David Benz Cirad CIRAD 2010


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David Benz Cirad CIRAD 2010

  1. 1. An overview of MIS evolution CIRAD, INRA, MSU J.Rakotoson, H. David-Benz, J. Egg, F.Galtier, A. Kizito, YY.Shen = Ag. MIS in Africa – Renewal & Impact
  2. 2. CONTEXT 80’s – 90’s : 2 decades of fast development of MIS, in a context of market liberalization But the results appear disappointing (Bowbrick, 1988 ; Shepherd, 1997 ; Egg et Galtier 1998 et 2003) : • Information disseminated doesn't meet stockholders needs • Financially unsustainable • Lack of M&E tools and lack of reactivity • Market functioning and specificities are not considered A new generation of MIS emerge in 2000’s, in a changing environment : NTIC, strengthening of farmers organizations, regional integration policies 2
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES and METHODS Objective : what are the main evolutions and innovations i t d ’ MIS ? i ti in today’s 3
  4. 4. Sources • SIM inventory (77 MIS data base - 66% Africa, 18% Asia, Lat. Am. 11%, Caribbean 4%, World 1%) • Email survey (identification, main features, evolution, constraints/solutions) • Several reminders and revisions => 31 “clean” answers (mostly Africa : 94%) • Additional information from literature and web 4
  5. 5. Limitations • Mostly descriptive (no indications about effectiveness of the services provided) • Preliminary results (some filled in questionnaires received mid-March) ti i i d id M h) 5
  6. 6. Methods Evolution of the first generation of MIS (“1G”: 80’s & 90’s ) g ( ): comparing their beginning / today’s situation (“1G” terminology will be kept here to avoid confusion, even if they have integrated many innovations) Main features & innovations in today’s MIS : comparing “1G” today / recent MIS (“2G” : 2000 s) 1G ( 2G 2000’s) « artificial » chronological limit in 2000 ? g • necessity to set a limit to analyze evolution • relevant considering changes in the environment (1st SIM using Internet and mobile phone, regional integration policies…) • MIS are influenced by their history 6
  7. 7. RESULTS 7
  8. 8. General mapping of MIS in Africa RESIMAO  INFOCOMM &  Afrique de  INFOSHARE   l’Ouest  OMA Mali AMASSA  SIARM  SIARM Mali h l PSA Sahel Sénégal  SIM  AcSSA Niger SIM APROSSA  T2M  Manobi  Sénégal  Burkina  FAMIS  Sénégal  Soudan  TRADE AT  HAND Afrique  SIMA Bétail  EGTE  ECX  SIPAG Guinée SIMA  Niger Ethiopie  de l’Ouest  Ethiopie Niger  SIM OCPV  SIM ATP  INFOTRADE  FOODNET  Côte d’Ivoire Ghana  Ouganda O d Ouganda O d KACE  RATIN Afrique  AMITSA Afrique  Légende :  SIM ANOPACI  Kenya  de l’Est   de l’Est Côte d’Ivoire  ACE  OdR OdR  AMIC  ZNFU 4455  Malawi SIM régional /  ZAMACE Madagascar  réseau de SIM  Zambie  Zambie  Zambie Bazar.Mada Technoserve MIS  SIMA  Mozambique SIM international  Mozambique SIEL  / /Plateforme   Madagascar M d ESOKO  SIM  national  8
  9. 9. Geographical classification g p 1G 2G Sub-total National 13 13 26 Supranational 0 5 5 National MIS are most well spread Few supranational : regional, network, World We will focus on national MIS, as supranational ones are too heterogeneous to be analyzed as a single type. 9
  10. 10. Main features and evolution Focused on aspects that have been changing significantly (or that are expected to have changed) Information collected and sources Internal transmission and users diffusion Other services provided Monitoring and feed-back Institutional home Funding 10
  11. 11. Essential information collected (price & volume) 1G have extended the scope of prices and volumes collected. More attention now on traded volume and stocks. 2 G appear more selective on the level of prices, and are interested on volume as well. 11
  12. 12. Other information collected 1G : strong diversification of information collected (supply/demand, (supply/demand extension – production & market, costs, prevision market costs of harvest and prices, policies…) Today strong heterogeneity among all the MIS (2 to 18 « other info. » collected). No clearly related to an other parameter. 12
  13. 13. Other service provided Today SIM provide today a limited number of services (apart from information). Mostly related to training and extension. Studies appear a specificity of 1G. 13
  14. 14. Sources and modes of internal transmission Today Avec les NTIC: Most 1G have integrated NTIC (email - SMS), but still use classical media of transmission (fax, phone, hand delivery, postal, radio). 2G rely mostly on NTIC, more specifically on SMS (seldom on traditionnal media) 14
  15. 15. Modes of diffusion Today Diversified means: Email and Web are generalized SMS well spread among 2G but much less among 1G NTIC are note excluding more t diti t l di traditional : l l large scale di l dissemination i ti means (radio) and analytical media (news-letter, news papers ) in both 15 categories of MIS
  16. 16. SE & feed-back Today Large panel of SE and feed-back tools No significant difference between 1G and 2G But no ex-post analysis of actual requests 16
  17. 17. Institutional home 1G : public sector home remains largely dominant 2 G : almost no public home. Large diversity (projects and NGOs farmers/traders organizations NGOs, organizations, private firms) Several mixed institutional home is common 17
  18. 18. Funding Today 1G : public largely dominant and limited contribution of donors (previously funded by project related to liberalization, they are now included in government budget) 2G : rely mostly on donors (new SIM, benefiting from renewal of interest 18 towards MIS). Some (very marginal) contribution of users.
  19. 19. Discussion What can be expected from these innovations ? (in term of potential to improve efficiency) Indicators of (potentiel) improvement of Limits of 1G MIS performances Modes of diffusion (utility) Lack of reliability and utility of Information collected (utility) 1 the information provided Modes of infernal transmission (reliability) Quality control (reliability) Lack of tools / methods of Feed-back devices (monitoring + adjustment 2 monitoring and evaluation capacity) Lack f dj t L k of adjustment capacity t it Institutional h I tit ti l home (i (incentive t match users ti to t h 3 (administrative management) needs) Problem of durability (project 4 Funding (durability) funded) Market functioning insufficiently Other services (respond to non informational 5 titre de l'atelier - 28-31 mars 2010 19 considered constraints)
  20. 20. 1.1. 1 1 Adéquation offre / demande (f é (fréquence, accessibilité, ibilité diversité) Nette amélioration des modes de diffusion. Se modernisent sans négliger les modes de diffusion traditionnels traditionnels. Innovation majeur via SMS : interactivité (information à la demande de l’utilisateur) Doit (potentiellement) permettre de transmettre rapidement, à la demande, une information ciblée, tout en assurant une diffusion de masse accessible à un très faible coût à un plus g p grand nombre 1.2. Fiabilité Risque d’erreur limité par l’ Ri d’ li ité l’usage d NTIC d des dans l t la transmission i i interne. Différents formes de contrôle qualité et SE. En cas de contribution des utilisateurs à l’approvisionnement du l approvisionnement système, risque de biais volontaire de l’information fournie. 20
  21. 21. 2. Feed-back, suivi-évaluation Différentes f Diffé t formes de SE sont mobilisées ( compris i li d t bili é (y i impliquant l t les utilisateurs) Mais de réelles évaluation d’impact manquent 3. Réactivité De-fonctionnarisation, implication des OP et du privé devraient offrir des conditions incitant davantage à répondre aux attentes des 4 . Durabilité Non réglé (les nouveaux SIM sont financés surtout par bailleurs et la contribution des usagers reste minime) 5. 5 Prise en compte du fonctionnements du marché Très hétérogène. Les cas de dispositifs les plus intégrés sont des projets (qui sont par définition non durables ) durables…) 21