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Preventing cancer step 5


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Preventing cancer step 5 -

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Preventing cancer step 5

  1. 1. Cancer: Step 5 – Testing
  2. 2. Tests for Cancer Detection and PreventionCancer prevention goes a long way from simplytaking measures to avoid getting cancer. Gettingtested for cancer is also an important factor incancer prevention. It is an early cancer diagnosisthat treatment of cancer can becomesuccessful. There are numerous cancer preventiontests that can be used to detect cancer. West.netgives us a low down of some of these cancer tests:
  3. 3. Tests for Bladder CancerOver the past few years, cancer news has revealed a numberof new tests, which can be performed on urine samples, to aidbladder cancer diagnosis.• BTA® test – designed to detect proteins that are releasedby reproduction of bladder cancer tumor cells and itsinterpretation does not require a technician or specialist. TheBTA® test significantly identifies superficial (surface) bladdercancer tumors by changing color. The top of the BTA® teststrip turns yellow when positive for bladder cancer and itturns green when negative. The BTA stat test is animmunologic assay that can be used to identify recurrentbladder cancer.
  4. 4.• The FDP® test detects the breakdownproducts of blood-clotting proteins (fibrin,fibrinogen), which are increased in the urinein the presence of bladder cancer.• The NMP22™ assay measures specificproteins from the cell center. It can detecttransitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with asensitivity of roughly 67%, meaning that 67%of existing TCCs are detected. The NMP22™assay is also more importantly able to predictthe recurrence of bladder cancer.
  5. 5. Tests for Breast Cancer• Acueity ductoscopy is a patented optical system andductoscope, about the size of a pencil tip, which enablesphysicians to look through the nipple directly into themilk ducts where 85% of breast cancer develops. Theirsystem of microendoscopes, coupled with patentedOptiCue™ optical technology results in large, clear andsharp video images of the mammary duct system, withunprecedented depth of field perception and detectslesions as small as 0.2mm in diameter (50 times moresensitive than a standard mammogram.)
  6. 6.• Amas test – this can be the first test choice to check for breastcancer. The AMAS test detects the malignant growth only and ismore sensitive than mammograms. Further tests are warrantedhowever if the AMAS is positive for cancer as it does not indicatewhere the cancer is located, only that there is cancer within the body.AMAS test can also be used to follow breast cancer patients who arein remission, since the AMAS returns to normal within 3 months afterbreast cancer tumor (and metastases, if present) are removed oreradicated.• Ductal lavage is a new test developed by Dr. Susan Love. It is asimple blood test and an infrared imaging system that samples thelining of ducts of the breast to see what the cells are doing and todetect precancerous abnormalities or cancer cells. It has beendubbed ―pap smear for the breast‖ because, like the test for cervicalcancer, it is a non-surgical approach to identifying abnormalcells, potentially making it possible to find them when they are justthinking about becoming cancer.
  7. 7.• Mammography/Thermography – the latest cancerinformation involves two new forms of mammography aremaking news on detecting breast cancers: ComputedTomography Laser Mammography (CTLM) and Full FieldDigital Mammography.The CTLM system uses state-of-the-art laser technology, aspecial array of detectors and proprietary computedalgorithms. The CTLM® system does not expose the patient toionizing radiation or require breast compression.Digital mammography still uses low energy x-rays that passthrough the breast exactly like conventional mammogramsbut are recorded by means of an electronic digital detectorinstead of the film. This electronic image can be displayed ona video monitor like a TV or printed onto film. The radiologistcan manipulate the digital mammogram electronically tomagnify an area, change contrast, or alter the brightness.
  8. 8.• Another test being developed is a blood test todetect a protein marker for breast cancer. The testapparently can pick up cancerous tumors and pre-cancerous conditions.• Thermography can determine precancerous changesat an earlier, and theoretically more treatable, stage—months or even years before those changes would befelt as a lump or be visible on a mammogram, and allwithout radiation. Thermography uses thermal imagingwhich detects new blood vessels and chemical changesassociated with a tumor’s genesis and growth.
  9. 9.• Other Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection:There also a number of other imaging methods availablefor detecting breast cancer. At present, they are usedmainly in cancer research studies, and sometimes to getmore information about a tumor found by anothermethod. Each of these new methods generates acomputerized image that the doctor can analyze for thepresence of an abnormal breast lump. These include:Scintigraphy [sin-TOG-ra-fee]Also called scintimammography, this test uses a specialcamera to show where a tracer (a radioactive chemical)has adhered to a cancer tumor. A scanner is then usedto see if the breast lump has picked up more of theradioactive material than the rest of the breast tissue.
  10. 10.• PET scanCancer cells grow fast – especially breast cancercells – faster than other cells, so they use upenergy faster, too. To measure how fast glucose(the body’s fuel) is being used, a tracer(radioactive glucose) is injected into the body andscanned with a positron emission tomography(PET) machine. The PET machine detects how fastthe glucose is being used. If it is being used upfaster in certain places, it may indicate thepresence of a cancerous tumor.
  11. 11. for Colon/Colorectal Cancer• Hemmoccult Test for colon/colorectal cancer tests for blood inthe stool. A positive finding warrants having further tests, like acolonscopy or sigmoidoscopy to detect polyps and colon cancertumors. This test can be performed by almost any doctor’s office.• PreGen-26 – is a new DNA test for colon/colorectal cancer. It is atest to detect the presence of actual disease in people withhereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). In activecolon/colorectal cancer, DNA from cancer tumors is shed into thecolon and carried out of the body in stool.• Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) – is a cancer marker to screenfor colon/colorectal cancer – it is associated with digestive tractcancers. It is recommended for those with frequentconstipation, diarrhea or bleeding piles for an initial diagnostic tool.
  12. 12. Tests for Lung Cancer• Sputum cytology – the microscopic examination of cellsobtained from a deep-cough sample of mucus in the lungscan help determine if tests for lung cancer may be required.Ask your doctor about the Lung Cancer Alert test.• PET Scans can also be done for detecting lung cancer. Thistest may be able to replace the need for a biopsy. PET scansappear to use less radiation than many CT scans and mayprovide a more complete cancer diagnosis.
  13. 13. Tests for Prostate Cancer• Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) – the DRE checks the prostate gland for anybumps or abnormalities. Since this only checks the back of the prostate,it must be used with other tests for prostate cancer detection.• Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) – Prostate Specific Antigen may helpdetect prostate cancer early. PSA is a substance made only by theprostate. An elevated level may indicate cancer before the tumor is largeenough to raise a bump that a doctor can feel during check up.• Beckman Coulter’s Hybritech free PSA test – this test is able to moreaccurately distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic conditions.Free PSA can tell patients and physicians how aggressive the cancer isand advise the latter for the best treatment for cancer. This ismeasurable through a simple blood test.