skills for Managers • Conceptual skills  A manager’s mental ability to coordinate all of the organization’s interests and activities • Interpersonal skills  A manager’s ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate others, both individually and in groups • Technical skills  A manager’s ability to use the tools, procedures, and techniques of a specialized field • Political skills  A manager’s ability to build a power base and establish the right connections
  • 19. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–19 Specific Skills for Managers • Behaviors related to a manager’s effectiveness: Controlling the organization’s environment and its resources. Organizing and coordinating. Handling information. Providing for growth and development. Motivating employees and handling conflicts. Strategic problem solving.
  • 20. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–20 Management Charter Initiative Competencies for Middle Managers 1. Initiate and implement change and improvement in services, products, and systems 2. Monitor maintain, and improve service and product delivery 3. Monitor and control the use of resources 4. Secure effective resource allocation for activities and projects 5. Recruit and select personnel 6. Develop teams, individuals, and self to enhance performance 7. Plan, allocate, and evaluate work carried out by teams, individuals and self 8. Create, maintain, and enhance effective working relationships 9. Seek, evaluate, and organize information for action 10. Exchange information to solve problems and make decisions EXHIBIT 1.8
  • 21. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–21 How Much Importance Does The Marketplace Put On Managers? • Good (effective) managerial skills are a scarce commodity. Managerial compensation packages are one measure of the value that organizations place on them. Management compensation reflects the market forces of supply and demand.  Management superstars, like superstar athletes in professional sports, are wooed with signing bonuses, interest-free loans, performance incentive packages, and guaranteed contracts.
  • 22. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–22 Why Study Management? • We all have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed. Better organizations are, in part, the result of good management. • You will eventually either manage or be managed Gaining an understanding of the management process provides the foundation for developing management skills and insight into the behavior of individuals and the organizations.
  • 23. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–23 How Does Management Relate To Other Disciplines? AnthropologyAnthropology EconomicsEconomics PhilosophyPhilosophy Political SciencePolitical Science PsychologyPsychology SociologySociology ManagementManagement
  • 24. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–24
  • 25. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–25 The Pre-modern Era • Ancient massive construction projects Egyptian pyramids Great Wall of China • Michelangelo the manager
  • 26. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–26 Adam Smith’s Contribution To The Field Of Management • Wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776) Advocated the economic advantages that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor:  Increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity.  Time saved that is commonly lost in changing tasks.  The creation of labor-saving inventions and machinery.
  • 27. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–27 The Industrial Revolution’s Influence On Management Practices • Industrial revolution Machine power began to substitute for human power  Lead to mass production of economical goods Improved and less costly transportation systems became available  Created larger markets for goods. Larger organizations developed to serve larger markets  Created the need for formalized management practices.
  • 28. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–28 Classical Contributions • Classical approach The term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists.  Scientific management theorists – Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt  General administrative theorists – Henri Fayol and Max Weber
  • 29. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–29 Scientific Management • Frederick W. Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)  Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the “one best way” for a job to be done Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way. To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans. Separated managerial work from operative work.
  • 30. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–30 Taylor’s Four Principles of Management • Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method. • Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. (Previously, workers chose their own work and trained themselves as best they could.) • Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. • Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. (Previously, almost all the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the workers). EXHIBIT HM–1
  • 31. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–31 Scientific Management Contributors • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Bricklaying efficiency improvements Time and motion studies (therbligs) • Henry Gantt Incentive compensation systems Gantt chart for scheduling work operations
  • 32. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–32 Administrative Management • General administrative theorists Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice Henri Fayol (France)  Fourteen Principles of Management: Fundamental or universal principles of management practice Max Weber (Germany)  Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships
  • 33. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–33 Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management • Division of work • Authority • Discipline • Unity of command • Unity of direction • Subordination of the individual • Remuneration • Centralization • Scalar chain • Order • Equity • Stability of tenure of personnel • Initiative • Esprit de corps EXHIBIT HM–2
  • 34. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–34 Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy • Division of Labor • Authority Hierarchy • Formal Selection • Formal Rules and Regulations • Impersonality • Career Orientation EXHIBIT HM–3
  • 35. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–35 Human Resources Approach • Robert Owen Claimed that a concern for employees was profitable for management and would relieve human misery. • Hugo Munsterberg Created the field of industrial psychology—the scientific study of individuals at work to maximize their productivity and adjustment.
  • 36. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–36 Human Resources Approach • Mary Parker Follett Recognized that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behavior. • Chester Barnard Saw organizations as social systems that require human cooperation. Expressed his views in his book The Functions of the Executive (1938).
  • 37. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–37 Hawthorne Studies • A series of studies done during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into group norms and behaviors Hawthorne effect  Social norms or standards of the group are the key determinants of individual work behavior. • Changed the prevalent view of the time that people were no different than machines.
  • 38. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–38 Human Relations Movement • Based on a belief in the importance of employee satisfaction—a satisfied worker was believed to be a productive worker. • Advocates were concerned with making management practices more humane. Dale Carnegie Abraham Maslow Douglas McGregor
  • 39. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–39 The Quantitative Approach • Operations research (management science) Evolved out of the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to military problems during World War II. Involves the use of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to improve management decision making for planning and control.
  • 40. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–40 Social Events That Shaped Management Approaches • Classical approach Desire for increased efficiency of labor intensive operations • Human resources approach The backlash to the overly mechanistic view of employees held by the classicists. The Great Depression. • The quantitative approaches World War II
  • 41. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–41 The Process Approach • Management theory jungle (Harold Koontz) The diversity of approaches to the study of management—functions, quantitative emphasis, human relations approaches—each offer something to management theory, but many are only managerial tools. • Planning, leading, and controlling activities are circular and continuous functions of management.
  • 42. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–42 The Systems Approach • Defines a system as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole Closed system : a system that is not influenced by and does not interact with its environment Open system: a system that dynamically interacts with its environment Stakeholders: any group that is affected by organizational decisions and policies
  • 43. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–43 The Organization and its Environment EXHIBIT HM–4
  • 44. Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1–44 The Contingency Approach • The situational approach to management that replaces more simplistic systems and integrates much of management theory • Four popular contingency variables Organization size Routineness of task technology Environmental uncertainty Individual differences