-located on the thyroid gland. -Most people have four pea-sized parathyroid glands ~relatively small gland compared to the other glands and organs around it.
-PTH is a hypercalcemic hormone because it acts to increase blood levels of Calcium-Decreasing blood Ca levels prompt the release of PTH, which causes blood Ca levels to rise, ending the stimulus for PTH release
-surgery can be done in 13 minutes or less
-Not enough Ca; too much Phosphorous-cataracts: cloudy lens-muscle spasms = tetany-Hypoparaythroidism can be acquired from accidental removal or damage to parathyroid gland during surgery (i.e. to remove throat cancer) (less common now)-usually a chronic disorder
-extremely rare with about one case in every 1,000 patients with parathyroid disease-symptoms are similar to those of hyperparathyroidism because both involve too much PTH-All patients with hyperparathyroidism have elevated parathyroid hormone in their blood, those with benign disease tend to have levels in the "hundreds" where as those with parathyroid cancer tend to have values in the "thousands." -The parathyroid gland and the half of the thyroid on the same side as the cancer is typically removed.
FUNCTION OF PARATHYROIDGLAND Produce PTH To control calcium within the blood to help maintain strong bones 3
HORMONES SECRETED FROM PARATHYROIDGLAND Secreteparathyroid hormone (PTH) Humoral stimuli Most important regulator of Ca2+ homeostasis of the blood Hypercalcemic hormone 4
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM Etiology Pathogenesis Overproduction of Bone Pain the cells secreting Depression PTH Frequent urination Parathyroid Kidney stones develops a tumor Nausea Loss of appetite Treatment Remove the tumor surgically 5
HYPOPARATHYROIDISM Etiology Pathogenesis Family History Heavier periods in Autoimmune Disorder females Excessive radiation Cataracts treatment Low levels of Mg in Tingling sensations blood Muscles spasms Treatment Dry hair and skin; restore the Ca and brittle nails mineral balance in Weakened tooth the body enamel in kids Take vitamins with Calcium and 6 Vitamin D
OSTEOPOROSIS Etiology Loss of Calcium Too much PTH Pathogenesis "Thin Bones" Bones break and fracture easier Loss of energy Feel old Bones hurt Treatment Remove the bad 7 parathyroid gland
PARATHYROID CANCER Etiology Pathogenesis Out of control PTH Weakness production Family history Lump in neck Hyperparathyroidism Trouble swallowing Loss of appetite Unquenchable thirst Treatment Surgery Radiation therapy 8