Introduction to National Instrument Data Logging Machine Monitoring and Power Monitoring


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Presentation by Stephen Plumb about National Instruments' Data Logging Machine Monitoring and Power Monitoring during a seminar at the Ecole National Superieure Polytechnique de Yaounde.

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  • Here are machines listed by major industries that are candidates for machine vibration monitoring
  • These are some of the key titles of individuals you may want to call on. Ask them about their reliability and predictive maintenance programs.
  • An easy out of the box sale for portable machine diagnostics is the NI USB DSA solutions with the Sound and Vibration Measurement Suite, which includes the Sound and Vibration Assistant.
  • Over the past 10 years, the natural gas industry has incurred costs in excess of $1 billion dollars to comply with NOx (Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide) emissions reduction regulations for large, stationary enginesFigure 1: Enginuity used LabVIEW and PXI to simulate the engine inputs and outputs to their iFLEX engine monitoring and control system in both development and validationEnginuity Selects NI Tools to Improve the Efficiency of Large Internal Combustion EnginesAuthor: Chad Fletcher, President, Automation Business Unit – EnginuityIndustry: Industrial Controls/ Devices/ Systems, Oil and Gas/ Refining/ Chemicals, Machines/MechanicsProducts: PXI, CompactRIO, DAQ, LabVIEW, LabVIEW RT, LabVIEW FPGAThe Challenge: Simulating engine and compressor I/O accurately for development and validation of an advanced emission-reducing engine controllerThe Solution: A PXI and LabVIEW system selected for software flexibility that can be configured to simulate engines and compressor from various manufacturers Large stationary internal combustion (IC) engines widely used in the oil and gas industry for driving compressors are responsible for significant emissions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, collectively known as NOx, into the environment. NOx emissions are by-products of the combustion of fossil fuels such as diesel or natural gas. NOx becomes a significant component of smog in cities because it forms ozone when it combines with hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. Ozone, a highly reactive gas, not only damages plant life, but also causes harm to human lungs, resulting in congestion and reduced lung capacity. Over the past 10 years, the natural gas industry has incurred costs in excess of $1 billion dollars to comply with NOx emissions reduction regulations.For the past 20 years, Enginuity has designed and installed efficiency improvement and emission reduction technologies for large engines including fuel injection systems, engine monitoring, and turbochargers that are retrofitted to existing machinery and is the recognized leader in the oil and gas industry for emissions reductions. One of Enginuity’s products, the iFLEXTM, a unique control system that provides an integrated solution for condition monitoring, engine/compressor control, and enhanced safety shutdown for reciprocating equipment, is used on a variety of engines including Waukesha, Ingersoll-Rand, and Caterpillar. Enginuity needed a flexible engine simulation system for all of the engine types that the iFLEX system supports. So the engineers at Enginuity chose National Instruments data acquisition devices, PXI hardware, and LabVIEW to build an engine/compressor simulator for factory acceptance testing of all control panels. The simulator is used for both development and validation of controllers by simulating the inputs from the engine and acquiring the output data from the controller. Enginuity’s controller systems and technology reduce over 122,000 tons of NOx emissions annually, an amount that is the equivalent of removing 6 million vehicles from U.S. roads each year.Today, Enginuity is in the development cycle for their next generation of condition monitoring and control systems for compressors used in natural gas extraction. They are using CompactRIO systems to prototype and validate their designs. The flexibility and high-speed control provided by LabVIEW FPGA allows the engineers to adjust control and processing parameters on-the-fly for more rapid iterations and efficiency improvements. Initial results from one of the first prototype installations for reciprocating natural gas compressors at Ariel Corporation are very promising for reduced fuel consumption and increased machinery uptime.
  • Next Slide: Monitoring leads to optimizationMonitoring power can be important whether you are using it, or generating it.If you are using power, poor quality can:>Cause machine failures or excessive wear>Damage data writing and storage equipment (servers and CPUs)>Cause you to incur fines and extra charges from your local utility companyIf you are generating power, poor power can:>Impact other generators on your local grid (other wind turbines or solar cells)>Cause the grid to which you are selling power remove you as a provider>Lead to extra problems if you are using the power as wellPower quality issues can occur in many places, your grid, the local utility company, regional power plant and monitoring the power along the way is an important part to troubleshooting bigger electrical problems.
  • Transition: Let’s take a look at some of the analysis that goes into monitoring power….move from the why to the how.
  • Next 5 Slides: IEEE spec followed by image of SAG/Swell/Interruption Here are some of the common analysis functions that are performed as part of a power monitoring system. All of these calculations utilize waveform data of current and voltage.
  • Harmonic analysis is important because extraneous signals add noise to the system which can be a problem for machines, measurement equipment, as well as audio/video recording equipment.
  • These next few slides are examples/definitions and you can move through them pretty quickly. These are defined by IEEE standards.Sag is a decrease in voltage supply. Duration is measured in time or cycles.
  • Swell is an increase in voltage beyond 10% of the RMS nominal value.
  • Next Slide: The power Triangle and Power Factor CalculationDefinition moves from “Sag” to “Interruption” at the 10% of nominal RMS voltage level.
  • Next Slide: demoPower Factor is a measure of efficiency for your grid or machine being monitored. Reactive power is the perpendicular component of the power supplied and thus is wasted power. The electric company used resources to produce and transmit this power and you wasted it. Commercial enterprises are fined if their power factor falls below a certain value. This range, .95 for example, will vary by local regulations and by utility provider. For this reason, industrial manufacturers and commercial users need to monitor, and sometimes adjust, their power factor in order to avoid financial penalties.
  • Sensors are available for a wide variety of uses. Many are merely transformers that bring high voltage and current levels down to a level measureable by standard instrumentation. Some sensors output RMS values and some will even output PF.Clamp style sensors have a hinge making installation on existing facilities easier.
  • - We’ll start by looking into our first application discussion for today, structural health monitoringSHM is growing field of structural engineering that aims at providing quantitative information about the health of structures such as bridges, buildings, dams, tunnels, pipelines, platforms, or ships.The purpose of SHM is to build a more intelligent and safer civil infrastructureThis is accomplished through installation of appropriate sensing systems to continuously monitor the health of civil structures through strain, pressure, temperature, vibration, displacement, and other sensing elements.Transition: Strain, pressure, temperature... We’re use to these physical measurements. So how does monitoring these civil structures differ from our typical structural test applications?
  • The stats are rather scary, and mind you this is just in the US. There are over 590,000 bridges inventoried, and approximately 74,000 of those have been rated as structurally deficient by analysis (in many cases visual analysis). A major problem is that there simply isn’t enough money to go out and fix all of these structurally deficient bridges. The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates it would take close to $200B to eliminate these problems over 20 years.The solution as presented by the experts in this industry is to improve upon data collection on the health of both existing and new bridge construction. The belief is that the available monitoring technology is more accurate and less expensive than the current inspection methods used today. There’s a lot of money at stake for this solution; much of that funding starts by going into the academic sector for research purposes. We’re also seeing a lot of money from State Departments of Transportation funding private structural engineering firms to instrument up large bridges, where many of these engineering firms start in academia and move into the private sector.Transition: And with such hardware products as PXI, cDAQ, cRIO, cFP and with LabVIEW, NI is strategically positioned to win a lot of this business. In fact, we already have been winning several large bridge monitoring opportunities.
  • NI is also monitoring the Rion-Antirion (sometimes called Rio-Antirio) cable-stayed bridge in Greece. This 3-km bridge is in area of high seismic activity as each end of the bridge resides on a different tectonic plate. Unlike the Donghai bridge, the requirements were to monitor a mix of sensors from dynamic to static. Sensors include accelerometers, strain gages, load cells, displacement sensors, water level, temperature, LVDTs, and weather stations.By working with a system integrator, Advitam, a subsidiary of Vinci Construction in France, we were able to successfully install 4 PXI systems running LabVIEW Real-Time making all necessary sensor measurements (372 channels in total). The 4 chassis are networked through fiber-optic Ethernet back to a central PC installed in the operations building. They choose LabVIEW because of the flexibility of creating a customizable user-interface, reliability with LabVIEW Real-Time, and for remote access to the system.
  • NI is also participating in the 2008 Olympics held in Beijing. The centerpiece of the 2008 summer Olympics is the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed the “Bird Nest”. CGM Engineering, an NI Alliance Member in California, helped develop a continuous monitoring system based on CompactRIO and LabVIEW. The system has been in place throughout the construction of the stadium to allow for seismic monitoring conditions to aid in structural model validation. The multi-system monitoring system is using GPS synchronization with CompactRIO. A similar monitoring system is setup in the Beijing Aquatics Center, another building to be used during the 2008 Olympic events.
  • And just to continue to beat the drum, there are additional bridges, structures, wells, and pipelines that NI is helping to continuously monitor. Just to name two more is the Naini-Allahabad Bridge in India, and...
  • A small bridge being used for research of structural health monitoring at University of California San Diego. This one in particular is synchronizing acquired electrical signals to acquired images via cameras.Additional NotesA bridge testbed has been established on the Voigt Drive / Interstate-5 overcrossing, on campus at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The Testbed is envisioned as a collaborative environment for sensor network and related decision support technologies. An off-the-shelf $50k modular and expandable continuousmonitoring system based on LabVIEW and National Instruments products is deployed, capable of supporting over 250 channels of sensors and 3 cameras. Of particular interest is the integration of the image and sensor data acquisition into a single computer, thereby providing hardware synchronization between the sensors and cameras. Time-synchronized video and acceleration are now being recorded continuously. All systems operate on-line via a high speed wireless Internet network, allowing real-time control and data transmission. The current data is suitable for performing system identification of dynamic response associated with vehicle/structure interaction.This Testbed is available to collaborators worldwide for verification of new sensor technologies, data acquisition/transmission algorithms, data mining strategies, and most importantly, for decision support efforts. Sensors and applications span the horizons of homeland and boarder security and control, multi-hazard natural events and post-event response, and environmental/biological monitoring.
  • One customer care about is the ability to connect up the different types of sensors. Here is a list of sensing technologies ranging from strain to vibration to temperature and more. Different sensing technologies which may measure the same thing (notice the number of sensors to measure strain, pressure, displacement, etc.), are used in different ways in structural health monitoring.
  • Here is an example of monitoring a highway overpass. In a simple case like this, three different strain sensing techniques are used, two different displacement sensing, and there’s still more. In fact, this is an under exaggeration of the number and types of sensors used to monitor the health of a bridge.To be successful in structural applications, it’s important that we’re aware of these sensors, how they work, what they can measure, and how they can be used with our products.
  • In strain alone, there’s at least three different sensors that can be used to measure the same thing, some of which you are likely more familiar with than others.By a show of hands, how many of you are familiar with resistive foil? Vibrating wire? Fiber optic?Everyone in here should be familiar with resistive foil strain measurements as it’s one of the most common measurements made with our products.
  • In fact, in 2008 we’re expanding our strain measurement capabilities in the C Series form factor. Complementing the already existing 9237 and 9219 strain solutions, are the new 9235 and 9236 – 8-ch quarter bridge inputs per module at 120 and 350 Ohms.Based on your feedback and that of your customers, we have listened and acted on the importance of connectivity. The 9236 and 9236 will provide connectivity through 24-position screw terminal. Also on the roadmap are additional connectivity options for the 9237 via 37-pin DSUB, and the 9219 via LEMO.Applicable for Asia summit – we are also developing a 37-pin DSUB cable to Tajimi connector. Tajimi connectors are a standard connector type used for strain gage connectivity in Japan.There are no committed ship dates on these products, but an estimate on price and availability is as follows:9235 $1199 Mar 20089236 $1199 Mar 20089237 w/ Dsub $999 Q2 2008Dsub to Tajimi cable ?? ??9219 w/ Lemo $1499 Q1 2008
  • The point of today’s session is not to make you more familiar with resistive foil strain gages (but if that would be helpful to you, let us know and we can help). Rather, I want to focus in on two types of strain measurements that we all are likely less familiar with, but nonetheless is equally if not more important than resistive foil in SHM – vibrating wire and fiber optic.While vibrating wire and fiber optic sensors are different in terms of connectivity, price, and places of use, both of these sensing techniques share something in common – they both measure strain by a comparison of frequency. Vibrating wire measures strain by comparing measured frequency to the nominal frequency of the sensor at rest (or original placement). Fiber optic equates strain to a change in the frequency of the light reflected.With that in mind, I’m going to go over vibrating wire sensors in more detail over the next couple of minutes. However, keep in mind that fiber optic sensors are similar in that it’s detecting change in frequency.
  • Vibrating wire transducers are commonly used to measure strain, load, pressure, and water level. These sensors output a frequency signal generated by a vibrating wire.Because frequencies rather than voltage levels are measured, these transducers are often better suited than resistive bridge transducers to applications in electrically noisy environments or those requiring long lead lengths. Vibrating wire transducers also have a reputation for long-term stability.Vibrating wire sensors provide flexibility with installation as they can hooked up as a surface mount sensors on steel or concrete, or they can be embedded directly inside of concrete or rebar. Something vibrating wire sensors are not ideal for is dynamic measurements. For instance, you would not use a vibrating wire sensor to monitor the active load of moving traffic as it would change to quickly with time. A resistive bridge-based sensor is much better for such a measurement.
  • A vibrating wire sensor functions much like a piano string. In a piano, a string is held in position and pulled to specific tension as to create a known tone, or a known frequency. Upon excitation onto that piano string (striking the key), the string vibrates at its resonant frequency and produces a tone.With vibrating wire sensors, strain is measured using a length of steel wire tensioned between two mounting blocks that are physically connected to the surface being studied. Deformations (strain changes) of the surface will cause the two mounting blocks to move relative to one another, thus altering the tension in the steel wire.The frequency in the wire is measured by plucking the wire and measuring its resonant frequency of vibration. The wire is plucked, and its resonant frequency measured, by means of an electromagnetic coil positioned next to the wire.In addition to a frequency measurement, vibrating wire sensor probes contain a thermistor used to compensate for error in the measurement caused by change in temperature. It serves a similar purpose to a CJC source in a thermocouple measurement.In summary, in order to interface and correctly make a measurement from a vibrating wire sensor, you must:Pluck the wire by sending a signal to an electromagnetic coilMeasure the resonance frequency of the vibrating wireMeasure the temperature of the sensor through the provided thermistorAnd apply correct mathematical scaling equations to convert frequency to strain.
  • The process of exciting and measuring a vibrating wire sensor is often referred to as “pluck and read”. Pluck and read involves exciting the electromagnetic coils with a swept frequency, allowing the wire to settle to its resonant frequency, and then measuring the returned signal.Typically, the sensor requires a 150 ms pulse to sweep through all the frequencies. This swept frequency causes the wire to vibrate at each of the individual frequencies. Ideally, all frequencies except the resonant frequency of the wire attenuate in a short time. The wire vibrates with the resonant frequency for a relatively long time, and as it does so it induces the same frequency on the “pickup” coil which is then sent back to the measurement system. The returned signal is a small-scale signal, on the order of 0.5 to 5 mV. Therefore, amplification is important in order to accurately measure the returned signal.After waiting for the non-resonant frequencies to attenuate (20 ms), the measurement system can make a frequency or period measurement to accurately calculate strain.
  • The measured strain is a function of the difference in the frequency measured to that of initial frequency measured under no load. To correct for non-linearity, the frequencies are first squared before taking their difference. Then, by multiplying by a manufacturer spec’d gage factor, the correct strain value can be calculated.The frequency of the wire is a function of the material properties of the wire itself – length of the wire, mass per length, and the tension of the wire.Now this is a over-simplification of correctly calculating strain from a vibrating wire sensor as this does not take into account temperature correction or placement of the sensor. However, this information is explained and understood by the sensor manufacturer.
  • As structural health monitoring is a new area of focus for NI, we don’t claim to necessarily have all the answers nor the perfect products to easily connect up to these different types of measurements. This is the case for vibrating wire sensors – we can make the measurement, but it involves some knowledge of correctly setting up the HW connectivity and programming the software.Vibrating wire sensors are a 4-wire (sometimes 5 if a shield connection is provide) sensor. 2 of the wires connect to a thermistor and are used strictly for temperature measurement. The other 2 wires are used to both transmit the excitation signal going from the measurement system to the sensor, and then to receive the response of the vibrating wire picked up by the electromagnetic coils and transmit it back to the measurement unit. So two wires are used to send and receive.Based on the properties of the vibrating wire sensor, there are some basic assumptions that can be made to help in proper excitation and measurement of this sensor. For instance, to prevent over-driving the two wires used to transmit and receive the frequency signal, you must first start a measurement by driving the wires via timed digital output. After sweeping through the necessary frequencies and then waiting some time to allow for non-resonant frequencies to settle out (typically 150 ms plus another 20-40 ms), you must then disable your pulse train and digital module such that it is not actively driving those wires, and then enable your measurement. Such timing is relatively simple to accomplish with FPGA, and by means of counter/timers, the same can be accomplished with NI-DAQmx.To help with winning these opportunities, we are in the process of building a vibrating wire reference design. I’m here to tell you...
  • To aid in connectivity to PLCs, dataloggers, and data acquisition systems, there are 3rd party vibrating wire signal conditioners that we can reference to provide for a clean, and easy solution. Depending on the conditioner, some provide all necessary signal conditioning and output a 0-5 V or 0-20 mA signal. Others just provide amplification to improve accuracy. As is the case of the LabVIEW reference design, we will provide you with more information on using and referencing these 3rd party conditioners as we learn more.
  • In summary of vibrating wire sensors we’ll look at pros versus cons. <read the slide>As we saw earlier, vibrating wire is just one of the many sensors and sensing techniques used in structural health monitoring. Another sensing technology used in structural monitoring is fiber optic.
  • Another sensing technology used in structural monitoring is fiber optic. As we previously mentioned, vibrating wire and fiber optic sensors are similar in that they equate strain to a change in frequency. With fiber optic sensors, the frequency being measured is that of the light reflected.A fiber optic sensor system consists of a fiber optic cable connected to a specific measurement device, commonly known as a fiber optic interrogator. The interrogator emits, receives, and converts the light energy into an electrical signal. The cable is the physical component that transports the light into and out of areas of interest.The cable’s core is composed of glass or plastic surrounded by a cladding material. The difference in densities of the core and the cladding enable the propagation of light within the cable. Along the length of the cable, Bragg gratings are inscribed at measurement areas of interest. A Bragg grating is a reflector constructed inside optical fiber that reflects particular wavelengths of light, and transmits all others. Think of a Fiber Bragg Gratting (FBG) as a filter for light.As different properties of the cable change (i.e. strain, temperature, pressure, load), the FBG will change resulting in a different frequency being reflected.
  • Moving forward in 2008 and beyond, it’s our intention to provide you with the necessary information on fiber optic sensor measurements to help you be successful in these applications, but until then here’s a basic overview on the type of interfacing HW. Preliminary research shows that there are three types of optical interrogators used for fiber optic sensor measurements – standalone, portable, and PXI.Micron Optics, based in Atlanta, GA, is a leader in development of standalone optical interrogators. These standalone devices take care of all of the interfacing and then connect up to a PC via Ethernet. While there are various competitive offerings from other companies, it appears that Micron Optics is the OEM for all of these products. HBM, who is heavily marketing their fiber optic measurement capabilities, appear to OEM Micron Optic’s product.Two other companies that have their hand in optical interrogation include FiberSensing and Gavea Sensors. Both of whom are NI alliance members based in Portugal and Brazil, respectively. Additionally, FiberSensing has a preliminary drawing of a PXI interrogator and multiplexor on their webpage.
  • Fiber optic sensors also have some high-level pros and cons of use as outlined on the slide.<read the slide>
  • Synchronization of measurements across a large structure is very important in SHM, and this is an area where NI excels. Because the frequencies of interest in most structural monitoring applications are limited to about 10 Hz or less, all of our key platforms can deliver synchronized systems for this area.First, there are many strategies and technologies for synchronization, so it useful to categorize the technologies into two general classes – signal- and time-based. Signal-based synchronization is when you physically connect the clock or trigger lines between two devices. This approach offers the highest performance but you are limited by your signal wire lengths. Alternatively, there is what we call “time-based” approach which is a general approach of sharing a common time reference between devices, and then the devices synch their clocks/timing signals to this time reference. The sharing of the time reference be over a network (like NTP, or 1588) or through GPS. The accuracy of the time-based approaches very widely, but the advantage is the scale can be much larger.
  • We support signal-based and GPS synchronization, as well as standard Network Timing Protocol (NTP) on both cRIO and PXI. Additionally, we do have 1588 capabilities for the PXI platform.Turning to how this is mapped into embedded monitoring applications, this graph summarizes at a high level our distributed synchronization capabilities. PXI provides the best of class, and arguably best of industry, with dedicated timing & synchronization modules, such as the new 668x. PXI’s performance becomes more apparent as the application signal bandwidths go out to 10kHz and higher. CompactRIO, whether using signal-based or GPS, delivers good synchronization capabilities, especially when we are looking at this medium bandwidth signals. The second line for CompactRIO reflects that the delta sigma modules for cRIO (9233/4/7/9) use a 12.8MHz oversample clock tha1 sample period (or 20usec). (Note: you could improve this with post processing – use a high precision time stamp and correct any drifts due to the oversample clock in post-processing)But the main point for cRIO is that for Structural Monitoring applications, which will be bandwidth limited to 10-100Hz or so, cRIO does deliver high precision synchronization, with fraction of a degree of phase mismatch. Note: cDAQ is not included on this graph, because it currently does not provide DISTRIBUTED synchronization. However, you can synchronize multiple cDAQ chassis (signal-based) for channel expansion, and it’s performance would be close to PXI.(you are able to synchronize oversample clocks on 923x modules with cDAQ).And finally, if it is a more static application, then basic network synchronization provided by NTP – on the order of 10ms over Ethernet – may be sufficient, and we have DZ materials on how to synchronize RT targets using NTP.Again, the goal of this graphic is to give you a rough approximation of our capabilities – based on conservative approximations and assumptions. Synchronization performance is highly dependent on many variables, and can usually be adjusted and tweaked, depending on the application requirements, to obtain improved performance. For example, we’ve delivered GPS-synched PXI systems with synchroniztion on the order of 25 ns (which would be above the gray line) using GPS . The goal of this graphic is to give you a rough approximation of our capabilities
  • Here are more details on how to synchronize two cRIO chassis. For signal-based synchronization, one chassis generates a clock or trigger signal that for one or more other chassis. For longer distances, you should stay away from high frequency clocks and use a start trigger. You would use a high speed digital I/O module for the clock/trigger I/O. For structural monitoring, the GPS approach will typically be more useful because of the wider area. For GPS, we have a third-party GPS receiver module (S.E.A.) or you can always use an external receiver. Again you would use a high speed DIO module to connect to the pulse-per-second (PPS) signal from a GPS receiver. Alternatively, some GPS receivers output an IRIG-B signal that you could use and decode in the FPGA.In both cases, we use a 9401 or 9402 module to export in import the timing signal. The 9401 is our existing high speed TTL DIO module. The 9402 is a new module coming out soon that simplifies these setups a bit.
  • The 9402 is a new high speed TTL module for C Series. Compared to the existing 9401 module, this module is faster, with lower propagation delay (decreases propagation delay from 100ns down to 20ns) and BNC connectors for easier connection of a timing signals. This module is close to finished, and should ship near the end of Q1, or perhaps early Q2. And it will be supported out of the gate on both CompactDAQ and CompactRIO.
  • There are quite a few resources – white papers and sample code - on DevZone regarding system synchronization – for both PXI and CompactRIO. And we do plan to develop more material, reflecting the capabilties of the new PXI timing card as well as cRIO synchronization. And if you can’t find what you need here, please engage NIC. Again, synchronization is an extremely tricky feature to quantify and characterize. But on a case-by-base basis, we can bring in the engineers needed to assess whether a particular set of requirements are attainable or not.
  • Introduction to National Instrument Data Logging Machine Monitoring and Power Monitoring

    1. 1. Data Acquisition and Logging with NI CompactDAQ and LabVIEWSignalExpress<br />Presented by Stephen Plumb<br />Branch Manager NI South Africa<br />
    2. 2. Seminar Overview<br />Data Logging with National Instruments.<br />Machine Condition Monitoring.<br />Electrical Power Monitoring.<br />Structural Monitoring<br />
    3. 3. Data-logging Application Elements<br />
    4. 4. Data Logging Defined <br />Using an electronic instrument to take measurements from sensors and storing them for future use<br />Common measurements: temperature, pressure, current, velocity, strain, displacement, etc.<br />
    5. 5. The Long Tail<br />Benchtop<br />In-Vehicle<br />Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH)<br />Machine Monitoring<br />Road Load Testing<br />Environmental Monitoring<br />Unattended Monitoring<br />Evapotranspiration Monitoring<br />Embedded<br />Ultrasonic Cement Analysis<br />Extreme Environments<br />Structural Fatigue Analysis<br />Wireless Sensor Networks<br />Railway Ride-Quality Testing<br />Helicopter Rotor Testing<br />…<br />
    6. 6. Simplicity vs. Flexibility<br />Stand-alone<br />Simplicity<br />PC-Based<br />Flexibility<br />
    7. 7. Processor<br />Display<br />RAM<br />Power<br />Supply<br />ROM<br />Hard Disk<br />Traditional Stand-alone Data Loggers<br />PC-Based Data Logger<br />What is PC-Based Data Logging?<br />
    8. 8. PC-Based Data Logging Checklist<br />EASY<br />POWERFUL<br />OPEN<br />Simple configuration and PC connectivity<br />Easy-to-use data-logging software<br />Real-time data transfer<br />Online analysis & processing capability<br />Ability to add channels or measurement types<br />Scalable solution for future application needs<br />
    9. 9. Simplicity vs. Flexibility<br />Simple & Flexible<br />Stand-alone<br />Simplicity<br />PC-Based<br />Flexibility<br />
    10. 10. EASY: Configuration-based software & true plug-and-play hardware<br />POWERFUL: Online analysis & high-speed data streaming<br />OPEN: Modular I/O & scalable software<br />POWERFUL<br />EASY<br />OPEN<br />
    11. 11. DEMO: True Plug & Play<br />Simple configuration and PC connectivity<br />Easy-to-use data-logging software<br />EASY<br />POWERFUL<br />OPEN<br />
    12. 12. NEW! LabVIEW SignalExpress<br />Easily log and analyze measurements without programming<br />Quickly set up and configure data logging systems with plug and play USB technology<br />Connect to250+ DAQ devices, 400+ instruments and 1,000s of sensors<br />
    13. 13. What is LabVIEW SignalExpress?<br />Configuration-based logging & analysis software<br />
    14. 14. What is LabVIEW SignalExpress?<br />Interactive, step-by-step data acquisition & configuration<br />
    15. 15. What is LabVIEW SignalExpress?<br />Always-on, customizable views display live data & analysis<br />
    16. 16. What is LabVIEW SignalExpress?<br />Stream data to disk<br />Open in Microsoft Excel & email results<br />
    17. 17. Stream Data at Over 5 MS/s<br />True Plug & Play USB Connectivity<br />Built-in Signal Conditioning for Sensors<br />Over 30 Hot-swappable Modules<br />Built-in Signal Conditioning<br />What is CompactDAQ?<br />
    18. 18. Data in Three Clicks<br />True plug & play USB<br />Automatic detection & configuration of hardware<br />Focus on measurements and tests vs. hardware/software setup<br />Reduced setup time<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />
    19. 19. DEMO: LabVIEW SignalExpress<br />Simple configuration and PC connectivity<br />Easy-to-use data-logging software<br />EASY<br />POWERFUL<br />OPEN<br />
    20. 20. Online & Historical Data Analysis<br />Built-in Analysis Functions<br />Signal processing<br />Time domain measurements<br />Frequency domain measurements<br />Statistics<br />Digital comparison and conversion<br />Many more…<br />POWERFUL<br />EASY<br />OPEN<br />
    21. 21. Set Alarms & Configure Events<br />Set custom conditions to start and stop logging<br />Start/Stop at specific date and time<br />Start/Stop based on data<br />Customize alarm/event actions<br />Display messages<br />Set analog levels<br />Set digital lines<br />Audible alerts<br />
    22. 22. Create Customized Reports<br />Reports show live view of data<br />Drag and drop graphs and indicators<br />Enter free form text<br />Send to printer<br />Export to HTML<br />
    23. 23. DEMO: Analysis & Reporting<br />Online analysis & processing capability<br />Real-time data transfer<br />EASY<br />POWERFUL<br />OPEN<br />
    24. 24. I/O Capabilities in LabVIEW SignalExpress<br />Analog Input<br />Analog Output<br />Static I/O <br />Counters<br />Correlated DIO<br />Synchronize Plug-In Boards<br />
    25. 25. High-Speed Parallel Signal Streaming<br />USB STC-2 Timing and Triggering<br />Module <br />Auto-Detection <br />and Control<br />NI CompactDAQ Chassis Backplane<br />National Instruments USB Technology<br />
    26. 26. Increased Device Intelligence<br />Module auto-detection & control<br />Device contains element of driver<br />DAQmx<br />9215<br />9211<br />9215<br />9472<br />9263<br />9233<br />9472<br />9481<br />9237<br />
    27. 27. ADC<br />ADC<br />ADC<br />ADC<br />ADC<br />DMM-Based Systems<br />Data to PC at 1.8 MB/s (GPIB)<br />&lt;500 S/s<br />ADC<br />Relays<br />NI CompactDAQ<br />Over 5 MS/s<br />Data to and from PC at 60 MB/s (USB 2.0)<br />ADC<br />Timing & Bus Controller (USB-STC2)<br />ADC<br />ADC<br />Simultaneous, Multi-ADC System<br />
    28. 28. USB<br />Controller<br />USB Multi-Stream with NI Signal Streaming Technology<br />PC<br />Processor<br />Buffer<br />USB Bus<br />USB<br />Input<br />USB<br />Output<br />
    29. 29. DEMO: NI Signal Streaming<br />Online analysis & processing capability<br />Real-time data transfer<br />EASY<br />POWERFUL<br />OPEN<br />
    30. 30. Breadth of Measurements: I/O Modules<br />Over 30 I/O modules available<br />Up to 256 analog/digital mixed channel count<br />Custom channel count &sensor support per system with 4ch to 32ch modules available<br />Compatible with 1000’s of sensors<br />POWERFUL<br />EASY<br />OPEN<br />
    31. 31. Integrated DAQ, Signal Conditioning & Connectivity<br />Guaranteed Accuracy<br />NIST traceable calibration<br />Built-in Signal Conditioning<br />Direct connection to<br />industrial sensors and actuators<br />Signal to Backplane <br />Isolation barrier<br />Safety, noise immunity,<br />common mode rejection<br />Available 24-bit <br />Delta-Sigma ADC<br />DSA signals, TEDS enabled,<br />built-in antialiasing filters<br />
    32. 32. Isolation for Improved Accuracy & Safety<br />Avoid ground loops<br />Protect System and user <br />Measure small signals on a large potential<br />Digital Isolation<br />
    33. 33. NEW! Isolated Modules<br />24-bit, ch-ch isolated, 50kS/s/ch<br />9229 = ±60 VDC<br />9239 = ±10 VDC<br />Screw Terminals<br />Industry standard certifications<br />
    34. 34. Broad Sensor Compatibility<br />Thermocouples<br />RTDs<br />Thermistors<br />Strain gauges<br />Photo sensors<br /><ul><li>Potentiometers
    35. 35. Load Cells
    36. 36. Optical Encoders
    37. 37. Microphones
    38. 38. Accelerometers
    39. 39. pH electrodes
    40. 40. Headmeters
    41. 41. Flowmeters
    42. 42. Pressure gauges
    43. 43. Many more…</li></li></ul><li>24-bit 100S/s/ch<br />Ch-ch isolated<br />11 measurement modes<br />Thermocouple (with 1 CJC per channel)<br />RTD (3 and 4 wire)<br />Resistance<br />Current<br />Digital<br />Voltage up to ±60V<br />¼, ½, and full bridge strain with built in excitation up to 2.7V<br />NEW! Universal Module (9219)<br />
    44. 44. Flexible & Scalable Data Logging<br />Scale your applications with automatic code generation<br />Add additional functionality<br />Custom user interface<br />Decision making<br />Additional analysis<br />Add new hardware<br />
    45. 45. DEMO: Scalability<br />Ability to add channels or measurement types<br />Scalable solution for future application needs<br />EASY<br />POWERFUL<br />OPEN<br />
    46. 46. Diversity of Data-Logging Applications<br />Benchtop<br />Industrial<br />In-Vehicle<br />
    47. 47. Benchtop Instrumentation<br />Measurements<br />Verify circuit prototypes<br />Characterize components<br />Troubleshooting circuits<br />Requirements<br />Fast time to measurement<br />Direct connectivity & benchtop accessories<br />Small size (25 x 6 x 9cm)<br />Standard time and frequency domain analysis<br />Reporting<br />
    48. 48. High-Voltage Isolation <br />Integrated signal conditioning<br />NI-DAQmx built-in OPC Server<br />High-speed data transfer<br />Rack mount and panel mount accessories<br />Industrial Data Acquisition and Control<br />
    49. 49. Halliburton Ultrasonic Cement Analyzer<br />“The small size of NI CompactDAQ helped us minimize the footprint of the analyzer, and the modularity of the platform gives us the ability to incorporate additional measurement types for special deployment requirements.”<br />- Rick Bradshaw, Technical Professional Leader, R&D<br /> Halliburton<br />
    50. 50. In-Vehicle Data Acquisition<br />DC Power <br />Lightweight, portable <br />Measurement support for <br />Suspension<br />Fuel system<br />Comfort control<br />Brakes<br />Many more…<br />
    51. 51. Honda In-Vehicle Suspension Test<br />“This system will revolutionize in-vehicle data acquisition for us. With the CompactDAQ system, we effectively transform a myriad of wires and equipment into a smaller, cleaner, cheaper and more intuitive package.&quot;<br />- Mike Dickinson, Transmission Research Engineer, Honda R&D Americas<br />
    52. 52. Summary<br />Data Logging defined<br />LabVIEW SignalExpress & CompactDAQ<br />Easy: Configuration-based software and plug & play hardware<br />Powerful: Online analysis and high-speed data streaming<br />Open: Modular hardware and scalable software<br />Diversity of Applications<br />
    53. 53. Machine Condition MonitoringWhy monitor machinery?<br />Prevent catastrophic failure & significant damage<br />Avoid loss of life, environmental harm, economic loss<br />Stop unscheduled outages<br />Optimize machine performance (Reduce Energy Costs)<br />Reduce repair time and spare parts inventory<br />Lengthen maintenance cycle (extend equipment lifespan)<br />Reduce scrap and raw material consumption<br />Increase product quality<br />Safety<br />Reduce Outages and Energy Costs<br />Predictive Maintenance / Reduce Costs<br />Quality Control<br />
    54. 54. Maintenance Strategies<br /> (reactive) (active)<br />Issues addressed by machine monitoring:<br /><ul><li> Safety
    55. 55. Uptime (reliability, equipment effectiveness)
    56. 56. Quality</li></li></ul><li>Preventative Maintenance<br />Machine<br />Health<br />Predictive Maintenance<br />Acceptable Operating Zone<br />Run to-Failure<br />Time<br />Increasing Availability<br />
    57. 57. Economics of Planned Outages<br />Run-to-Fail<br />Unscheduled Shutdown<br />Production<br />Level<br />Preventative<br />Scheduled<br />Shutdown<br />Preventative<br />Scheduled<br />Shutdown<br />Traditional <br />Approach<br />Time<br />Production<br />Level<br />Condition-based<br />Shutdown<br />Predictive<br />Maintenance <br />Approach<br />Time<br />
    58. 58. Noise<br />Vibrations<br />Lead Time of Options – What to Monitor<br />Conditions start to change<br />Machine condition<br />Heat<br />Smoke<br />Emergency stop<br />Time<br />10 min<br />2 days<br />2 weeks<br />3 month<br />Courtesy of FAG Industrial Services<br />
    59. 59. Vibration Sources- Where to Monitor<br />Loose Mechanical<br /> Components<br />Blade Pass / <br />Bent Shaft<br />Fluid Related<br />Gears<br />Slot Frequency / <br />Unbalance<br />EM related<br />Alignment<br />Motor<br />Journal (Fluid Film) <br />Bearings<br />Mechanical<br />Rolling Element<br />Resonances<br />Couplings<br />Bearings<br />
    60. 60. Typical Sensing Data – A real machine<br />Gas Turbine<br />4 Accelerometer<br />4 Bearing RTD1 Gas Generator Speed<br />1 Power Turbine Speed<br />1 Fuel Flow<br />1 Ambient Temperature<br />1 Compressor Discharge Pressure<br />1 Compressor Discharge Temperature<br />1 Exhaust Gas Temperature<br />1 Power Turbine Exhaust Temperature<br />1 Power Turbine Exhaust Pressure<br />1 Air Mass Flow<br />4 Lube Oil Level Temp, Pressure,Level<br />Gearbox<br />8 Radial Vibration Proximeter Probe<br />2 Axial Positioner<br />6 Bearing RTD<br />1 High Speed Keyphasor<br />1 Low Speed Keyphasor<br />1 Gearbox Accelerometer<br />Compressor<br />4 Radial Vibration Proximeter Probe<br />2 Axial Positioner<br />4 RTD1 Suction Pressure<br />1 Discharge Pressure<br />1 Flow<br />1 Inlet Temperature<br />1 Discharge Temperature<br />Courtesy Dresser-Rand Corporation<br />
    61. 61. unbalance<br />0.0001 0.0010.01<br />misalignment<br />Velocity (ips)<br />gear mesh frequencies<br />bearing frequencies<br />100 1000 10000 100000<br />Frequency (Hz)<br />NI Advantages: <br />Advanced Measurements, Advanced Analysis<br />Typical Spectrum Showing Basic Faults<br />Courtesy of<br />
    62. 62. Who Uses Condition Monitoring?<br />Power Generation<br />Turbines (Gas, Steam, Hydro, Wind)<br />Boilers, pumps, motor<br />Oil, Gas, PetroChem<br />Pumps, Compressors, expanders, motor, fans<br />Pipelines<br />Compressor, Pumps, piping, motor<br />Paper<br />Rolllers, Press, Printing, pulp refiner, motor, fans<br />Water<br />Pumps, Compressor, motor<br />Food & Pharmaceuticals<br />Mixer, Pumps, Blowers, Fans, vessel, boiler, centrifuge<br />Marine Propulsion<br />Turbochargers, Gearbox, Bearings, motor<br />Metals and Mining<br />Kilns, crusher, pulverizer<br />Semiconductor<br />HVAC, Electrical Power, motor<br />
    63. 63. Who Can Use Machine Monitoring?<br />Rotating Equipment Engineer<br />Maintenance (Superintendent, Technician, Mgr)<br />Machinery Engineer<br />Reliability Engineer<br />Facilities Engineer<br />HVAC Engineer<br />Manufacturing Manager<br />
    64. 64. Nexjen Reactor Pump Vibration Monitor<br />Challenge<br />Provide a combined system for 32 vibration channels in four machinery locations<br />NI Tools<br />PXI-DSA, LabVIEW, <br />S&V Measurement Suite<br />Results<br />Real-Time Monitoring<br />Historical Data <br />Transient Data<br />Alarming<br />Expands to Process Variables<br />
    65. 65. Previous Hoover Dam Solution<br /><ul><li>400 Lbs.
    66. 66. Dedicated Instruments
    67. 67. Weak PC Integration</li></li></ul><li>vibDaq Solution<br /><ul><li>20 Lbs.
    68. 68. Virtual Instruments
    69. 69. PC based solution
    70. 70.</li></ul>Run-Up<br />Waterfall Plot<br />Cascade Plot<br />Polar Plot<br />Tabular List<br />Orbit Plot<br />
    71. 71. NI CompactDAQ<br />NI USB-9233<br />USB Machine Diagnostics<br />Portable Machinery Test and Condition Monitoring<br />Standard<br /><ul><li>Plug-and-play USB 2.0
    72. 72. Alias-free, simultaneous, 24-bit A/Ds
    73. 73. Time waveform, spectrum, and order analysis</li></ul>Nonstandard<br /><ul><li>Price… 4-channel USB-9233 + NI Sound and Vibration Assistant < $3,600</li></li></ul><li>Remote Monitoring Interface<br />Simple Web Interface<br />Pemex Compressor App<br />By Instituto de Investigationes Electric<br />
    74. 74. Demo Sound and Vibration<br />
    75. 75. Wind Energy: Needs Distributed Monitoring<br />Distributed Machinery<br />Hard to reach<br />Expensive to repair<br />Insurance requires machine condition monitoring<br />Wind Turbines already on “the network”<br />
    76. 76. Problems and Focus on Bearing <br />Journal Bearings<br />Varnishing - overheating due to metal to metal contact<br />Scoring of thrust bearings: shock loading contamination<br />
    77. 77. Effects of Bearing Failure<br />Rotor Damage<br />Impeller – Contact with casing and diffuser vanes<br />Bending failure of gear teeth- seized rotor<br />Bent Diffuser Vanes<br />
    78. 78. Machine Monitoring Benefits<br />
    79. 79. Connectivity<br />Signal Conditioning<br /><br />ADC<br />NI CompactRIO is ideal for machine monitoring<br /> CompactRIO Block Diagram<br />Real-Time Controller<br />LabVIEW RT<br />Reconfigurable RIO Chassis<br />LabVIEW FPGA<br /><ul><li>C Series I/O Modules
    80. 80. Real-Time Controllers
    81. 81. RIO Backplanes</li></ul>I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />I/O Module<br />Ethernet<br />RS-232<br />
    82. 82. Case Study: FAG Industrial Services (FIS) <br />FAG ProCheck - simple, intelligent, reliable<br />FAG ProCheck is an intelligent online monitoring system of the latest generation that can measure, record and analyze data independently from other systems. Thanks to its very flexible configuration options, it can be used to monitor machines and components in nearly all industry sectors.<br />Herzogenrath, April 16, 2007. In April 2007, FAG Industrial Services GmbH (F’IS) announced FAG ProCheck, a new powerful and flexible condition monitoring system for preventing unexpected production disruptions. The system stands alone in the marketplace by integrating the National Instruments CompactRIO hardware platform with the proven F’IS Administrator software to offer the right list of functions at an attractive price. “Because the system, based on CompactRIO, breaks so many of the previous boundaries for machine condition monitoring, we foresee it playing an important role in the future of the industry,” said Preston Johnson, NI Segment Manager, Sound and Vibration. <br /><br />
    83. 83. Remote Service<br />ISDN- phone <br />Satellite <br />FIS Diagnosis-Center<br />Mobile phone<br />Customer benefit:<br /><ul><li>Automatic monitoring and early warning
    84. 84. Recommendation for action by a trained analyst</li></ul>Internet <br />
    85. 85. Summary<br />National Instruments provides<br />Machine Monitoring Solutions <br />Sound and Vibration Assistant, Partners<br />OEM Components for Equipment Manufacturers<br />Measurement technology partner<br />Economies of scale<br />Machine Monitoring <br />Saves time and money<br />Improves operational reliability<br />Bring on the opps (MCM, POWER, STRUCT, NVH)<br />
    86. 86. Machine and System OptimizationCase Studies<br />
    87. 87. Case Study: Enginuity LLC<br />Leading supplier of emissions reduction equipment in the oil and gas industry <br />Engineer and install advanced combustion control technology for direct-injected, natural gas-fired industrial engines<br />New controllers also monitor condition of engines<br />Green Benefit:<br />Reduced over 22,000 tons of NOx emissions with equipment tested and developed using NI technology<br />
    88. 88. Testing New Controllers<br />Large, older diesel engines are extremely expensive and unpredictable with how they will react to new controllers<br />Retrofit technology must be tested and validated before being deployed on engines<br />Enginuity used LabVIEW and PXI to simulate the engine inputs and outputs for their iFLEX engine monitoring and control system<br />
    89. 89. Case Study: Nucor Steel Corporation<br />One of the largest steel producers in the US, and the largest recycler<br />Used LabVIEW and NI PACs to optimize their Marion, Ohio plant<br />Implemented 3 automation systems to greatly increase efficiency and safety<br />Green Benefits<br />Prevented the over-melting of scrap steel, which wastes electricity, and requires re-heats due to poor quality <br />Limits maximum power draw from city grid, avoiding costly penalties, and associated flicker and quality issues<br />
    90. 90. Nucor Scale and Weighing System<br /><ul><li>Accurately measures the amount of scrap steel to be melted in the furnace
    91. 91. Calculates the exact amount of electricity needed to heat the steel
    92. 92. Connects to existing machinery to communicate this information</li></li></ul><li>Nucor Power Monitoring Station<br />Monitors real-time power consumption from city grid<br />Performs power quality analysis on measured data<br />Connects to existing machinery to insure consumption does not exceed regulated limits<br />
    93. 93. “Once you start monitoring something in an automation system, you know you can fix things”<br /> - Dave Brandt Electrical Engineer<br />
    94. 94. Enabling Technologies<br />Power Monitoring<br />Power Quality Analysis<br />Connectivity to PLCs and Existing Systems<br />
    95. 95. Power Quality Monitoring<br />
    96. 96. What Is Power Quality?<br />Power Quality<br />The quality of the Voltage & current that is being supplied to any device<br />Requirements<br />The waveform of the voltage and current should be as sinusoidal as possible<br />Constant RMS/Frequency<br />There should be no transient features in the supply<br />
    97. 97. Why Monitor Power?<br />Machine fault detection<br />Eliminate monetary fines from power company<br />Manage generator/battery backups<br />Troubleshoot equipment<br />
    98. 98. Power Chain<br />Generation<br />Doorstop<br />Transmission<br />Distribution<br />Machines<br />
    99. 99. NI 9225<br />CompactRIO and CompactDAQ<br />3ch, 300V, 50kS/s, 24-bit<br />Same family as 9229/9239<br />Ch-Ch isolation<br />
    100. 100. Sensors<br />Current Transformers/Transducers<br />Waveform<br />RMS<br />AC/DC<br />
    101. 101. Analysis of Electrical Power<br />Harmonics <br />Voltage fluctuation<br />Sag(or “dip”)<br />Swell<br />Metering<br />Demand Side Management<br />Power Factor<br />
    102. 102. Voltage Sag<br />10% &lt; RMS Voltage &lt; 100%<br />
    103. 103. Voltage Swell<br />110% &lt; RMS Voltage<br />
    104. 104. Voltage Interruption<br />RMS Voltage &lt; 10%<br />
    105. 105. Power TriangleRequire only V and I measurements<br />[VA]<br />Reactive <br />Power [VAr]<br />(phi)<br />[Watts]<br />
    106. 106. PQ Events as categorized by IEEE<br />
    107. 107. Current Transformer<br />
    108. 108. Competition<br />NI VAR/Alliance member<br />National Instruments<br />Research Instruments<br />SBC<br />
    109. 109. “Next Generation Power Meter”<br />NI Platform Advantages<br />Ethernet and Internet connectivity<br />Open and standard communication protocol support<br />High-speed transient sampling<br />Statistical analysis for trending<br />Electronic notification of alarms<br />Memory for data storage<br />General Purpose User Interface<br />Frost & Sullivan: Power Quality Meters – Next Generation” Jan 9, 2007<br />
    110. 110. Power Quality 3rd Party Recourses<br />LEM sensors<br />CR Magnetics sensors<br />Elcom<br />
    111. 111. Why Monitor Power?<br />Power monitoring power can be important whether being consumed or generated<br />Protect expensive machines and equipment from failure or excessive wear<br />Eliminate monetary fines from power company <br />Poor power quality on your grid is subject to fines<br />Manage generator/battery backups<br />Troubleshoot equipment<br />Minimize energy waste<br />
    112. 112. Why Monitor Power?<br />
    113. 113. Power Quality Analysis<br />Common analysis functions performed in power monitoring systems<br />Defined by IEEE and derived from current and voltage waveform data<br />Harmonics/Frequency<br />Voltage fluctuation<br />Sag<br />Swell<br />Interruption<br />Metering<br />Demand Side Management<br />Power Triangle<br />
    114. 114. PQ Events as categorized by IEEE<br />
    115. 115. Harmonics/Frequency<br />
    116. 116. Voltage Sag<br />10% &lt; RMS Voltage &lt; 90%<br />
    117. 117. Voltage Swell<br />110% &lt; RMS Voltage<br />
    118. 118. Voltage Interruption<br />RMS Voltage &lt; 10%<br />
    119. 119. Power TriangleRequire only V and I measurements<br />[VA]<br />Reactive <br />Power [VAr]<br />(phi)<br />[Watts]<br />
    120. 120. Sensors<br />Current Transformers/Transducers<br />Waveform<br />RMS<br />AC/DC<br />PF calculation with RS-485 output<br />Industrially rated<br />
    121. 121. Power Quality Summary<br />Monitoring energy plays a key role in running an energy efficient machine, plant, or process<br />Power quality can effect durability of equipment<br />All power measurements stem from voltage and current waveform data<br />
    122. 122. Structural Health Monitoring<br />Continuous monitoring of the condition of a structure using built-in or autonomous sensory systems<br /><ul><li>Assess structural performance
    123. 123. Assess structural integrity following incident (earthquake)
    124. 124. Feedback loop in design (verify models, new materials, etc.)</li></li></ul><li>The SHM Market in the U.S.<br /><ul><li>Aging infrastructure
    125. 125. >590,000 bridges in U.S. (half were built before 1964)
    126. 126. 74,000 bridges are ‘structurally deficient’
    127. 127. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimates that it would take $9B/year for 20 years to eliminate bridge deficiencies
    128. 128. Significant funding and research
    129. 129. Automated monitoring of infrastructure now readily available</li></li></ul><li>Structural Test/Monitoring Technologies<br />Fixed Installation<br />Portable<br />Short-Term Controlled Testing<br /> (apply controlled load)<br />Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)<br />Long-Term (Life-Cycle) Monitoring of Structural Health <br />Static<br /><ul><li>Strain, tilt, displacement
    130. 130. Eval. behavior, load rating
    131. 131. Calibrate FE model</li></ul>Dynamic<br /><ul><li>Vibration analysis
    132. 132. Determine freq., mode shapes, damping, modal curvatures, etc.</li></ul>Material Characterization<br /><ul><li>Ultrasonic techniques
    133. 133. Acoustic emissions
    134. 134. Optical
    135. 135. TDR, NMR</li></ul>Slow-Speed<br /><ul><li>< 1 Hz
    136. 136. Deformations and displacements
    137. 137. Stresses
    138. 138. Environment</li></ul>High-Speed<br /><ul><li>25 Hz – 100 Hz
    139. 139. Vibrations
    140. 140. Earthquakes, incidents
    141. 141. Movements, stresses
    142. 142. Traffic</li></ul>Source: Development of a Model Health Monitoring Guide for Major Bridges, report submitted to FWHA, by Aktan, Catbas, Grimmelsman, Pervizpour<br />
    143. 143. Donghai Bridge - Structural Health Monitoring with PXI<br />Bridge Requirements<br /><ul><li>20-mile long, operating in harsh conditions
    144. 144. Long-term vibration monitoring with low-maintenance
    145. 145. High-level software to manage, analyze, and report on entire scale</li></ul>Solution<br /><ul><li>14 PXI systems synchronized over GPS
    146. 146. Continuous 24x7 operation for over 2-years</li></ul>Structural Health Monitoring of the Donghai Bridge with NI LabVIEW and PXI<br />
    147. 147. Rion-Antirion Bridge – Structural Monitoring<br />Bridge Requirements<br />3 km bridge spanning the Corinth Strait in Greece<br />Area of high seismic activity and strong winds<br />High-channel, mixed sensor measurements<br />Solution<br />Four PXI/SCXI systems<br />LabVIEW and LabVIEW Real-Time<br />System integrator: Advitam, subsidiary of Vinci Construction<br />Structural Health Monitoring of the Rion-Antirion Bridge<br />
    148. 148. Beijing Olympic Venues - Seismic Monitoring and Research<br />Continuously monitoring of seismic activity at the Beijing National Stadium and Aquatics Center<br />Structural model validation<br />Monitoring trigger events<br />Email notification<br />NI LabVIEW and CompactRIO synchronized via GPS<br />cRIO<br />. . .<br />Kinemetrics Seismic Sensors<br />
    149. 149. Vibration Monitoring of Meazza Stadium in Milan<br />Requirements<br />High-channel, distributed network monitoring system<br />Structural evaluations, modal analysis, static and dynamic measurements, and corrosion testing<br />Solution<br />14 CompactRIO chassis with mixed sensor connectivity<br />LabVIEW for flexibility and advanced analysis<br />Meazza Stadium Vibration Monitoring<br />
    150. 150. Naini-Allahabad Bridge – Cable Stayed Bridge in India<br />500 monitored parameters<br />Strain (vibrating wire), displacement, environment, GPS position<br />7 FieldPoint systems with LabVIEW RT<br />Continuous monitoring <br />High speed burst mode when threshold exceeded for vibration, wind, or GPS data <br />
    151. 151. Smart Bridge ResearchTestbed– UCSD Powell Laboratory<br />
    152. 152. HBM: Optical Technology for SHM<br />Opto-electric <br />Measurement Instrument<br />Software<br />Optical Strain Gages<br />− Great number of optical SG per fiber<br />− Light weight<br />− Insensitive to electromagnetic <br /> interference<br />− For use in potentially explosive <br /> atmospheres<br />− Installation similar to electrical <br /> strain gages (SG)<br />− catman® add-on module<br />− Parallel recording of data<br /> from optical and<br /> conventional strain gage<br /> amplifiers<br />− Real-time temperature<br /> compensation<br />− Static: one to four <br /> channels, 1 to 5 S/s<br />− Dynamic: one to four <br /> channels, 100 to 1000 S/s<br />
    153. 153. Sensor Technologies for SHM<br />
    154. 154. Structural Monitoring of an Overpass<br />Image courtesy of Campbell Scientific<br />
    155. 155. Strain Measurements in SHM<br />Resistive Foil<br />Vibrating Wire<br />Fiber Optic<br />Measures voltage across changing resistance of foil<br />Measures change in frequency of light reflected<br />Measures change in resonant frequency of wire<br />
    156. 156. C Series Strain Measurements<br />4 or 8 gauges per module, simultaneously sampled<br />Full, half, and quarter-bridge measurements<br />24-bit resolution<br />ADC per channel, simultaneously sampled<br />Anti-aliasing filtering<br />NIST-traceable calibration<br />NI 9237<br />4-ch full/half-bridge inputs<br /><ul><li>accessory for quarter-bridge
    157. 157. 50 kS/s</li></ul>100 dB dynamic range<br />Shunt cal, remote sense<br />Smart sensor (TEDS) compatible<br />NI 9235, NI 9236 <br />8-ch quarter-bridge inputs<br /><ul><li>120Ω (9235) and 350Ω (9236)</li></ul>10kS/s per channel<br />100 dB dynamic range<br />NI 9219<br />4-ch universal inputs, including quarter/half/full bridge inputs<br /><ul><li>100 S/s </li></ul>Smart sensor (TEDS) compatible<br />
    158. 158. Strain Measurements in SHM<br />Resistive Foil<br />Vibrating Wire<br />Fiber Optic<br />Measures voltage across changing resistance of foil<br />Measures change in frequency of light reflected<br />Measures change in resonant frequency of wire<br />
    159. 159. Vibrating Wire Sensor Technology<br />Frequency-based measurement and excitation of embedded steel wire under tension<br />Compares to nominal resonant frequency<br />Surface mount on steel or concrete,embedment in concrete or rebar<br />Typically 50 to 250 mm in length<br />Not intended for dynamic or rapidly changing strain<br />
    160. 160. Overview of Vibrating Wire<br />Electromagnetic Coil Assembly- Excites and measures wire<br />- Measures temp with thermistor<br />Sensor Cable<br />Vibrating Steel Wire<br />Mounting Block<br />Hermetically Sealed Stainless Steel Body<br />Surface of Component Being Tested<br />
    161. 161. “Pluck and Read”<br />Swept Frequency Pluck Excitation<br />5 V<br />0 V<br />150 ms<br />Measure Sine Wave Response<br />Changes with stress/strain<br />0.5 – 5 mV<br />20-40 ms delay<br />Measure 200-500 pulses<br />
    162. 162. Principal of Vibrating WireFrequency Measurement<br />ε = strain in wire<br />Gage Factor = sensitivity of sensor spec’d by mfg.<br />ƒ = measured frequency<br />ƒ0 = initial frequency<br />L = gage length<br />T = wire tension<br />m = mass per unit length of gage wire<br />
    163. 163. Principal of Vibrating WireTemperature Measurement<br />Thermistor (thermally sensitive resistor) included in vibrating wire sensors<br />Temperature measurement used to compensate for error caused by change in temperature<br />Current excited; extremely non-linear response<br />
    164. 164. Connecting Vibrating Wire Sensors to NI Hardware<br />Excitation<br />9474<br />DIO0COM<br />C+<br />Response<br />C-<br />9205<br />AI+AI-COM<br />G<br />Temperature<br />T+<br />9219<br />HI<br />LO<br />Can the 9217 measure thermistor of VW?<br />Ground<br />T-<br />
    165. 165. 3rd Party VW Signal Conditioners<br />Amplification and signal conditioning for vibrating wire and thermistor<br />Often 1 to 4 channel with easy expansion through multiplexer (16 or 32 channel)<br />For use with pressure, load, strain, and temperature<br />
    166. 166. Connecting NI Hardware to 3rd Party VW Signal Conditioners<br />Geokon F to V Convertor<br />Campbell Scientific Interface for VW<br />C-<br />C+<br />T-<br />T+<br />12 V<br />Temp<br />Freq<br />Ex<br />Analog GND<br />+12V<br />GND<br />T+<br />T-<br />C+<br />C-<br />Shield<br />Earth GND<br />DAQ<br />Under redesign to use “pluck and read” instead of auto resonance. Expected ship date in March.<br />US$ 170<br />-25 to 50 C+ US$ 17<br />-55 to 85 C<br />Vout<br />Sensor<br />EN<br />CLK<br />RDY<br />Appears to provide amp and sigcon, but still transmits freq to DAQ<br />Appears to provide all necessary conditioning and transmits 0-5 V or 4-20mA<br />
    167. 167. Vibrating Wire Sensors<br />Pros<br />Immunity to noisy environments<br />Frequency transmits well over long distances<br />Stable over long periods of time<br />Surface mount or embed<br />Cons<br />Long operation periods delay reading<br />Not for dynamic measurements<br />
    168. 168. Fiber Optic Sensors<br />Grating Period<br />Λ<br />Strain changes the frequency of light reflected by the FBG<br />Fiber Bragg Grating(FBG)<br />Input Light<br />Reflected Light<br />Transmitted Light<br />λB<br />
    169. 169. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interface HW<br />Micron Optics<br />FiberSensing<br />FiberSensing<br />HBM<br />Gavea Sensors<br />Prime Photonics<br />Micron Optics<br />Smart Fibres<br />
    170. 170. Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Sensors<br />Pros<br />Multipoint in-line measurement capability<br />Easy to integrate in hard to reach areas<br />High sensitivity<br />Small / lightweight<br />Linear response<br />Cons<br />Sensitive to more than one parameter<br />Cost of sensors<br />Require expensive processing equipment<br />
    171. 171. Distributed Measurement Synchronization<br />Structural signals of interest are typically ≤10 Hz<br />cRIO, cDAQ, and PXI deliver synchronized solutions <br />Two general classes of synchronization strategy:<br />Signal-Based<br />Clocks and triggers physically connected between systems<br />Highest-precision synchronization<br />Time-Based<br />System components have a common reference of what time it is<br />Events, Triggers and Clocks can be generated based on this time<br />Examples: NTP, IEEE 1588, and GPS<br />
    172. 172. Comparing Synchronization Technologies<br />On-chip<br />Precision<br />10-12 sec<br />Backplane<br />PXI <br />Multichassis<br />10-9 sec<br />GPS<br />IRIG-B<br />Signal-Based<br />IEEE-1588 <br />10-6 sec<br />Time-Based<br />10-3 sec<br />NTP<br />sec<br />TCP/IP Messages<br />10-2m<br />100m<br />101m<br />102m<br />103m<br />104m<br />105m<br />Global<br />&lt;10-4m<br />Proximity<br />
    173. 173. Distributed Synchronization Capabilities<br /> PXI<br />0.1 deg<br />Structural Monitoring<br />CompactRIO<br />Ch-Ch Phase Mismatch<br />1 deg<br />CompactRIOw/923x modules <br />10 deg<br />NTP<br />10 Hz<br />100 Hz<br />1 kHz<br />10 kHz<br />1 Hz<br />Signal Bandwidth<br /><ul><li>Plot represents conservative approximations
    174. 174. Many application-specific variables</li></li></ul><li>Distributed Synchronization with CompactRIO<br />Signal-Based Synchronization<br />Synchronization via GPS<br />Share sample clock and start trigger<br />Similar approach: generate IRIG-B signal and share time reference<br />For longer distances (&gt; few meters), transmit trigger (not high freq clock)<br />9401/2 modules for timing signal I/O<br />New: 9402 20MHz TTL with BNC (Mar ‘08)<br />GPS receiver – external or C Series<br />Two signaling options<br />Pulse-per-second (PPS) to DIO module (9401/2), accompanied with serial read of absolute time<br />IRIG-B signal to DIO module (9401/2)<br />9401/2 modules for connection to GPS receiver<br />FPGA<br />FPGA<br />FPGA<br />FPGA<br />RT<br />RT<br />RT<br />RT<br />940x<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />940x<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />940x<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />940x<br />GPS<br />92xx<br />92xx<br />External GPS Receiver<br />PPS (or IRIG-B)<br />S.E.A. Module<br />Clock/trigger signal<br />(or IRIG-B)<br />
    175. 175. New: C Series High-Speed DIO for Timing/Triggering<br />NI 9402<br />4 channel DIO with BNC <br />3.3V TTL; 5V input tolerant <br />2 mA/line current drive<br />Propagation delay &lt; 20 ns<br /><ul><li>for comparison, 9401 delay = 100 ns</li></ul>Line configurable direction control <br />20MHz target (w/ 3 m cable)<br /><ul><li>Longer cables with lower frequency or trigger pulses</li></ul>cRIO and cDAQ<br />Shipping target: Mar/Apr 2008<br />
    176. 176. Current DevZone Resources<br />NTP (PXI and cRIO)<br />Set Date and Time on Local Computer using NTP Server<br /><ul><li></li></ul>Set Date and Time on PC, PXI, and PXI-RT using DAYTIME protocol<br /><ul><li></li></ul>Getting/Setting the System Date/Time on CVS and PXI RT Targets<br /><ul><li></li></ul>PXI Time Setting<br /><ul><li></li></ul>IEEE- 1588<br />Introduction to Distributed Clock Synchronization and the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol<br /><ul><li></li></ul>Special Focus: Understanding the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol<br /><ul><li></li></ul>Multi-ChassisSynchronization<br /><ul><li>Synchronizing Multiple CompactRIO Chassis
    177. 177.
    178. 178. High Channel High Performance (PXI) Multi-Chassis System
    179. 179.
    180. 180. Distributed TimebaseComponent
    181. 181.</li></ul>GPS and IRIG-B<br /><ul><li>GPS Synchronization Architecture for DSA Devices
    182. 182.
    183. 183. Read GPS Time, Position, Velocity, and Course Heading – parsing NMEA-0183
    184. 184.
    185. 185. IRIG-B Implementation in LabVIEW FPGA
    186. 186.</li>