Overweight: BMI = 25.0 - 29.99
BMI ≥ 30
Body fat > 25% for men
Body fat > 30% for women
25% of the transmissible variance for fat mass and
percent body fat
Cultural factors (30%)
Individual choices (45%)
A measure of HEAT
(1 calorie = heat required to raise 1 gram of water
by 1 degree Celcius in temperature)
Heat, or Calorie, represents Energy
Caloric balance or imbalance
Energy In > Energy Out = Weight Gain
Energy In < Energy Out = Weight Loss
Energy In: Big Mac 540 kcal
Energy Out: Run 40 minutes
1. Resting Metabolic Rate = 60-75%
2. Thermic effect of food = 10%
3. Physical activity = 15-30% of daily caloric expenditure
Example 3000 calories in one day
RMR = 1,800-2250 kcal
TEF = 300 kcal
PA = 450-900 kcal
Fat = 9 calories per gram
Alcohol = 7 calories per gram
Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram
Protein = 4 calories per gram
Reduce ‘Energy In’ and/or Increase ‘Energy Out’...
…500-1000 fewer calories per day
(3,500-7,000 fewer calories per week)
1-2 lbs of weight loss per week
Caloric intake greater than caloric expenditure.
25-30 calories per pound of body
weight to gain weight (20 calories per
pound to maintain weight)
500-1000 extra calories per day.
Carbohydrates - 60 to 70% of total calories
Protein - 10 to 15% of total calories
Fat - remainder of total calories.
Example for 200 pounds.
Carbohydrates: energy for anabolism (~3000
Protein: amino acids for anabolism (~1200 kcals)
Fat: can’t avoid it (~800 kcals)
Eccentric muscle contractions damage muscle
Proteins are replaced for the next 48
hours or more.
Adequate rest and recovery period are critical for
complete muscle repair and growth