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E. Reyneri - Job and opportunities Income and poverty


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Integration: knowing, measuring, evaluating 17-18 giugno 2013

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E. Reyneri - Job and opportunities Income and poverty

  1. 1. Job and opportunities Income and poverty Comments by Emilio Reyneri 1
  2. 2. The integration between disadvantage and penalisation • If by an economic point of view integration means that people of foreign origin should get job and income performances equal or at least near to those of natives • The measure must be twofold: - disadvantage: gross difference between indicators for foreign origin people and those for natives; - penalty: net difference between indicators for people holding the same personal characteristics (in particular: gender, age, education and family status) 2
  3. 3. Implications for research design • As much as possible, focus on surveys and administrative data that collect information both on people of foreign origin and on natives • Also because really evaluating the integration process over time needs longitudinal data (the same immigrants interviewed every year for a long period of time), which are not available for Italy • We are still waiting for a real Italian Panel • The recent multipurpose is retrospective and includes too few people of foreign origin 3
  4. 4. Using “years since migration” in cross- sectional surveys as a proxy for evaluating the integration process over time can be misleading • Such an approach is based on two assumptions: 1. Unobserved characteristics of migrants do not change over time (“explorers” vs. “followers”) 2. Return migration is not a selective process involving more either the “winners” or the “losers” • Large quantitative studies on returnees are still missing and became more and more difficult because of the increasing circular migration 4
  5. 5. Some detailed comments on the presentation • Main indicators on living conditions of foreigners I was a bit surprised by the relatively small differences between - families with all foreigners - families with foreigners and Italians Does a composition effect matter? 5
  6. 6. Individual integration scores • All the individuals are classified according to four dimensions 1. employment / non employment 2. job stability 3. income from work 4. over-qualification • However, I wonder how an immigrant out of work can be classified according to dimensions 2, 3 and 4 • Maybe, making reference to the previous job that he/she have lost? 6
  7. 7. Individual integration scores • Stability & job security - If it is based only on the legal status of job (fixed term vs. open ended), that dimension can be misleading as most of immigrants work either in small firms or in households, which can fire them very easily • Over-qualification - I am a bit surprised by the low percentage of immigrants holding a severely inadequate job. 7
  8. 8. Second generation immigrants Comments by Emilio Reyneri 8
  9. 9. A critical issue for the future • Towards a mixed society to reproduce the Italian fabric • The focus on second generations - Actually regarding their entry in the Italian educational system - Tomorrow regarding their entry in the Italian labour market and the connection between educational attainment and labour market performances The risk of two-tier society starts at school 9
  10. 10. A careful attention by the educational system • The presentation shows that: • Detailed data are collected - by school administration - by surveys (Invalsi, Pisa) • This points out that, as usual, the Italian educational system welcomed people of foreign origin much better than other Italian administrative, economic or social systems 10
  11. 11. An interesting remark • The presentation has shown that: • Controlling for some variables, foreign students in secondary education perform in mathematics better than their Italian counterparts. • Can we expect that futures generations in Italy would perform better in technical and scientific working careers ? 11