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Studying Migrations Routes: New data and Tools

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Gianfranco Vizzini - The European comprehensive approach
for the management of the migration flows in the editerranean Sea
Workshop 16 June 2016
Auditorium Antonianum – Sala San Francesco
Viale Manzoni, 1 Roma

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Studying Migrations Routes: New data and Tools

  1. 1. EU LIMITE EUNAVFOR MED operation SOPHIA Studying Migrations Routes: New data and Tools Rome, 16 June 2016 Migrant boat capsizing on 25 May 2016 off Libyan coast CAPT (Italian Navy) Gianfranco VIZZINI – Assistant Chief of Staff
  2. 2. − Introduction − Migration Flow − Smugglers Business Model − Regional Cooperation − Mission Considerations AGENDA
  3. 3. 1. Reinforce the Joint Operations in the Mediterranean, namely Triton and Poseidon; 2. A systematic effort to capture and destroy vessels used by the smugglers; 3. EUROPOL, FRONTEX, EASO and EUROJUST will work closely to gather information on smugglers modus operandi, to trace their funds and assist in their investigation; 4. EASO to deploy teams in Italy and Greece for joint processing of asylum applications; 5. Member States to ensure fingerprinting of all migrants; 6. Consider options for an emergency relocation mechanism; 7. An EU wide voluntary pilot project on resettlement; 8. Establish a new return programme for rapid return of irregular migrants; 9. Engagement with countries surrounding Libya; 10. Deploy Immigration Liasion Officers (ILO) in key third countries, to gather intelligence on migratory flows and strengthen the role of the EU Delegations INTRODUCTION Ten Point Action Plan
  4. 4. Undertake systematic efforts to identify, capture and dispose of vessels and enabling assets used or suspected of being used by migrant smugglers or traffickers, in order to contribute to wider EU efforts to disrupt the business model of human smuggling and trafficking networks in the Southern Central Mediterranean. INTRODUCTION Mission
  5. 5. Search and Rescue is not part of the MissionSearch and Rescue is not part of the Mission howeverhowever ENFM has aENFM has a legallegal responsibility underresponsibility under International law and aInternational law and a moralmoral responsibility to do soresponsibility to do so To date, EUNAVFOR MED has saved more thanTo date, EUNAVFOR MED has saved more than 15.997 lives15.997 lives INTRODUCTION Search and Rescue (SAR)
  6. 6. PHASE 2: SECURE PHASE 4: RE-DEPLOYMENT PHASE 3: DISRUPT Neutralise migrant smugglers/traffickers vessels and other enabling assets through limited and temporary special and amphibious operations. At the end of Phase 3, s/t will be reduced to a level manageable by individual Coastal States PHASE 1: DEPLOY AND ASSESS Enhancing understanding of s/t business model BRAVO in IW + TTWALPHA in IW Stopping, Boarding and Searching the vessels, its cargo and persons on board to collect info/evidence If evidence indicates that suspicion of smuggling activity is found: • seize the vessel and temporarily apprehend persons on board • divert the vessel and/or conduct persons on board to a designated port Limiting freedom of movements to the smugglers, deterring and disrupting the criminal business model INTRODUCTION Operation General Overview
  7. 7. Source migrants: FRONTEX (26 JAN) Source deaths: IOM Missing Migrants (31 DEC) −16% Western 3 209 <1% Route †74 = 2.3 % Central 154 725 16% Route †2 829 = 1.9% Eastern/Balkan 880 820 83% Route †855 = 0.1% No FRONTEX JO running 22% 16% 13%7% 37% 5% Eritrea Unknown Nigeria Somalia Sudan Others MIGRATION FLOW 2015 +1842% -9% 56% 23% 11% 3% 4%3% Syria Afghanistan Iraq Pakistan Iran Others Total in route % of all routes Deads in route = % of all routes Route
  8. 8. N/A Western 0 Route 0No FRONTEX JO running Source: FRONTEX (5 Apr) Total in route % of all routes Deads in route = % of all routes Route +65% +1051% Central 21 001 12% Route †15 = 0.07% MIGRATION FLOW Until 4 Apr 2016 19% 11% 9% 9%8% 8% 8% 28% Nigeria Gambia Ivory Coast Somalia Guinea Senegal Mali Other 49% 27% 16% 4% 4% Syria Afghanistan Iraq Pakistan Iran Eastern/Balkan 160 186 88% Route †376 = 0.2%
  9. 9. 16% 84% Eastern/Balkan 7130 Route†10 = 0.1% N/A Total in route % of all routes Fatality for route total and % Western 0 Route 0No FRONTEX JO running Central 36556 Route †2083 = 5.4% Source migrants& deaths: FRONTEX (15 Jun) Source deaths: IOM Missing Migrants (1 Apr – 15 Jun) Eastern migration numbers according to FRONTEX (04 Apr - 01 Jun) 50% 26% 16% 4% 4% Syria Afghanistan Iraq Pakistan Iran 15% 14% 8% 8%8% 47% Nigeria Eritrea Somalia Ivory Coast Gambia All Other MIGRATION FLOW (From 4 Apr 2016 to 15 Jun 2016)
  10. 10. JOA AOO Egypt Libya Total Event: 16Total Event: 16 Land Sea 03 JUNE - 392 MIG 07 JUNE - 223 MIG 06 APR - 312 MIG 07 APR - 294 MIG 13 APR - 349 MIG 17 APR - 214 MIG 24 APR - 310 MIG 29 APR - 249 MIG 12 MAY - 285 MIG 23 MAY - 349 MIG 11 MAY - 516 MIG 24 APR - 198 MIG 21 MAY - 276 MIG 19 APR - 237 MIG 02 JUNE - 222 MIG 03 JUNE - 360 MIG EVENTS 4 APRIL – 15 JUNE Resumption of Egyptian Flow
  11. 11. JOA AOO Egypt Libya Antalya Total Event: 6Total Event: 6 Sea Land 4 MAY - 52 MIG3 MAY - 27 MIG LAND 10 MAY - 32 MIG LAND 17 APR - 27 MIG 21 APR - 33 MIG 31 MAY - 34 MIG EVENTS 4 APRIL – 15 JUNE Turkish Flow
  12. 12. EGYPTIAN FLOW Lampedusa AOO Very low Low Medium High Very high Tripoli Misrata Zuwarah Sabratah Qarabulli CENTRAL ROUTE Density
  13. 13. Zuwarah Sabratah Tajoura Mellitah Zawya Tripoli CENTRAL ROUTE Main Ports of Departure Garabulli
  14. 14. Sabrat ah Sabratah CENTRAL ROUTE Waiting Areas
  15. 15. SMUGGLERS BUSINESS MODEL Organization
  16. 16. 200 / 400 PAX200 / 400 PAX 500 / 800 PAX500 / 800 PAX 350 / 500 PAX350 / 500 PAX 100 / 140 PAX100 / 140 PAX SMUGGLERS BUSINESS MODEL Migration Boats
  17. 17. Migrant costs Land transit > 2.000 € Sea transit inflatable 500-1.000 € Sea transit wooden 1.100-1.300 € Sea transit fishing 2.500-3.500 € Smuggler profits Inflatable fares (100 p) 75.000 € Inflatable cost 8.000 € Profit 67.000 € Wooden fares (400 p) 480.000 € Wooden cost 100.000 € Profit 380.000 € SMUGGLERS BUSINESS MODEL Profits
  18. 18. SMUGGLERS BUSINESS MODEL Social Networks
  19. 19. LIBYAN TERRITORIAL WATERS HIGH SEAS S&T AREAS OF ACTIVITY TODAY S&T AREAS OF ACTIVITY AT OPERATION START SMUGGLERS BUSINESS MODEL Areas of Activity
  20. 20. Assets Type Nationality ITS GARIBALDI + 2 EH-101 Aircraft Carrier SPS REINA SOFIA + AB 212 OHP Class Frigate HMS ENTERPRISE Multi-role Survey Vessel FGS FRANKFURT Auxiliary Ship FGS KARLSRUHE F122 Class frigates EL Submarine (non permanent) LU MERLIN III MPRA ES CN 235 MPRA PT P-3C MPRA FR Falcon M50 MPRA (non permanent) EUNAVFOR MED operation SOPHIA Phase 2A (HS): Assets currently Available Air assets in blue
  21. 21. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS United Nations UN SG Chef de Cabinet UN DPKO UN DPA UN OMA UN OCHA WFP UN ODC UN HCR UNICEF UN SMIL OHCHR Arab League African Union IOM ICRC EU ORGANISATIONS FRONTEX EUROPOL EUROJUST EASO ECHO EUNAVFOR ATALANTA EUTM Somalia EUTM Mali EULPC Tunisia EUBAM Libya NGOs Medécin Sans Frontières Save the Children MOAS International Medical Corps Sea Watch Sea Eye SOS Mèditerranée. OTHER ORGANISATIONS NATO OSCE ITA Nat. Prosecutor Off. INTERPOL THIRD COUNTRIES Algeria • Minister of Foreign Affairs • Commander of the Algerian Naval Forces Tunisia • Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs • Director of International Relations (MOI) • Commander of the Coast Guard • Director of Operations, Tunisian Navy Egypt • Minister of Interior • Minister of Foreign Affairs • Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Turkey • Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Ministry of Defence • Minister of Interior • Coast Guard USA • Department of State • Department of Defence • US Coast Guard • AFRICOM / EUCOM Libya • GNA Senior Minister • Navy / Coast Guard EUNAVFOR MED operation SOPHIA Outreach Activities
  22. 22. 8080 Representatives fromRepresentatives from 3939 different Organisationsdifferent Organisations Share best practice and informally discuss andShare best practice and informally discuss and de-conflict activitiesde-conflict activities First meeting heldFirst meeting held in Rome on 26thin Rome on 26th November 2015November 2015 SHADE MED 1/2015 Shared Awareness and De-confliction Mediterranean Sea
  23. 23. SHADE MED Working Groups OPERATIONALOPERATIONAL Share operational and tacticalShare operational and tactical information in real time among differentinformation in real time among different actorsactors SMUGGLERS’ BUSINESSSMUGGLERS’ BUSINESS MODELMODEL Understand smugglers’ Business ModelUnderstand smugglers’ Business Model TTPs and their adaptationTTPs and their adaptation SEARCH AND RESCUESEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR)(SAR) Improve coordination of SAR effortsImprove coordination of SAR efforts LEGADLEGAD Best practices in countering S&T*.Best practices in countering S&T*. Discuss possible new interpretation ofDiscuss possible new interpretation of S&T* crimesS&T* crimes COMMS AND INFORMATIONCOMMS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMSYSTEM Develop a Maritime Security CenterDevelop a Maritime Security Center based on SMART web toolbased on SMART web tool EFFECTS ON COUNTERINGEFFECTS ON COUNTERING SMUGGLERS’ BUSINESS MODELSMUGGLERS’ BUSINESS MODEL Identify and share ways to counter theIdentify and share ways to counter the smugglers’ activitiessmugglers’ activities SHIPPINGSHIPPING Increase the situation awareness andIncrease the situation awareness and mitigate the risk to Maritime industrymitigate the risk to Maritime industry activitiesactivities MIGRATIONMIGRATION Generate common and sharedGenerate common and shared management of the data related to themanagement of the data related to the migration phenomenamigration phenomena (*) S&T: Smugglers and Traffickers 11 8877 6655 4433 22
  24. 24. SHADE MED 1/2016 meeting has been hosted by the Italian Navy at theSHADE MED 1/2016 meeting has been hosted by the Italian Navy at the Command in Chief of the Italian Fleet (CINCNAV) HQ on the 12- 13 May 2016.Command in Chief of the Italian Fleet (CINCNAV) HQ on the 12- 13 May 2016. Event attended byEvent attended by 145145 Representatives fromRepresentatives from 7474 different Organizations. ENFMdifferent Organizations. ENFM will maintain the Secretary function through out the SHADE MED programwill maintain the Secretary function through out the SHADE MED program SHADE MED 1/2016 Shared Awareness and De-confliction Mediterranean Sea
  25. 25. • Effective demonstration of EU Member States political will to counter criminal networks • Identification and understanding of the smugglers’ business model both at sea and, partially, ashore, starting from the initial phases of the operation • Comprehensive engagement of key regional and international players and organisations achieved • Deterrent effect observed in International Waters, S&T freedom of manoeuvre limited to territorial waters • Over 15.900 lives saved directly by ENFM ships • 71 suspects apprehended, delivered to ITA authorities • 148 boats disposed EFFECTS/RESULTS
  26. 26. CAPT (Italian Navy) Gianfranco VIZZINI – Assistant Chief of Staff Rescue conducted by SPS REINA SOPHIA on 26 May 2016 EUNAVFOR MED operation SOPHIA Studying Migrations Routes: New data and Tools Rome, 16 June 2016

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