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RESEARCH PROPOSAL &
RESEARCH ARTICLE
DR. RUQAIYA HASAN
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI
Research article & Research paper
• A research article is an original research published in a peer-
reviewed journal.
• However, a Research paper is also original research either orally
presented or displayed as a poster in a conference.
• Research articles, sometimes referred to as empirical or primary
sources, report on original research.
Criteria to choose a research topic
• Relevance: Is the topic relevant? Why?
• (is this topic or problem common? Is it serious/ severe?
• Duplication: Has the question been answered before?
(is the same research question or topic or problem has been
answered in your population of interest? If there is a geographical or
ethnicity difference worth exploring?
• Feasibility
What does the research need?
Is it available?
Manpower, instruments, resources, system availability, etc.
• Cost-effectiveness
(Is there is a benefit for the coast required?
It might cost a lots of money but benefits a large number
of the population.
It might cost less, but few will benefit from it).
• Timelines
(What is the estimated time to complete your research?
• Ethic
(Is it acceptable by the study subjects? Is there a hidden
harm?)
• Political accessibility
(is it acceptable by practitioner, supervisors and the
community?)
TO WRITE A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
1. Originality: Duplicated previous study or same study on a
different population and/ or using a new methodology.
• A novel research question/topic/idea. that has not been
conducted previously.
2. Title
• Should be concise and precisely describes the relation
between dependent and independent variables in a
population of interest.
3. Problem statement and its significance
• Problem statement and its significance: Must be articulated
clearly the problem and its impact on the population of
interest.
• The logic / thinking behind the research question is clearly
addressed and supported by the evidence.
4. Research question aims and objectives
• Should be clearly presented to provide a logical framework
to address the problem. Also the measurable variables
must be clearly stated in the objectives.
5. Methodology outline
An appropriate study design must be selected:
• Meta-Analysis
• Systematic Review
• Randomized Controlled Trial
• Cohort Study
• Case-control Study and Case Reports
• Cross-sectional study
• Animal Research Studies
• Test-tube Lab Research
• Ideas, Editorials, Opinions
• Meta-Analysis: is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple
scientific studies.
• Systematic Review: is a summary of the medical literature that states the
results of multiple primary studies related to each other by using strategies
to minimize biases and random errors.
• Randomized Controlled Trial: RCT is an experimental form in which the
population is selected at random from the eligible population, and a control
group is also selected at random from the same eligible population.
• Cohort Study: The study that compares a particular outcome (such
as lung cancer) in groups of individuals who are alike in many ways
but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses
who smoke compared with those who do not smoke).
• Case-control Study and Case Reports: A case report is the
description of the clinical story of a single patient, whereas a case-
control study compares 2 groups of participants differing in
outcome (differences may be due to variations in past exposure).
• Cross-sectional study: a type of research design in which data is collected
from many different individuals at a single point in time.
• Animal Research Studies: A laboratory experiment using animals to study
the development and progression of diseases (to test how safe and
effective new treatments are before they are tested in people).
• Test-tube Lab Research: studies of biological properties that are done in a
test tube, rather than in a human or animal.
• Ideas, Editorials, Opinions
6. Logical argument, and ideas
• Research topic should be comprehensively described by the
relevant literature and logical argument in different
perspectives to give new idea and new directions.
7. Structure of text
• All sentences must be well constructed, with correct
grammar and mechanics (spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization). Language should be clear to coveys the
message.
8. Citation/ references
• In-text and reference list the citation should be relevant,
accurate, complete, and up to date.
Sources of information
Some sources, can be used to run the search
1. PubMed
2.Google Scholar
3.Multimedia
4.World Wide Web
5.Books
6. Academic Journals (Peer-reviewed or scholarly journals)
The components of a research article
• Abstract
• Introduction
• Research question/ Hypothesis
• Study design
(Methodology/ Materials & Methods, Types of participants,
Inclusion & exclusion criteria, Statistical analysis)
• Results
• Discussion
• Conclusion
• References
Referencing styles
• There are many styles of referencing;
the two most common systems are author and date (e.g.
Harvard) and numeric (e.g. Vancouver) Styles
Harvard style
• In herbal therapy herbs may be helpful for the treatment of obesity.
Research has suggested that cayenne pepper in the diet help people
to lose weight (Yoshioka et al., 2001). Green tea may support a weight
loss program by increasing energy expenditure or by inhibiting the
digestion of fat in the intestine (Dullo et al., 2000; Juhel et al., 2000).
The ability of yohimbine has led to claim that it might help weight loss
by raising metabolic rate, reducing appetite or increase fat burning
(Kucio et al., 1991). Bitter orange is known to promote weight loss
(Colker et al., 1999). The herb guarana has stimulatory effect on
central nervous system, increases metabolic rate and a mild diuretic
effect (Leung and Foster, 1996).
References
• Colker, C.M., D.S. Kalman and G.C. Torina (1999). Effects of citrus
aurantium extract, caffeine and St. John’s wort on body fat, lipid levels
and mood states in overweight adults. Curr. Ther. Res., 60: 145-153.
• Craig, W.J. (1999). Health promoting properties of common herbs.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70: 491 – 499.
• Dullo, A.G., J. Seydoux and L. Girardier (2000). Green tea and
thrombogenesis: interaction between catechin polyphenol, caffeine
and sympathetic activity. Int. J. Obese. Relat. Metab. Disord., 24: 252-
258.
• Greive, M. (1971). A Modern Herbal. (C.F. Leyal ed.), 2 nd Ed. Dovers
publications, Inc. New York.
• Juhel, C. M. Armand and Y. Pafumi (2000). Green tea extract (AR25)
inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in
vitro. J. Nutr. Biochem., 11: 45-51.
Vancouver style
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of
morbidity and mortality across the world. World Health Organization
(WHO) has declared cardiovascular disease as a modern epidemic [1].
Even though worldwide, the number of people dying from CVD was
lower in 2016 than the previous years but prevalence of CVD reported
in 2019 showed a significant increase, mainly driven by the way high
blood pressure is defined.
The 2017 American Heart Association/
American College of Cardiology hypertension guidelines updated
the definition of high blood pressure as a reading of 130/ 80 mm Hg,
from the previous definition of 140/ 90 mm Hg [2]. It has been shown
that risk factors for CVD such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity,
obesity, tobacco use, diabetes, raised blood pressure and abnormal
blood lipids are largely similar in high-income countries as in low and
middle-income countries [3]
References
1.Park K. Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine, 22nd ed.
Jabalpur: Bhanot Publishers. 2013; p 338. https://bit.ly/2xZmaK1
2. American Heart Association. Nearly half of all adult Americans
have cardiovascular disease. Science Daily. 2019.
https://bit.ly/2D4GMTk
3. Myoishi M, Kitakaze M. A role of magnesium: magnesium in the
therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Clin Calcium. 2005; 15: 265-270.
1, 2. Research proposal & Res. Article.pptx

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1, 2. Research proposal & Res. Article.pptx

  • 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL & RESEARCH ARTICLE DR. RUQAIYA HASAN DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI
  • 2. Research article & Research paper • A research article is an original research published in a peer- reviewed journal. • However, a Research paper is also original research either orally presented or displayed as a poster in a conference. • Research articles, sometimes referred to as empirical or primary sources, report on original research.
  • 3. Criteria to choose a research topic • Relevance: Is the topic relevant? Why? • (is this topic or problem common? Is it serious/ severe? • Duplication: Has the question been answered before? (is the same research question or topic or problem has been answered in your population of interest? If there is a geographical or ethnicity difference worth exploring?
  • 4. • Feasibility What does the research need? Is it available? Manpower, instruments, resources, system availability, etc.
  • 5. • Cost-effectiveness (Is there is a benefit for the coast required? It might cost a lots of money but benefits a large number of the population. It might cost less, but few will benefit from it). • Timelines (What is the estimated time to complete your research?
  • 6. • Ethic (Is it acceptable by the study subjects? Is there a hidden harm?) • Political accessibility (is it acceptable by practitioner, supervisors and the community?)
  • 7. TO WRITE A RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1. Originality: Duplicated previous study or same study on a different population and/ or using a new methodology. • A novel research question/topic/idea. that has not been conducted previously.
  • 8. 2. Title • Should be concise and precisely describes the relation between dependent and independent variables in a population of interest.
  • 9. 3. Problem statement and its significance • Problem statement and its significance: Must be articulated clearly the problem and its impact on the population of interest. • The logic / thinking behind the research question is clearly addressed and supported by the evidence.
  • 10. 4. Research question aims and objectives • Should be clearly presented to provide a logical framework to address the problem. Also the measurable variables must be clearly stated in the objectives.
  • 11. 5. Methodology outline An appropriate study design must be selected: • Meta-Analysis • Systematic Review • Randomized Controlled Trial • Cohort Study • Case-control Study and Case Reports • Cross-sectional study • Animal Research Studies • Test-tube Lab Research • Ideas, Editorials, Opinions
  • 12. • Meta-Analysis: is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. • Systematic Review: is a summary of the medical literature that states the results of multiple primary studies related to each other by using strategies to minimize biases and random errors. • Randomized Controlled Trial: RCT is an experimental form in which the population is selected at random from the eligible population, and a control group is also selected at random from the same eligible population.
  • 13. • Cohort Study: The study that compares a particular outcome (such as lung cancer) in groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses who smoke compared with those who do not smoke). • Case-control Study and Case Reports: A case report is the description of the clinical story of a single patient, whereas a case- control study compares 2 groups of participants differing in outcome (differences may be due to variations in past exposure).
  • 14. • Cross-sectional study: a type of research design in which data is collected from many different individuals at a single point in time. • Animal Research Studies: A laboratory experiment using animals to study the development and progression of diseases (to test how safe and effective new treatments are before they are tested in people). • Test-tube Lab Research: studies of biological properties that are done in a test tube, rather than in a human or animal. • Ideas, Editorials, Opinions
  • 15. 6. Logical argument, and ideas • Research topic should be comprehensively described by the relevant literature and logical argument in different perspectives to give new idea and new directions.
  • 16. 7. Structure of text • All sentences must be well constructed, with correct grammar and mechanics (spelling, punctuation, and capitalization). Language should be clear to coveys the message.
  • 17. 8. Citation/ references • In-text and reference list the citation should be relevant, accurate, complete, and up to date.
  • 18. Sources of information Some sources, can be used to run the search 1. PubMed 2.Google Scholar 3.Multimedia 4.World Wide Web 5.Books 6. Academic Journals (Peer-reviewed or scholarly journals)
  • 19. The components of a research article • Abstract • Introduction • Research question/ Hypothesis • Study design (Methodology/ Materials & Methods, Types of participants, Inclusion & exclusion criteria, Statistical analysis)
  • 20. • Results • Discussion • Conclusion • References
  • 21. Referencing styles • There are many styles of referencing; the two most common systems are author and date (e.g. Harvard) and numeric (e.g. Vancouver) Styles
  • 22. Harvard style • In herbal therapy herbs may be helpful for the treatment of obesity. Research has suggested that cayenne pepper in the diet help people to lose weight (Yoshioka et al., 2001). Green tea may support a weight loss program by increasing energy expenditure or by inhibiting the digestion of fat in the intestine (Dullo et al., 2000; Juhel et al., 2000). The ability of yohimbine has led to claim that it might help weight loss by raising metabolic rate, reducing appetite or increase fat burning (Kucio et al., 1991). Bitter orange is known to promote weight loss (Colker et al., 1999). The herb guarana has stimulatory effect on central nervous system, increases metabolic rate and a mild diuretic effect (Leung and Foster, 1996).
  • 23. References • Colker, C.M., D.S. Kalman and G.C. Torina (1999). Effects of citrus aurantium extract, caffeine and St. John’s wort on body fat, lipid levels and mood states in overweight adults. Curr. Ther. Res., 60: 145-153. • Craig, W.J. (1999). Health promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70: 491 – 499. • Dullo, A.G., J. Seydoux and L. Girardier (2000). Green tea and thrombogenesis: interaction between catechin polyphenol, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int. J. Obese. Relat. Metab. Disord., 24: 252- 258.
  • 24. • Greive, M. (1971). A Modern Herbal. (C.F. Leyal ed.), 2 nd Ed. Dovers publications, Inc. New York. • Juhel, C. M. Armand and Y. Pafumi (2000). Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J. Nutr. Biochem., 11: 45-51.
  • 25. Vancouver style Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared cardiovascular disease as a modern epidemic [1]. Even though worldwide, the number of people dying from CVD was lower in 2016 than the previous years but prevalence of CVD reported in 2019 showed a significant increase, mainly driven by the way high blood pressure is defined.
  • 26. The 2017 American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology hypertension guidelines updated the definition of high blood pressure as a reading of 130/ 80 mm Hg, from the previous definition of 140/ 90 mm Hg [2]. It has been shown that risk factors for CVD such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, obesity, tobacco use, diabetes, raised blood pressure and abnormal blood lipids are largely similar in high-income countries as in low and middle-income countries [3]
  • 27. References 1.Park K. Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine, 22nd ed. Jabalpur: Bhanot Publishers. 2013; p 338. https://bit.ly/2xZmaK1 2. American Heart Association. Nearly half of all adult Americans have cardiovascular disease. Science Daily. 2019. https://bit.ly/2D4GMTk 3. Myoishi M, Kitakaze M. A role of magnesium: magnesium in the therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Clin Calcium. 2005; 15: 265-270.