Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Data and information in digital organisation

288 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

Views
Total views
288
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
14
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Data and information in digital organisation

1. 1. What is Data Data is a stream of raw facts representing things or events that have happened. In ICT, we usually say that data is made up from four basic types: • Numbers • Text • Images • Sound
2. 2. Storing Data Inside the computer, however, all data is stored as numbers: • Numbers – are stored as numbers, obviously! • Text characters are stored as a code that represents each – e.g. ASCII • Images are stored as numbers representing the amounts of red, green and blue for each pixel • Sounds are stored as numbers representing the loudness at given intervals
3. 3. How are the numbers represented All data types are transformed into a uniform representation when they are stored in a computer and transformed back to their original form when retrieved. This universal representation is called a bit pattern.
4. 4. Bits and Bytes • Each of the 0s and 1s is called a bit – binary digit • Eight bits together form a byte • The longest number a computer can handle in one go is called a word – e.g. a 32-bit computer has a 32-bit word length • 1024 bytes is a kilobyte, 1024 kilobytes is a megabyte, 1024 megabytes is a gigabyte, etc.
5. 5. Storage of different data types
6. 6. Storing Numbers A number is changed to the binary system before being stored in the computer memory. For e.g. 39 is stored as: 2 39 1 2 19 1 2 9 1 2 4 0 2 2 0 1 Binary equivalent of 39 is : 100111
7. 7. Storing Text A section of text in any language is a sequence of symbols used to represent an idea in that language. To store text and symbols we use the ASCII codes which is further coded to binary equivalent. For example: Text such as “CATS”, which is made up from four symbols, can be represented as four n-bit patterns, each pattern defining a single symbol and having certain numeric value in ASCII..
8. 8. Storing Audio Audio is not countable and Continuous data, Audio is an example of analog data. For audio we select only a finite number of points on the analog signal, measure their values, and record them, this records are known as sample. The quantized sample values need to be encoded as bit patterns, to store in computer memory.
9. 9. Storing Images Images are stored in computers using two different techniques: Raster graphics and Vector graphics. These graphics are stored in form of Pixel, Pixel is picture element. To store Pixel there be a certain bit pattern.
10. 10. Information • Information is data that has been processed to make it meaningful and useful • Data + Meaning = Information • For storing Information in digital organization we require a tool called database.
11. 11. Database A centralized and structured set of data stored on a computer system. The database provides facilities for retrieving, adding, modifying and deleting the data when required. A database is usually managed by a Database Administrator (DBA). Traditional Database are organized by fields, records and files.
12. 12. Data Management  Without data and the ability to process it, an organization could not successfully complete most business activities  Data consists of raw facts  For data to be transformed into useful information, it must first be organized in a meaningful way
13. 13. Digital Information Systems  Digital information system (DIS): single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information DIS components – Hardware: computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities – Software: computer programs that govern the operation of the computer – Database: organized collection of facts and information – Telecommunications: electronic transmission of signals for communications – Networks: connect computers and equipment in a building, around the country, and around the world
14. 14. Business Information Systems Most common types of information systems used in business organizations  E-commerce: any business transaction executed electronically between parties  Transaction processing system (TPS): organized collection of people, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions  Management Information Systems (MIS): provide routine information to managers and decision makers  Decision support system (DSS) : used to support problemspecific decision making
15. 15. Thank You