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Government 2.0.: Opportunities and challenges


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En su conferencia, "Government 2.0.: Opportunities and challenges", Jane Fountain enseña las consecuencias del uso de herramientas tecnológicas de comunicación en la campaña y la administración de Barack Obama. 12-02-2010

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Government 2.0.: Opportunities and challenges

  1. 1. Government 2.0: Opportunities and Challenges Escuela de Organización Industrial University of Madrid 12 February 2010 ~ Jane Fountain | Professor of Political Science and Public Policy Director, National Center for Digital Government University of Massachusetts Amherst With acknowledgements to Jeffrey Rothschild, research assistant
  2. 2. The State of Play <ul><li>Web 2.0 and the Election </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-agency Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Open Government Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities and Challenges </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Emergence of the Internet in the 2008 Presidential Election
  4. 4. The Emergence of the Social Web in the 2008 Presidential Election
  5. 5. The Campaign by the Numbers <ul><li>52.5% of the popular vote </li></ul><ul><li>364 electoral votes </li></ul><ul><li>Email – 13 million on list received 7,000 variations of more than one billion emails </li></ul><ul><li>5 million “friends” on > 15 social networking sites </li></ul><ul><li>2,818,410 supporters on Facebook) (6.95 million) </li></ul><ul><li>870,093 “friends” on MySpace (1.89 million) </li></ul><ul><li>126,225 followers on Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>$600 million in contributions </li></ul><ul><li>3 million online donors contributed 6.5 million times </li></ul><ul><li>3 million personal phone calls placed during last four days of campaign </li></ul>Sources: Jose Antonio Vargas, “Obama Raised Half a Billion Online,” Washington Post online, Nov 20, 2008. Mark Harris, “Barack to the future,” Institution of Engineering and Technology Magazine, 19 Nov 2008.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes developed </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million accounts </li></ul><ul><li>8.5 million monthly visitors at peak </li></ul><ul><li>400,000 blog posts </li></ul><ul><li>35,000 volunteer groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promoted > 150k events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70,000 fundraising hubs raised $30 million </li></ul><ul><li>Processed three million private donations </li></ul><ul><li>Now the “Organizing for America” website </li></ul>Sources: Vargas, 2008; Harris 2008.
  7. 7. Reach out to Niche Communities <ul><li>MiGente (Latinos) </li></ul><ul><li>FaithBase (Christians) </li></ul><ul><li>Eons (Baby Boomers) </li></ul><ul><li>AsianAve (Asian Americans) </li></ul><ul><li>Glee (LGBT) </li></ul><ul><li>BlackPlanet (African Americans) </li></ul>Sources: Vargas, 2008; Monte Lutz, “The Social Pulpit: Barack Obama’s Social Media Toolkit,” Edelman, 2009.
  8. 8. Expansive Social Networking <ul><li>LinkedIn - 500 connections (Harris) </li></ul><ul><li>50,000 images of Obama and family on Flickr photostream (Harris) </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life presence (Harris) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic text messaging (Vargas 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-viral email messages </li></ul><ul><li>$8 million in online advertising; $3 million on Google (Harris) </li></ul><ul><li>$293 million in television advertising (January ‘07 to October ‘08) v $132 million by McCain </li></ul>Sources: Harris, 2008; Vargas, 2007
  9. 9. The YouTube President
  10. 10. Free Advertising on YouTube <ul><li>Almost 2,000 official YouTube videos </li></ul><ul><li>Official videos watched > 14.5 million hours </li></ul><ul><li>Videos watched > 80 million times </li></ul><ul><li>6.7 million watched Obama speech on race 442,000 user-generated videos on YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Videos more effective than television (Trippi) </li></ul><ul><li>Friends refer videos; citizen fact checking </li></ul><ul><li>14.5 million hrs on television costs $47 million </li></ul>Sources: Claire Cain Miller, “How Obama’s Internet Campaign Changed Politics,” New York Times , Nov 7, 2008.
  11. 11. Use Online Tools to Activate and Manage Volunteers <ul><li>Use direct, personalized communication </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organizing networks - with clear direction </li></ul><ul><li>Ask visitors to MyBO to set fund raising goals, chart progress, provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>2.9 million sign up for text messaging of VP choice </li></ul><ul><li>iPhone app scans address books for contacts in battleground states - ask friends to contact </li></ul>Sources: Harper, “Uploading Hope,” Paper delivered at YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2009.; Harris, 2008.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Obama website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten times the online staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four times the YouTube viewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five times the Facebook friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double the website traffic </li></ul></ul>McCain: No comparison Source: Lutz, 2009.
  13. 13. To Summarize <ul><li>Clear political and strategic goals and micro-level planning </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic use of web 2.0 with personalized, detailed directions to volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple points of entry, multiple opportunities for participation </li></ul><ul><li>McCain - little user production allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Dean (2001) - genuinely interactive website, online fundraising, allow all to blog </li></ul>
  14. 14. State of Play in the U.S. Bureaucracy: 2008
  15. 15. Government to Citizen Government to Government Internal Effectiveness and Efficiency 1. USA Service GSA 2. EZ Tax Filing Treas 3. Educ 4. Rec’n One Stop Interior 5. Labor 1. E-Vital 2. E-Grants 3. Disaster Assistance and Crisis Response 4. Geospatial Information One Stop 5. Wireless Networks (SAFECOM) 1. E-Training 2. Recruitment One Stop 3. Enterprise HR Integration 4. E-Travel 5. Integrated Acquisition 6. E-Records Management 7. Payroll Processing Cross-Agency Initiatives Managing Partner OPM OPM OPM GSA GSA NARA OPM Managing Partner SSA HHS FEMA DOI FEMA Government to Business 1. Federal Asset Sales 2. E-rulemaking 3. Simplified and Unified Tax and Wage Reporting 4. Consolidated Health Informatics 5. Business Compliance One Stop 6. International Trade Process Streamlining Managing Partner GSA EPA Treas HHS SBA DOC E-Authentication
  16. 16. An Enterprise Approach to Government
  17. 17. Institutional Developments <ul><li>Federal Chief Information Officer (CIO), Associate Director for IT and eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry CIOs and CIO Council </li></ul><ul><li>OMB Portfolio Management Office – oversight of cross-agency projects; knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Agencies for cross-agency projects – lead agency approach </li></ul>Sources: J. E. Fountain, “Bureaucratic reform and e-government in the United States,” in Chadwick and Howard, eds, 2009; Fountain, “Challenges to Organizational Change,” in Lazer and Mayer-Schoenberger, 2007; “Central Issues in the Political Development of the Virtual State,” in Castells and Cardoso, 2006.
  18. 18. Institutional Developments (1993-2009) <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Oversight and central management at OMB </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and budgeting networks </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service mentality – government-wide (enterprise) and networked </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability in networked governance? </li></ul>
  19. 19. From the Campaign to the White House
  20. 20. Obama Administration <ul><li>Open government directive on transparency, participation and collaboration in government </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband internet access nationwide </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed first Federal Chief Technology Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Drive growth by deploying a 21st Century Information Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in science and science education </li></ul><ul><li>Move toward unprecedented openness </li></ul><ul><li>Make critical government information available </li></ul>See Beth Noveck, U.S. Deputy Chief Technology Officer, “Open Government,” NCDG lecture, October 30, 2009.
  21. 21. White House Open Government Initiative
  22. 22. Open Government Initiative <ul><li>January 21, 2009, Executive Memorandum announces commitment to “unprecedented level of openness in Government.” </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency - enable greater accountability, efficiency and economic opportunity through open data and operations </li></ul><ul><li>Participation - early and effective opportunities for greater and more diverse expertise in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration -- generate new ideas to solve problems, foster cooperation across departments, levels and with the public </li></ul>
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Apps.Gov
  25. 25. More Innovations
  26. 26. Observations
  27. 27. Antecedents of Successful Collaboration <ul><li>Institutional Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Political Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Budgetary Process </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Operational/ Managerial Factors : </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Collaborative Work (important task, clear goals, performance metrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Factors : </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital </li></ul><ul><li>(networks and trust) </li></ul>Successful Collaborative Initiative Macro-Level Meso-Level Micro-Level Source: Fountain 2007.
  28. 28. Web 2.0 and Civil Society <ul><li>The new hype? </li></ul><ul><li>Bush: “a thousand points of light” </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organization - the new marketization? </li></ul><ul><li>IT industry interests in web 2.0 and governance </li></ul><ul><li>Task dimensions and complexity in policymaking require expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Representativeness - who participates? </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation v. integration </li></ul>Source: Fountain, 2009
  29. 29. The Government of the Future <ul><li>The government of the future requires </li></ul><ul><li>The civil servants, partnerships and citizens of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Civil servants as knowledge workers in an information society </li></ul><ul><li>Using digital tools and networks </li></ul><ul><li>With a deep sense of public service </li></ul><ul><li>And strong understanding of their policy and programmatic domains </li></ul>
  30. 30.