Preventing cancer step 5


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Preventing cancer step 5

  1. 1. Preventing Cancer: Step 5 – Testing Various Tests for Cancer Detection and PreventionCancer prevention goes a long way from simply taking measures to avoid getting cancer. Getting tested for cancer isalso an important factor in cancer prevention. It is an early cancer diagnosis that treatment of cancer can becomesuccessful. There are numerous cancer prevention tests that can be used to detect cancer. gives us a lowdown of some of these cancer tests: Tests for Bladder CancerOver the past few years, cancer news has revealed a number of new tests, which can be performed on urine samples, toaid bladder cancer diagnosis.• BTA® test – designed to detect proteins that are released by reproduction of bladder cancer tumor cells and itsinterpretation does not require a technician or specialist. The BTA® test significantly identifies superficial (surface)bladder cancer tumors by changing color. The top of the BTA® test strip turns yellow when positive for bladder cancerand it turns green when negative. The BTA stat test is an immunologic assay that can be used to identify recurrentbladder cancer.• The FDP® test detects the breakdown products of blood-clotting proteins (fibrin, fibrinogen), which are increased inthe urine in the presence of bladder cancer.• The NMP22™ assay measures specific proteins from the cell center. It can detect transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)with a sensitivity of roughly 67%, meaning that 67% of existing TCCs are detected. The NMP22™ assay is also moreimportantly able to predict the recurrence of bladder cancer.
  2. 2. Tests for Breast Cancer• Acueity ductoscopy is a patented optical system and ductoscope, about the size of a pencil tip, which enablesphysicians to look through the nipple directly into the milk ducts where 85% of breast cancer develops. Their system ofmicroendoscopes, coupled with patented OptiCue™ optical technology results in large, clear and sharp video images ofthe mammary duct system, with unprecedented depth of field perception and detects lesions as small as 0.2mm indiameter (50 times more sensitive than a standard mammogram.)• Amas test – this can be the first test choice to check for breast cancer. The AMAS test detects the malignant growthonly and is more sensitive than mammograms. Further tests are warranted however if the AMAS is positive for cancer asit does not indicate where the cancer is located, only that there is cancer within the body. AMAS test can also be used tofollow breast cancer patients who are in remission, since the AMAS returns to normal within 3 months after breastcancer tumor (and metastases, if present) are removed or eradicated.• Ductal lavage is a new test developed by Dr. Susan Love. It is a simple blood test and an infrared imaging systemthat samples the lining of ducts of the breast to see what the cells are doing and to detect precancerous abnormalitiesor cancer cells. It has been dubbed ―pap smear for the breast‖ because, like the test for cervical cancer, it is a non-surgical approach to identifying abnormal cells, potentially making it possible to find them when they are just thinkingabout becoming cancer.• Mammography/Thermography – the latest cancer information involves two new forms of mammography aremaking news on detecting breast cancers: Computed Tomography Laser Mammography (CTLM) and Full Field DigitalMammography.The CTLM system uses state-of-the-art laser technology, a special array of detectors and proprietary computedalgorithms. The CTLM® system does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation or require breast compression.Digital mammography still uses low energy x-rays that pass through the breast exactly like conventional mammogramsbut are recorded by means of an electronic digital detector instead of the film. This electronic image can be displayedon a video monitor like a TV or printed onto film. The radiologist can manipulate the digital mammogram electronicallyto magnify an area, change contrast, or alter the brightness.• Another test being developed is a blood test to detect a protein marker for breast cancer. The test apparently canpick up cancerous tumors and pre-cancerous conditions.• Thermography can determine precancerous changes at an earlier, and theoretically more treatable, stage—monthsor even years before those changes would be felt as a lump or be visible on a mammogram, and all without radiation.Thermography uses thermal imaging which detects new blood vessels and chemical changes associated with a tumor’sgenesis and growth.
  3. 3. • Other Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection:There also a number of other imaging methods available for detecting breast cancer. At present, they are used mainlyin cancer research studies, and sometimes to get more information about a tumor found by another method. Each ofthese new methods generates a computerized image that the doctor can analyze for the presence of an abnormalbreast lump. These include:Scintigraphy [sin-TOG-ra-fee]Also called scintimammography, this test uses a special camera to show where a tracer (a radioactive chemical) hasadhered to a cancer tumor. A scanner is then used to see if the breast lump has picked up more of the radioactivematerial than the rest of the breast tissue.• PET scan Cancer cells grow fast – especially breast cancer cells – faster than other cells, so they use up energy faster, too. To measure how fast glucose (the body’s fuel) is being used, a tracer (radioactive glucose) is injected into the body and scanned with a positron emission tomography (PET) machine. The PET machine detects how fast the glucose is being used. If it is being used up faster in certain places, it may indicate the presence of a cancerous tumor. Tests for Colon/Colorectal Cancer• Hemmoccult Test for colon/colorectal cancer tests for blood in the stool. A positive finding warrants having furthertests, like a colonscopy or sigmoidoscopy to detect polyps and colon cancer tumors. This test can be performed byalmost any doctor’s office.• PreGen-26 – is a new DNA test for colon/colorectal cancer. It is a test to detect the presence of actual disease inpeople with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). In active colon/colorectal cancer, DNA from cancertumors is shed into the colon and carried out of the body in stool.• Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) – is a cancer marker to screen for colon/colorectal cancer – it is associated withdigestive tract cancers. It is recommended for those with frequent constipation, diarrhea or bleeding piles for an initialdiagnostic tool.
  4. 4. Tests for Lung Cancer• Sputum cytology – the microscopic examination of cells obtained from a deep-cough sample of mucus in the lungscan help determine if tests for lung cancer may be required. Ask your doctor about the Lung Cancer Alert test.• PET Scans can also be done for detecting lung cancer. This test may be able to replace the need for a biopsy. PETscans appear to use less radiation than many CT scans and may provide a more complete cancer diagnosis. Tests for Prostate Cancer• Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) – the DRE checks the prostate gland for any bumps or abnormalities. Since this onlychecks the back of the prostate, it must be used with other tests for prostate cancer detection.• Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) – Prostate Specific Antigen may help detect prostate cancer early. PSA is a substancemade only by the prostate. An elevated level may indicate cancer before the tumor is large enough to raise a bump thata doctor can feel during check up.• Beckman Coulter’s Hybritech free PSA test – this test is able to more accurately distinguish prostate cancer frombenign prostatic conditions. Free PSA can tell patients and physicians how aggressive the cancer is and advise the latterfor the best treatment for cancer. This is measurable through a simple blood test.