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# A sense of Scale

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### A sense of Scale

1. 1. . ZOOM POWERS OF 10 FROM MICRO TO MACRO COSMOS
2. 2. This is a trip at high speed, jumping distances by a factor of 10. We’ll start with 10 0 (equivalent to 1 meter), and will increase the size by a factor of 10, or 10 1 (10 meters), 10 2 (10x10 = 100 meters, 10 3 (10x10x10 = 1,000 meters), 10 4 (10x10x10x10 = 10,000 meters), so on, until we reach the limit of our imagination in the direction of the macro cosmos. Later we’ll return, a little faster, back to the point where we started & continue our trip in the opposite direction reducing distances of travel by factors of 10 into the micro cosmos. We will observe the constancy of the laws of the universe and think about how much the human race still needs to learn...
3. 3. BON VOYAGE!
4. 4. Distance to a bunch of leaves in the garden 10 0 1 meter
5. 5. Starting our trip upwards .... We can see the foliage. 10 1 10 meters
6. 6. At this distance we can see the limits of the forest and the edifications 10 2 100 meters
7. 7. We will pass from meters to kilometers.. Now it is possible to jump with a parachute ... 10 3 1 km
8. 8. The city could be observed but we really can’t see the houses 10 4 10 km
9. 9. At this height, the state of Flórida - USA, is just coming into view ... 10 5 100 km
10. 10. Typical sight from a satellite 10 6 1,000 km
11. 11. The northern hemisphere of Earth, and part of South America 10 7 10,000 km
12. 12. The Earth starts looking small... 10 8 100,000 km
13. 13. The Earth and the Moon’s órbit in white.... 10 9 1 Millión km
14. 14. Part of the Earth’s Orbit in blue 10 10 10 Million km
15. 15. 10 11 100 Million km Órbits of: Venus and Earth...
16. 16. Órbits of: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Júpiter. 10 12 1 Billión km
17. 17. At this height of our trip, we could observe the Solar System and the orbits of the planets 10 13 10 Billion km
18. 18. 10 14 100 Billion km The Solar System starts looking small...
19. 19. The Sun now is a small star in the middle of thousands of stars... 10 15 1 Trillión km
20. 20. At one light-year the little Sun star is very small 10 16 1 light-year
21. 21. Here we will see nothing in the infinity.... 10 17 10 light-years
22. 22. “ Nothing” Only stars and Nebulae... 10 18 100 light-years
23. 23. 10 19 1,000 light-years At this distance we are travelling in the Via-Láctea (Milky Way), our galaxy.
24. 24. We continue our travel inside the Via-Láctea (Milky Way) 10 20 10,000 light-years
25. 25. We begin reaching the periphery of the Via-Láctea (Milky Way) 10 21 100,000 light-years
26. 26. At this tremendous distance we can see the entire Via-Láctea (Milky Way) & other galáxies as well ... 10 22 1 Millión light-years
27. 27. From this distance, all the galaxies look small with immense empty spaces in between. The same laws are ruling all bodies of the Universe. We could continue traveling upwards with our imagination, but now let’s return home quickly 10 23 - 10 Million light-years
28. 28. 10 22
29. 29. 10 21
30. 30. 10 20
31. 31. 10 19
32. 32. 10 18
33. 33. 10 17
34. 34. 10 16
35. 35. 10 15
36. 36. 10 14
37. 37. 10 13
38. 38. 10 12
39. 39. 10 11
40. 40. 10 10
41. 41. 10 9
42. 42. 10 8
43. 43. 10 7
44. 44. 10 6
45. 45. 10 5
46. 46. 10 4 Questions that come to mind ... Who are we? Where are we going? Where did we come from?
47. 47. 10 3 Or... What do we represent in the Universe?
48. 48. 10 2 In this trip “upwards” we went to the power of 23 of 10
49. 49. 10 1 Now we are going to dig inside of matter in a reverse (inverse) trip...
50. 50. We arrive at our starting point. We could touch it with our hands ... 10 0
51. 51. Getting closer at 10 cm ...We can delineate the leaves. 10 -1 10 Centímeters
52. 52. At this distance it is possible to observe the structure of the leaf. 10 -2 1 Centímeter
53. 53. The cellular structures begin to show... 10 -3 1 Millímeter
54. 54. The cells can be delineated. You can see the union between them. 10 -4 100 microns
55. 55. Starting our trip inside the cell ... 10 -5 10 microns
56. 56. The nucleus of the cell is visible. 10 -6 1 micrón
57. 57. Again we changed the measuring unit to adapt to the miniscule size. You can see the chromosomes. 10 -7 100 Nanometers
58. 58. In this micro universe the DNA chain is visible. 10 -8 10 Nanometers
59. 59. ...the chromosóme blocks can be observed. 10 -9 1 Nanometer
60. 60. It appears like clouds of electrons... These are carbon átoms that formed our world. You should notice the resemblance of the micro cosmos with the macro cosmos ... 10 -10 1 Angstrom
61. 61. In this miniature world we could observe the electrons orbiting the atoms. 10 -11 10 Picometers
62. 62. An immense empty space between the nucleus and the electron orbits... 10 -12 1 Picómeter
63. 63. At this incredible and minuscule size we could observe the nucleus of the atom. 10 -13 100 Femtómeters
64. 64. Now we could observe the nucleus of the carbon atom 10 -14 10 Femtómeters
65. 65. Here we are in the field of the scientific imagination, face to face with a proton. 10 -15 1 Femtómeter
66. 66. Examine the ‘quark’ partícules There is nowhere further to go... We are at the limits of current scientific knowledge . This is the limit of matter... 10 -16 100 Attómeters
67. 67. And now ... Are you the center of the universe? Are you the special creature of the Creatión? What is behind the limits? Are there any limits? Note that going downwards we could only go to the power of minus 16ª of 10 to reach the (known?) limits of matter... But upwards we went to the power of 23ª of 10 and stopped... But we could have continued our trip subject only to the limits to our imagination!!!! ... then? ... Who says that we are alone in the universe?
68. 68. Hope you enjoyed the trip. The End!