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0001 nishi
KPCOFGS
 Kingdom
 Phylum
 Class
 Order
 Family
 Genus
 Species
Kids Playing
Catch On
Freeways
Get Smashed
Binomial nomenclature
Classification System
5 Kingdom
Monera
Animalia
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
R.H.Whittaker (1969)
Differences among Kingdoms
The 5 Kingdoms we use today.
 Monera: single celled, prokaryote organisms
• Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
 Protista: single celled, contains nucleus and
internal subdivisions
• Diatoms, dinoflagellates, and protozoans
 Fungi: multicellular, chitinous cell wall, no
chloroplasts, heterotrophic, nutrition by absorption,
• Mushrooms
 Plantae: multicellular, cell wall, cellulose,
chloroplasts, autotrophic
 Animalia: multicellular, no cell wall, heterotrophs
 Protista: single celled, contains
nucleus and internal subdivisions
• Diatoms, dinoflagellates, and
protozoans
 Animalia: multicellular, no cell wall,
heterotrophs
Differences among Kingdoms
Which Anatomical Features Mark BranchWhich Anatomical Features Mark Branch
Points on the Animal Evolutionary Tree?
• Lack of Tissues Separates Sponges from All Other
Animals
• Animals with Tissues Exhibit Either Radial or
Bilateral Symmetry
– Radially Symmetrical Animals Have Two
Embryonic Tissue Layers; Bilaterally Symmetrical
Animals Have ThreeAnimals Have Three
– Bilateral Animals Have Heads
Radial symmetry
central axis
Bilateral symmetry
plane of
symmetry
anterior
plane of
symmetry
posterior
Body symmetry and cephalization
7
Kingdom - Protista
Phylum - Protozoa
Four
Major
Groups
of
Protozoa
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 It is aquatic in habitat.
 Body is unicellular, irregular in shape.
 Body is covered by plasma membrane or
plasmalemma.
 Pseudopodia are projected from different
parts of body surface.
 Body cytoplasm is differentiated into outer
ectoplasm and inner endoplasm.
 In endoplasm Nucleus, Contractile
vacuole, Food vacuole and other
organelle are present.
Amoeba
P- Protozoa
C- Rhizopoda
O- Lobosa
G- Amoeba
S- proteus
Kingdom- Animalia
1.Porifera
2.coelenterata
3.Platyhelminthes
4.Aschelminthes
5.Annelida
6.Mollusca
7.Arthropoda
8.Echinodermata
9.Chordata
(Sponge Diversity)
Yellow Tube
Sponge
Black-ball sponge
Erect Rope
Sponge
Porifera
OSCULUM
COLLAR
OSCULAR FRINGE
OSTIA
SPICULES
SUBSTRATUM
BASESycon
Phylum Porifera
•Sessile stays in one place•Sessile-stays in one place
•Most simple multicellular organismMost simple multicellular organism
•No tissues or organs
•Central body cavity
•Osculum- large opening(s) at top
f i•Pores for incurrent water
Poriferan Structure 3
Poriferan body plans
Sycon
P- Porifera
C- Calcarea
O- Heterocoela
G- Sycon
S- gelatinosum
Hydra (Hydrazoa)
MOUTH
GASTROVASCULAR
CAVITY
GASTRODERMIS
MESOGLEA
ECTODERM
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
Maamaamaamaa
TENTACLE
HYPOSTOME
BASAL DISC
TESTIS
OVARY
Budding Hydra
Hydra
P- Coelenterate
C- Hydrozoa
O- Hydroidea
G- Hydra
S- viridis
Phylum PlatyhelminthesPhylum Platyhelminthes
•Diffusion is used in place of important body systemsDiffusion is used in place of important body systems.
•No real vision only senses light with eyespots
•Examples:Flukes and Tapeworms
•Reproduce asexually by fission
•Reproduce sexually by cross fertilization
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Flatworm
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/platyhelminthes/platyhelminthes.html
Fun Fact: Tapewormsp
http://www.micrographia.com/specbiol/helmint/platyhel/cest0100.htm
In the 1920’s ingesting tapeworms was a method of weight loss.
The more intake of nutrients in the body; the longer the
tapeworm becomes in the intestine.
75 mm long 30 mm long
MOUTH
GONOPORE
ACETABULUM
ORAL SUCKER
(surrounds mouth)
EXCRETERY PORE
(Fasciola)
Fasciola hepatica “The Sheep Liver Fluke”
 Because sheep are the
normal definitive host.
 In places where sheep
are not raised can be
found in cattle.
 Humans can become
infected!
30 mm long
Asian Liver Fluke (Clonorchis sinensis)
Habitat: live in the duct system of the liver!
Fascioloides magna “Giant Deer Fluke
or Giant Liver Fluke”
 Found in deer, moose,
and elk.
 Sometimes in cattle,
bison, sheep, goats,
llamas, and pigs.
 Never found in people!
100 mm long!
Fasciola
P- Platyhelminthes
C- Trematoda
O- Digena
G-Fasciola
S- hepatica
Phylum Nematoda
•Roundworms are found everywhere
•In one cubic meter millions can live
•Some Nematodes are parasitic
•Trichinella is a muscle parasite found in pig meat
•Hookworms are intestinal and drink blood of stomach
p p g
•Filarial Roundworms infect lymphatic system cause Elephantiasis
Phylum Nematoda
http://www.cbv.ns.ca/mchs/diversity/aduo2.jpg
HookwormHookworm
MALE PENIAL SETAE
ANUS
GENITAL PORE
LATERAL LINE
EXCRETORY
PORE
MOUTH
Ascaris
Adult worm of A. lumbricoides
ElephantiasisElephantiasis
caused by
Roundworms.
T itt dTransmitted
by a vectorby a vector
such as a
mosquito or
biti fl
http://elephantiasis.freeyellow.com/blackleg.jpg
biting fly.
Elephantiasis
d bcaused by
RoundwormsRoundworms.
Transmitted
by a vector
hsuch as a
mosquito ormosquito or
biting fly.g y
http://elephantiasis.freeyellow.com/legs.jpg
A mass or bolus of
Ascaris lumbricoides.
Ascaris Worms in Intestine
Ascaris
P- Aschelminthes
C- Nematoda
O-Ascaroidea
G- Ascaris
S-lumbricoides
Phylum Annelida
•Segmented worms are capable of more complex movementsg p p
•Have a closed circulatory system
•Have five pairs of “hearts”
•Pharynx draws in food
•Crop stores food
•Gizzard grinds food up
•Then it is passed into the intestine where nutrients is absorbed
•And out the anus
Phylum Anneliday
Segmented worms
http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Annelida&contgroup=animals
Oligochaeta (earthworms)
Earthworm
MOUTH
PROSTOMIUM
PERISTOMIUM
CLITELLUM
FEMALE
GENITAL PORE14,15,16
17
18
19
MALE
GENITAL PORE
ANUS
GENITAL-
PAPILLAE
Earthworm
P- Annelida
C-Oligochaeta
O- Megadrilli
G- Pheretima
S-posthuma
Phylum Arthropoda
•Most dominant animals on Earth
•Exoskeleton “suit of armor” made of chitin
•Efficient gas exchange allows rapid supply of oxygen to muscles
•Well developed sensory system
•Well developed nervous system•Well developed nervous system
•Well developed circulatory system
Phylum Arthropoda
Scorpion
http://www.bushveld.co.za/scorpion.htm
Scorpion
Arachnids
Phylum Arthropoda
Hypsosinga rubens
http://www.marion.ohio-state.edu/spiderweb/SpiderPictures/Araneidae/Hypsosinga%20rubens.htm
(Orbweaver)
Phylum ArthropodaPhylum Arthropoda
Rock Crab
Crustacean
Phylum Arthropoday p
The Rock Crab’s Grandpa
Crustacean
The Rock Crab s Grandpa
10th
11th
MOUTH
ANTERIOR SUCKER
MALE GENITAL PORE
FEMALE GENITAL PORE
POSTERIR SUCKER
6th-22nd
NEPHRIDIOPORE
Leech
0001 nishi
0001 nishi
Leech
P- Annelida
C- Hirudinea
O- Gnathobdellida
G- Hirudo
S- medicinalis
Phylum Mollusca
•Shell made of Calcium Carbonate
•Open circulatory system except for Cephalopods
•Mantle lays down the shell
Open circulatory system except for Cephalopods
•Radula tongue made of chitin used to scrape for food
•Bivalve named for number of shells
•In some the shell is internal
Mollusca
(Soft bodied animals)
Phylum Mollusca
Clam
http://www.cabiota.com/cabiota/mollusca.htm
Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca
Bivalves
http://www.manandmollusc.net/beginners_intro/pelecypoda.html
Bivalves
Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca
Octopus
Gastropoda
OPERCULUM
APEX
PENULTIMATE
WHORL
SUTURE
BODY WHORL
SUPRAMARGINAL GROOVE
FIRST TENTACLE
HEAD
EYE
SECOND TENTACLE
Snail
Gastropod Anatomy
Snail
P- Mollusca
C- Gastropoda
S.C-Prosobranchiata
O- Taenioglossa
G- Pila
S-globosa
Malacostraca/Decapoda
Crayfish dissection
ROSTRUM
ANTENNULE
EYE
CARAPACE
CHELATE LEG
NON CHELATE LEG
PLEOPODS
TELSON
UROPOD
PrawnANTENNA
Prawn
P- Arthropoda
C- Crustacea
S.C- Malacostraca
O- Decapoda
G- Palaemon
S- malcolmsonii
Insecta/Orthoptera
FEMALE MALE
EYE
ANTENNA
HEAD
PROTHORAX
MESOTHORAX
METATHORAX
LEG
ANAL STYLE
WING
Cockroach
ANAL CERCI
Cockroach
P- Arthropoda
C- Insecta
O- Dictyoptera
G- Periplaneta
S- americana
Silk worm in Cocoon
Silk worm/Moth
EYE
ANTENNA
HEAD
PROTHORAX
WINGS
Silk Moth
0001 nishi
Silk worm/Moth
P- Arthropoda
C- Insecta
S.C- Pterygota
Division- Exopterygota
O- Hymenoptera
G- Bombyx
S- mori
Insecta/Hymenoptera
Insecta/Diptera
0001 nishi
Honey Bee
P- Arthropoda
C- Insecta
S.C- Pterygota
P- Exopterygota
O- Hymenoptera
G- Apis
S- indica
Phylum Echinodermata
•The name echinoderm is Greek for “hedgehog skin”
•Use a water-vascular system for locomotion,
respiration, and food capture
•Lack a circulatory system
•Have regenerative capabilities
Phylum EchinodermataPhylum Echinodermata
Star fish
http://www.inhissaddle.com/Scuba%20Pictures%20Album/pages/Sea%20Star%2002_jpg.htm
Star fish
Phylum EchinodermataPhylum Echinodermata
Sea UrchinSe U c
http://www.inhissaddle.com/Scuba%20Pictures%20Album/pages/SeaCucumberUrchins_jpg.htm
Phylum EchinodermataPhylum Echinodermata
Sea UrchinSea Urchin
http://www.inhissaddle.com/Scuba%20Pictures%20Album/pages/BandedSeaUrchin02_jpg.htm
Starfish
MOUTH
MANDREPORTE
ARM
AMBULACRAL
GROOVE
ANUS
Starfish
Starfish
P- Echinodermata
S.P- Eleutherozoa
C- Asteroidea
O- Forcipulata
G- Pentaceros
S- reticulatus
Phylum Chordata
•Deuterostome development-anus formed first
•Characteristics of Chordates:
1. Notochord
2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
3 Pharyngeal gill slits / Respiratory Openings3. Pharyngeal gill slits / Respiratory Openings
4. Post-anal tail
adapted from
http://gideon.k12.mo.us/teachers/j
swilley/htdocs/Classification%20of
%20Animals.ppt
Animals With Backbones
MAMMAL
FISH
REPTILE
BIRD
AMPHIBIAN
Rohu
Bony Fish
Meera
SNOUT
NOSTRIL
EYE
OPERCULUM
DORSAL FIN
PECTORAL FIN
PELVIC FIN
ANAL FIN
LATERAL LINE
TAIL
SCALES
CAUDAL FIN
Rohu
MOUTH
Rohu(Bony Fish)
P- Chordata
S.P.- Vertebrata
C- Teleostomi
O- Cypriniformes
G- Labeo
S- rohita
Frogs
EXTERNAL NARE
SNOUT
UPPER EYE LID
NICTITATING MEMBRANE
LOWER EYE LID
TYMPANUM
FORE LIMB
HIND LIMBWEBDIGIT
CLOACAL APERTURE
Frog
Frog
P- Chordata
S.P.- Vertebrata
C- Amphibia
O- Anura
G- Rana
S- tigrina
0001 nishi
EYE
NOSTRIL
HEAD
SPECTACULAR
MARK
HOOD
TRUNK
TAIL
Indian Cobra
Cobra
Indian Cobra
P- Chordata
S.P.- Vertebrata
C- Reptilia
O- Squamata
S.O-Serpentes
G- Naja
S- naja
Grass snake
Eggs usually laid in manure/compost
Common Krait
HEXAGONAL
SCALE
HEAD
NOSTRIL
EYE
MOUTH
TAIL
BAND
TRUNK
Common Krait
P- Chordata
S.P.- Vertebrata
C- Reptilia
O- Squamata
G- Bungarus
S- caeruleus
Banded
Krait
MID DORSAL PLATE
BANDS
EYE
HEAD
TRUNK
TAIL
NOSTRIL
Banded Krait
Banded Krait
P- Chordata
S.P.- Vertebrata
C- Reptilia
O- Squamata
G- Bungarus
S- fasciatus
Animals – Vertebrate Classes
Aves
Pigeon
HEAD
EYE
NECK
CERE
BEAK
WING
LEG
TAIL FEATHER
CLAWED
TOES
Pigeon
Pigeon
P- Chordata
S.P.- Vertebrata
C- Aves
O- Cicontiformes
G- Columba
S- livia
EYE
NOSTRIL
VIBRISSAE
HEAD
PINNA
FORE LIMB
HIND LIMB
TAIL
Rat
Rat
P- Chordata
S.P.- Gnathostomata
C- Mammalia
O- Rodentia
G- Rattus
S- rattus
Comparison of the Major Animal Phylap j y
Questions?
1.To which phylum these organism include ?
a)Sycon, b) pila, c) prawn, d) amoeba
2.Match the followings:
a)Mammalia, b) nemathelminthes, c) insecta,
d) annelida, e) echinodermata, f) teleost
1) Banded krait 2) leech 3) rat 4) round worm
5) rohu 6) all marine species 7) honey bee
3. Name the followings (biological).
Earhworm,silk worm , liver fluke, pigeon, toad.
0001 nishi

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