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A. Golini - Introduction


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Integration: knowing, measuring, evaluating 17-18 giugno 2013

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A. Golini - Introduction

  1. 1. Istat-Italian National Institute of Statistics International Conference on Integration Knowing, Measuring, Evaluating Rome, 17 giugno 2013 Introduction Antonio Golini Sapienza, University of Rome and Accademia dei Lincei
  2. 2. Integration «Integration»: an ambiguous term, too close to «Assimilation»: a concept which many among us strongly refuse. Many Authors and I prefer to talk as a peaceful and fruitful coexistence and living together more respectful words towards migrations’ protagonists However, being the term widely used and accepted, I will sometimes talk about «integration» in my presentation, in the above meaning.
  3. 3. Which generation are we talking about? To identify will and capability towards a peaceful and fruitful coexistence and cohabitation a fundamental distinction is necessary: which generation are we talking about? – migrants’ generation (generation 1); – first generation of descendants (the so-called second generation (2) o generation 1,5); – ascendants’ generation (generation -1). In order to assess individual will and capability towards a peaceful and fruitful coexistence and cohabitation, it is necessary to distinguish for migrants and their family Life spent in countries of origin (a) and Life spent or expected to be spent in destination countries (b)
  4. 4. The Life Time. Life spent (a) Life to be spent (b) • Migrants’ Generation: (a) Approximately 25-30 years; almost entirely educated in the country of origin, which therefore represents a root deeply and indelibly introjected; (b) approximately 45-50 years, characterized by a worklife almost entirely spent in destination country, which is therefore «lived», but not necessarily deeply introjected; • The Second Generation, born in destination country: (a) 0 years; entirely or almost entirely educated in destination country, which is therefore deeply and indelibly introjected, together with meaningful traces of parents’ fatherland; (b) approximately 75-85 years, characterized by a familiar and professional life totally spent in destination country, which is therefore felt as the «own country» (For the «1,5 generation», in other terms for young immigrants, there are time changes between a and b); • Ascendants’ (immigrants) generation: (a) Approximately 55-65 years, characterized by a familiar and professional life almost entirely spent in country of origin, which is therefore felt as the «own country» (b) Approximately 20-30 years.
  5. 5. The Life Time Deep qualitative and quantitative differences characterize the three groups in their «Life Time» (spent and to be spent): differences both in the emotional, cultural, scholastic, professional system, and in relational, familiar and friendship system. The temporal perspective thus assumes a fundamental importance for integration processes.
  6. 6. Equally essential – as it is well known - the migrant’s «migratory project» Four elements are fundamental to assess the migratory project: a. Duration, short-term migration vs. medium-long term migration b. Work, satisfactory work placement c. Family, individual migration vs. family migration d. Community, presence and strong bonds both with the community of immigrants and the fatherland community
  7. 7. … and the interaction with the «host community» The interaction with the «host community» is based on cultural and psychological aspects, but also primarily on economical aspects. A positive interaction is certainly based on culture, which is considered able to «quickly adapt» individual life to new needs. But in fact «adaptation» requires time and gradualism, because human ethology is characterized by the parallel evolution of nature and culture. Too high speed and intensity of immigrants’ arrivals upset adaptation/acceptance, not only in the immigrant community, but also in the autochthonous community.
  8. 8. Authochtonous-Immigrants interaction A complete and outright mutual acceptance and fruitful coexistence between native and immigrants is a key question for destination countries. Only a multidimensional integration, both in the national and local context, can preserve immigrants from frustration and emargination, or, even worse, from the failure of the «migratory project», from self-harm, aggressiveness and social deviation. Therefore essential are: - Work - Home - Education - Family reunification - Social and professional ascending mobility (for oneself and for children) A multidimensional and positive integration encourages immigrants in developing that sense of belonging and/or sharing which is basic for a happier and fruitful coexistence.
  9. 9. Schema 1 - Schematizzazione del livello di integrazione/esclusione degli immigrati Inserimento di fatto dell’immigrato nel contesto nazionale e locale (lavoro, casa, istruzione, famiglia, mobilità sociale e professionale, …) Pieno inserimento Inserimento parziale o nullo Senso di appartenenza e/o condivisione A) Piena integrazione e interscambio positivo B) Frustrazione ed emarginazione più o meno forte Vissuto profondo, atteggiamento, comportamento dell’immigrato nei confronti della società ospitante Indifferenza, avversione, opposizione C) Senso di esclusione emotivo-affettiva Coesistenza subita e “parallela” D) Fallimento progetto, forte mobilità territoriale, autolesionismo, aggressività, devianza sociale Fonte: Golini e Pietrangelo, 2001 Migrant real inclusion in national and local context (work, home, education, family, social and professional mobility,…) Complete Inclusion Partial/null Inclusion B) weak/strong Frustration and emargination A) Complete Insertion and positive interchange C) Sense of emotional- affective exclusion Suffered and «parallel» coexistence Which level of integration/exclusion for immigrants? D) Project failure, high territorial mobility, self-harm, aggressiveness, social deviation Sense of belonging and/or sharing Indifference, aversion, opposition Deep feeling, attitude, immigrant’s behaviour towards host societies
  10. 10. Work: the integration cornerstone (…but not only) The family presence in destination country is a fundamental element, which conditions nature and typologies of problems depending on different generations: – The first generation: Work/Home/Health/Education (profession, Italian language) – The second generation: School/Health/Work (with a perspective/real possibility of social ascending) Current/prospective work represents the cornerstone for a positive integration. Nevertheless, problems concerning work exist and increase.
  11. 11. Missing (lacking) work All over the world work is lacking (ILO: 202 millions of unemployed in 2012, with an increasing of 6 millions just in the last year). Which reasons for Western countries? a. A formidable increase of work supply from mid-developed and underdeveloped countries, and an extraordinary variation among countries about working-age population. Working-age population Italy: green Egypt blu, Nigeria red (1950-2050) 10.0 30.0 50.0 70.0 90.0 110.0 130.0 150.0 170.0 Italy 28.9 30.3 30.9 31.8 31.9 32.4 34.3 35.1 35.7 35.9 35.5 34.9 33.8 32.7 31.2 29.0 26.5 24.1 22.5 21.6 20.8 Egypt 12.0 13.3 14.5 15.7 18.3 20.7 23.1 25.8 29.3 33.5 38.6 44.3 49.3 53.8 58.7 64.1 69.4 73.4 76.1 77.5 78.4 Nigeria 15.8 17.4 19.2 21.3 24.1 27.5 32.2 36.5 42.2 49.3 57.6 66.7 76.7 87.5 99.1 111.4 124.0 136.0 146.9 156.2 164.2 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050
  12. 12. b. Possibility to produce all/everywhere (and a fortiori where manpower has less rights and lower wages); c. Possibility, thanks to the “trivial” but formidable «container revolution», to quickly provide all/everywhere at reasonable prices; d. Destruction of jobs rather than jobs creation, «thanks» to ICT (in the industrial sector e.g.: photography, telephony; in services e.g.: secretarial work); e. Progressive and massive introduction of robots, both “workers” for goods and services production, and «humanoids» for personal care, or innovative such as vehicle without pilots (i.e. subway, drones); f. Big percentages of added values have moved from work (which produces, consumes, sustains demand) to capital (which saves, but often creates «speculative bubbles» not identifying sufficient and adequate productive investments), increasingly available also because of welfare. We are facing a big revolution: but neither duration nor outcome are certain. Missing (lacking) work
  13. 13. International migrations background and forgotten or ignored questions 1. “Many in the West believe the world is moving toward a single, global culture that is basically Western. This belief is misguided, arrogant, false, and dangerous” (Huntington, 1996) 1. “Today the best way to help us consists in opening their markets to our goods: they have to know that we can export goods, not only desperate migrants” (Oscar Arias, Costa Rica President, 2001) Those two considerations considerably impact on migrants’ and autochthonous’ mentality and expectations, and therefore on integration processes.
  14. 14. Short Conclusions International migrations: • At the end of XIX Century and during the first decades of XX century, international migrations were a core factor for a worldwide rebalancing of demographic and economic systems; • At the end of XX Century and during the first decades of XXI Century, even if necessary, international migrations could not assume that rebalancing role again: - in the southern countries labour supply is expected to be immeasurable; - there are no more new and available worlds to be populated; • International migrations are becoming more and more a structural element among populations’ relationships, but not a definite engine for poverty and misery Those three elements strongly impact on the individual and collective psychology, and consequently on integration processes.
  15. 15. Short Conclusions International migrations are therefore a structural element, extraordinarily difficult to be managed, because it is question to balance and safeguard: • Expectations and individual rights of migrants and migrants’ families; • Immigrants’ groups rights intended as «community rights»; • Fatherlands’ rights not to be excessively depauperated of human resources; • Destination countries’ rights: - safeguard of people identity: autochthons live themselves as «heirs and depositaries» of places character and cultures
  16. 16. Dagevos The Netherlands Institute for Social Research
  17. 17. Di Blasi, European Commission
  18. 18. Maheux, Unece Task Force
  19. 19. Bonifazi, Gabrielli, Sciortino, Strozza
  20. 20. Thoreau OECD
  21. 21. Domergue France Ministry of the Interior
  22. 22. Dagevos The Netherlands Institute for Social Research
  23. 23. Termote Government of Quebec
  24. 24. Termote