What is Data
Data is a stream of raw facts representing things
or events that have happened.
In ICT, we usually say that d...
Storing Data
Inside the computer, however, all data is stored as
numbers:
• Numbers – are stored as numbers, obviously!
• ...
How are the numbers represented
All data types are transformed into a uniform
representation when they are stored in a com...
Bits and Bytes
• Each of the 0s and 1s is called a bit – binary
digit
• Eight bits together form a byte
• The longest numb...
Storage of different data types
Storing Numbers
A number is changed to the binary system before being
stored in the computer memory. For e.g. 39 is stored...
Storing Text
A section of text in any language is a sequence of symbols
used to represent an idea in that language.
To sto...
Storing Audio
Audio is not countable and Continuous data, Audio is an

example of analog data.
For audio we select only ...
Storing Images
Images are stored in computers using two

different techniques: Raster graphics and Vector
graphics.
Thes...
Information
• Information is data that has been processed to make it
meaningful and useful

• Data + Meaning = Information...
Database
A centralized and structured set of data stored on a

computer system.
The database provides facilities for ret...
Data Management
 Without data and the ability to

process it, an organization
could not successfully
complete most busine...
Digital Information Systems
 Digital information system (DIS): single set of hardware, software,

databases, telecommunic...
Business Information Systems
Most common types of information systems used in
business organizations
 E-commerce: any bus...
Thank You
Data and information in digital organisation
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Data and information in digital organisation

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Data and information in digital organisation

  1. 1. What is Data Data is a stream of raw facts representing things or events that have happened. In ICT, we usually say that data is made up from four basic types: • Numbers • Text • Images • Sound
  2. 2. Storing Data Inside the computer, however, all data is stored as numbers: • Numbers – are stored as numbers, obviously! • Text characters are stored as a code that represents each – e.g. ASCII • Images are stored as numbers representing the amounts of red, green and blue for each pixel • Sounds are stored as numbers representing the loudness at given intervals
  3. 3. How are the numbers represented All data types are transformed into a uniform representation when they are stored in a computer and transformed back to their original form when retrieved. This universal representation is called a bit pattern.
  4. 4. Bits and Bytes • Each of the 0s and 1s is called a bit – binary digit • Eight bits together form a byte • The longest number a computer can handle in one go is called a word – e.g. a 32-bit computer has a 32-bit word length • 1024 bytes is a kilobyte, 1024 kilobytes is a megabyte, 1024 megabytes is a gigabyte, etc.
  5. 5. Storage of different data types
  6. 6. Storing Numbers A number is changed to the binary system before being stored in the computer memory. For e.g. 39 is stored as: 2 39 1 2 19 1 2 9 1 2 4 0 2 2 0 1 Binary equivalent of 39 is : 100111
  7. 7. Storing Text A section of text in any language is a sequence of symbols used to represent an idea in that language. To store text and symbols we use the ASCII codes which is further coded to binary equivalent. For example: Text such as “CATS”, which is made up from four symbols, can be represented as four n-bit patterns, each pattern defining a single symbol and having certain numeric value in ASCII..
  8. 8. Storing Audio Audio is not countable and Continuous data, Audio is an example of analog data. For audio we select only a finite number of points on the analog signal, measure their values, and record them, this records are known as sample. The quantized sample values need to be encoded as bit patterns, to store in computer memory.
  9. 9. Storing Images Images are stored in computers using two different techniques: Raster graphics and Vector graphics. These graphics are stored in form of Pixel, Pixel is picture element. To store Pixel there be a certain bit pattern.
  10. 10. Information • Information is data that has been processed to make it meaningful and useful • Data + Meaning = Information • For storing Information in digital organization we require a tool called database.
  11. 11. Database A centralized and structured set of data stored on a computer system. The database provides facilities for retrieving, adding, modifying and deleting the data when required. A database is usually managed by a Database Administrator (DBA). Traditional Database are organized by fields, records and files.
  12. 12. Data Management  Without data and the ability to process it, an organization could not successfully complete most business activities  Data consists of raw facts  For data to be transformed into useful information, it must first be organized in a meaningful way
  13. 13. Digital Information Systems  Digital information system (DIS): single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information DIS components – Hardware: computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities – Software: computer programs that govern the operation of the computer – Database: organized collection of facts and information – Telecommunications: electronic transmission of signals for communications – Networks: connect computers and equipment in a building, around the country, and around the world
  14. 14. Business Information Systems Most common types of information systems used in business organizations  E-commerce: any business transaction executed electronically between parties  Transaction processing system (TPS): organized collection of people, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions  Management Information Systems (MIS): provide routine information to managers and decision makers  Decision support system (DSS) : used to support problemspecific decision making
  15. 15. Thank You

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