Good Morning to everybody: I would be very grateful for this smartgrid summit invitation. Thank you very much for the fantastic organization. My name is David Trebolle and I am the head of … in Gas Natural Fenosa as a DSO in Spain. Today we are going to talk about the voltage control in MV networks when we are connecting DG to the grid EOI – Escuela de organización industrial IMDEA – Instituto madrileño de estudios avanzados
So, we will define the Dg concept and why we are talking about DG. We will classify the difference technologies or voltage control types that we have when we talk about DG. To understand what is the influence of DG in the MV voltage control we will analyze the Spanish distribution grid Once we understand this concept a technical and regulatory analysis will be covered in order to afterword introduce you our conclusions and proposals.
So, what is DG and why
We need to effect these changes in a cost-effective manner remembering that any new generation output displaces existing output Status quo Future DG will displace a significant amount of energy produced by large conventional plant. However, if DG and demand side are not integrated in system operation, conventional generation will continue to be necessary for provision of system support services required to maintain security and integrity of the system. This implies that large penetration of DG will not be able to displace the capacity of conventional plant as indicated in the Figure. Given that a significant proportion of DG is likely to be connected to distribution networks, maintaining the traditional passive operation of these networks and centralised control will necessitate increase in capacities of both transmission and distribution networks Distributed control future On the other hand, by fully integrating DG and demand side into network operation, DG and demand side will take the responsibility for delivery of system support services taking over the role of central generation. In this case DG will be able to displace not only energy produced by central generation but also its controllability reducing the capacity of central generation as in shown in the figure. To achieve this distribution networks operating practice will need to change from passive to active necessitating a change from traditional central control philosophy to a new distributed control paradigm.
The demand in 2009 has been covered in Spain in 2009 by a 29% of gas, 19 of nuclear power, 13% wind power, 12% coal, 3% solar and 14% id the rest of CHP and small hydro. Let me put into your consideration that Wind power in Spain is not DG because all the power is beeing inyected to the transmission system, so this is not DG. In Spain DG is being composed by, CHP, Photovoltaic and small hydro. And this is the 16% of the generation.
And what about the networks, do they have something to say? And what are the transmission and the distribution grids have they any differences? Of course yes. In general we could say that TSO is in charge of the security of supply and the DSO is in charge of the quality of service. The structures, the type of operation, the number of connected clients, installations, the flexibility in the operation and the monitoring level are completely different. Due to DG is connected to the distribution we will focused on this grid. The distribution grid has three very different parts. In one hand we have the subtransmission grid. In this grid the flexibility and the level of monitoring is more or less high. We have also a few consumer connected. The operation of this grid is typically mesh or radial depending on situations of the grid. The second part is the medium voltage level in this grid it is very important to say the type of operation is radial and the level monitoring is medium. The last current measure in real time is located at the beginning of the feeder so we do not know what is the demand and the generation connected from this point to the final consumer in real time. The last part is the low voltage network. Here we have the major problems because we do not anything from reality because there are not almost information from this type of grid.
So we have to change the way the distribution grid are design from passive to active way How des the passive network work? The passive network is being characterized by one way power flows, with a very low monitoring level, under a limited automation devices. And the paradigm is “generation follows demand”
But the ongoing future tells us that his is going to change. What kind of elements do we have to take into account? Of course the new model should be consistent with So, what is the solution? We need a new paradigm in the electrical business in order to have electrical activities that bring to the final consumer a more efficient solution with more quality and sustainable. This is only going to be possible if we are able to integrate the distributed generation in the grid, with a demand side management, all of them combine with the storage option and in some places having the alternative of having microgrids. All these options will not be possible if a new regulatory framework come to us and allow us to bring all the new technologies.
We will need a fantastic coordination between all the distributed energy sources… So taking into account all this new DER we will have to deal with new challenges and look for new solutions.. For example we will have to change the paradigm from generation follows demand to demand could follow generation, renewables or all DER will be coordinated. So sometimes generation will fallow demand etc… We will need a better and more clever networks, the management of the grid will be more efficient, with new technologies like real time ratings, distributed intelligence, tools for simulation etc… Demand will participate more actively and thanks to that we could achieve demand shift. Energy movements from peaks to valleys, a better efficiency, les moment peaks thanks to demand reduction…Etc So I Think we are able now to define what are going to be smartgrids…
A smart grid employs innovative products and services together with intelligent monitoring, control, communication, and self-healing technologies in order to: Better facilitate the connection and operation of generators of all sizes and technologies; Allow consumers to play a part in optimising the operation of the system; Provide consumers with greater information and options for choice of supply; Significantly reduce the environmental impact of the whole electricity supply system; Maintain or even improve the existing high levels of system reliability, quality and security of supply; Maintain and improve the existing services efficiently; Foster market integration towards European integrated market. What does “smartness” imply? SmartGrids do not only supply power but also information and intelligence. The “smartness” is manifested in making better use of technologies and solutions to better plan and run existing electricity grids, to intelligently control generation and to enable new energy services and energy efficiency improvements. What does it NOT mean? The smart grid relates to the electricity network only (not gas) – it concerns both distribution and transmission levels. Smart grids are not new “super grids”. They will not look significantly different to today’s “conventional” electricity grids transporting and distributing power over “copper and iron”. However, smart grids will lead to improved cost-efficiency and effectiveness. The smart grid is no revolution but rather an evolution or a process within which electricity grids are being continuously improved to meet the needs of current and future customers. There will not (and cannot) be any “roll-out” of smart grids, since such a “roll-out” is continuously occurring. Although the concepts are sometimes confused, the smart grid is not smart metering – the smart grid is a much broader set of technologies and solutions (see diagram below).
And for me this is the most complete vision. You can see the different agents and participants. We have the demand (loads), electric vehicles and storage, the conventional generation and the distributed generation that could be assciated in VPP,
So first of all we are going to clasify the dg technologies.
So, what is the solution? We need a new paradigm in the electrical business in order to have electrical activities that bring to the final consumer a more efficient solution with more quality and sustainable. This is only going to be possible if we are able to integrate the distributed generation in the grid, with a demand side management, all of them combine with the storage option and in some places having the alternative of having microgrids. All these options will not be possible if a new regulatory framework come to us and allow us to bring all the new technologies.
Let’s talk about the Spanish MV grid
The regulatory analysis in Spain is quite easy to understand. Basically we have three laws to fulfill. In one hand we have the grid code that basically more or less says to things: how to control the voltage at the high voltage transmission and the power factor that should maintain at the borders between transmission and distribution. RD 1955 says to DSO the margin required at customers connection point, which is the most important for DSO’s and RD 661 is the low that says what kind of measures have to fulfill DG. So three laws for three agent. First conclusion. There is not a law that allows them a good coordination. We will talk more about this at the regulatory conclusions
In this graph we have the reaction between apparent power and active power due to the reactive power that is necessary to maintain the voltage when we are injecting power in the grid
Power related issues requiring SmartGrids solutions
Smartgrids The Distribution perspective 3 rd November 2010 David Trebolle Trebolle “ Head of real time and back office systems in operation”
Parts of distribution networks Types of Grid Structure Operation Type Clients (Nº) Installations (Nº) Operation Flexibility Monitoring Level Transmission (Security of supply) (400, 220 kV) Mesh Mesh Very few Not many High High Distribution (Quality of Service) Subtransmission (132, 66, 45 kV) Mesh / Radial Mesh / Radial Few Quite a lot Medium High MV (20, 15 kV) Mesh/ Radial Radial Several Many Low Medium LV (400, 380 V) Mesh / Radial Radial Many Many Very Low None
Demand side management Active networks Distributed generation New technologies A new paradigm in the electrical business New regulatory framework Microgrids Storage, Electric vehicles A new paradigm? Quality Efficient Sustainable
Challenges and solutions Source: KEMA A coordination between all DER…
Smartgrids: a definition “ Electricity networks that can intelligently integrate the behavior and actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. Source: European Technology Platform SmartGrids
Smartgrids: a definition Loads Storage Generation Transit e-Mobility Smart Grids Smart Meters Virtual Power Plant Transmission grids Distribution Grids Smart Home e-Energy ICT Trade Future Market Places MUC = Multi Utility Communication ICT = Information and Communication Technology MUC
Tiempo Gestión inteligente de la red Optimización de la explotación de la red <ul><li>Telecontrol y monitorización de red </li></ul><ul><li>Telegestión del sistema de protección </li></ul><ul><li>Herramientas de ayuda a la operación </li></ul><ul><li>Gestión activa de la red </li></ul><ul><li>Esquemas regulatorios </li></ul>1. Advanced Metering Infrastructure 1 Hoja de ruta Smartgrids Telegestión <ul><li>AMI 1 (despliegue masivo con comunicación bidireccional) </li></ul><ul><li>Lectura remota y generalizada de la información de uso </li></ul><ul><li>Integración en procesos de los DSO’s y TSO’s </li></ul>3 <ul><li>Integración de la generación distribuida </li></ul><ul><li>Criterios técnicos de conexión </li></ul><ul><li>Integración SSCC </li></ul><ul><li>Operación en isla </li></ul><ul><li>Cambios regulatorios </li></ul>Integración de la GD 2 Gestión avanzada de la demanda <ul><li>Participación activa de la demanda (desplazamientos de carga, reducción de consumo) </li></ul><ul><li>Gestión activa de la demanda (integración en SSCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Cambios regulatorios </li></ul><ul><li>Automatización en consumo final (redes inteligentes en los hogares y aparatos eléctricos inteligentes </li></ul><ul><li>Vehículo eléctrico </li></ul>4 <ul><li>Integración de todos los DER </li></ul><ul><li>Operación optimizada de las instalaciones </li></ul><ul><li>Control avanzado de las sistemas de red (fiabilidad, fraude, control de flujos) </li></ul><ul><li>Almacenamiento eficiente de energía </li></ul><ul><li>Cambios regulatorios (mejor asignación de costes según uso de las redes) </li></ul>Optimización y coordinación del SE global 5 HOY deberíamos estar aquí
Security of Supply contributions Quality of Supply Services Voltage control Constraints management Frequency Response Regulating and Standing Reserve Voltage and Reactive Power control Constraints management TSO Ancillary services with DER? DSO Grid codes Grid codes?
Grid Code 7.4 (TSO) RD661/2008 (DG) Transmission voltage levels required Power factors required at distribution connection points RD1955/2000 (DSO) + 7% rated voltage for customers Power factors required for DG depending on the moment (peak, valley…) TSO vs DSO vs DG DSO is not able to control power factor at transmission borders due to DG The purpose of DSO is voltage control DG and voltage control: Regulatory framework Not Controllable
Relation S/P required to maintain voltage profile when active power is injected in the grid Source: Seville University Redes 2025 Project The effect of parameter R/X in voltage profile
Security of S upply DG contribution DG can delay investments in some cases Period of firmness is low The primary source is controllable and predictable Low capacity required Many embedded Distributed Generators
Expected Benefits Distribution active management Smart DSO and DG Incentive schemes. DSO should recover costs Grid codes Ancillary services with DER New technologies… Regulatory framework Less fossil fuel dependence More efficiency in use of assets Increase reliability and security of supply From passive to active grids From inflexibility to flexibility and controllability Smart grids From DG connection to DG integration .. From passive demand to active demand … From passive networks to active networks From “ Generation follows demand” to coordination between all DER DG integration Technical connection criteria Active participation in ancillary services Location signals For DSO’s and TSO’s applied to information control smart metering and monitoring