CITY AS BIOTOPE : A BERGEN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
U T U M 2 0 0 9
On background of analyses on Malmø and investigationes on the THE RAINWATER WASHES ALL THE CITY The two main water-streams
and SURP projects in Malmø:
SURFACES. THIS MUST BE CLEANED BE-
: The grow-
city through walking, reading, talking, googling etc a ing blue green
blue-green web has developed. FORE IT CAN BE LET INTO THE OCEAN. corridors and
HANDELING MALMØ´S RUNOFF ON THE squares
SURFACE USING VARIATION IN VEGETATION
: points of im-
The blue-green web strategically developed to portance
better dealig with a wetter future, AND SOIL TO CLEANSE THE RAINWATER BE- : bus-connecting
handeling the increasing amount of urban runoff FORE IT WASHES INTO THE ØRESUND CAN : recipients of
in a more sustainable economical way. BENEFIT THE INHABITANTS IN SEVERAL runoff downtown
: new cityline
WAYS. : important buffer situa-
tion for cleansing runoff
However the most important issue of this Existing green structure (parks, : spaces in the city
structure is the experiences it creates TREATING RUNOFF ON THE CITY SURFACE golf, churchyards) in Malmø: ideal for transformation
AND USING THIS AS TRAVELING CORRI-
: wide alley ideal for bufferzone
for people moving through the streets and : wide car-streets ideal for
neighbourhoods on their way to their DORS WHERE UNEXPECTED SOCIAL EXPE- transformation
everyday destination. Connecting RIENCES CAN HAPPEN IN THE NEW URBAN On background of the slightly sloping landscape of the city, surface runoff wants to travel towards
urban public and semi-public ROOMS the sea. The urban runoff is the rainwater washing all surfaces in the city and this makes the
rooms by a mentally easy water polluted and it needs to be rinsed before it can enter the seawater in Øresund. On the roofs
remembered and physically BIODIVERSITY AND THE VALUATION OF (now covered with extrusive greenery) and in the transformed small squares and former parking-
inviting and easy oriented LAND; THE SELECTION OF SPIECIES IN THE spaces the urban runoff is treated for all pollution and contamination with variation in planting,
with cleansing abilities, and with different types of soil and gravel the water will floate through on
structure. It brings CITY WILL INCREASE WITH THE USE OF its way. With differentiation in size, planting, still or running, variation (depending on amount of
unexpected and new GREEN ROOFS AND Outer and inner ringroad, exist-
rainwater falling in a day/period/season), hidden or open use of water; the blue-green structure
ing bikeroutes, old and new rail:
experiences to both the BLUE-GREEN CORRIDORS. can create unike urban rooms and streets that can attract people to spend more time outside.
visitor and the NATURE EXEEDS TECHNOLOGY IN PRO- The new urban spaces can be a good background to developing neighbourhoods with stronger
inhabitant. DUCTION. A BIE-COLONY CAN POLLINATE and more differantiated cartacters that can give the traveler many new experiences on the way
Imagine walking HUNDRED-THOUSANDS OF FLOWERS ON to school or work.
Valuation of land: Treating runoff on the surface and taking advantage of nature-service in the
along a small A SUMMER DAY, ONE WETLAND AERA OR streets and spaces today occupied by the enormous private carpark can be seen as unvise dis-
stream, with POND CAN CLEANSE SEVERAL CUBIC posing and use of space and public wealth as the same space can provide so much more to the
trees, straws, LITERS ON ONE DAY ; COST FREE. city.
insects, flowers, Pinpointing this subject is the raport from the study “The Economics of Eco-
birds and more living FIGTHING THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND- EF- systems and Biodiversity” (TEEB) by Pavan Sukhdevfor the for the German
The two main water-streams Federal Ministry for the Environment and the European Commission.
things and all the FECT; RISING TEMPERATURE IN THE CITIES and SURP projects in Malmø:
The intention is that it will sharpen awareness of the value of bio-
different smells and IN SUMMERTIME IS CAUSED BY THE EX- diversity and ecosystem services, and facilitate the development of
sounds they bring with TENSIVE USE OF HARD AND GREY SURFAC- cost-effective policy responses, notably by preparing a
them through the ES; USE OF TARMAC AND STONE IN THE ‘valuation toolkit’. In the future landvalue will no longer be set
seasons. STREETS, METAL AND STONE ON ROOFS by the market-value in the real-estate market like we do today.
It might turn into a ETC. TREATING RUNOFF ON THE SURFACE The valuation is more likely to be measured by the nature-service
WITH VEGETATION AND EXPOSING THE abilities an aera can provide, and the cost of the loss of this the city will suffer...
really refreshing start
In urban planning for the future the proffesional and the politician needs to develope knowledge
of the day on your WATER, THE BLUE-GREEN WEB WILL FIGHT on the economy of developing and sustaining the forces nature can provide. We need to change
way to work... THE UHI-EFFECT our attitude on how we manage our cities...
S T R E E T - S C A P E - D E L I G H T S
The importance we give our senses Changing from private to public transportation
Three factors defines landscape : Assuming fuels for private car use will be unattrac-
As the City of Malmø already has established not like this.... but maybe like this....
(in Ian Thompson´s theory) tively expencive in the future and that this will
guidelines and directives to manage run-
Ecology make the use of private transportation less impor-
off in a sustainable way, taking the use of
tant, I fokus on alternative use of space in the
rainwater (and maybe greywater?) to the next
Community street-scape regarding amount of space for carpark-
slow water background level is much closer in time than in other
ing, number of lanes needed for cars in a street etc.
for activity and cities as the political currage is of high
Delight reflection standard, and the bureaucracy prosesses and
Using this space to recive, treat and experience wa-
cooperation between departments in the city
It is obvious that delights have a key ter gives a city and its inahabitans and wisitors a
is alrady established. Taking this to any
role in giving identity to the urban lot more back. vegetated roofing desired level of good management with nature
landscape. This assumption means that It brings life into the streets on a hole new level. and surfaces seems possible.
landscape aestetic and its enhancement
Repeating the most important goals
should be considered beyond its visual fountains and water-
streams rinsing water regarding SUR-management of the City of Malmø
aspects, in combination with other di-
: The natural water balance shall not be af-
mentions of the urban environment. The
fected by the urbanization
balance between natural environment and
: Pollutants shall be kept away from the ur-
human societies has always
ban runoff (source control of pollutants),
existed in societies;
and part of the pollutants in the runoff re-
and searching for delight and asthet-
moved along its way to the receiving waters.
ics, delight and balance of human tasks
: The drainage system shall be designed to
and their environmental relationship,
avoid harmful backing up of water in the ex-
has always been considered in such a
isting drainage system.
way that man can live comfortably with ponds / recipient variation in waterways : Stormwater shall wherever possible be
nature. (From Thompson´s point of view
looked upon as a positive resource in
“Ecology” is one of the effective ele-
the urban landscape (from the document
ments in landscape).
“BlueGreenFingerprints” by Peter Stahre)
bikepaths/ waterways/ponds : industrial/lagre warehouse sites: trees : broad side- public gardens : urban waterways/ bikepaths/ accesible trees :
lanes : walks : “furnishing” : ponds : pedestrian bus-stops/
-movement -use of green roofing, gravel pits -shadow -brings action lanes : prioritized -shadow
to ensure -collecting runoff with vegetation and connecting -decrease wind space for in to space -attractors/ -movement bus-lanes : -decrease wind
quick -holding water runoff stream to waterways -rain shelter interaction -education background for -collecting run to ensure -rain shelter
travel -play -use of trees and bushery to fight -evaporation and play -time in space social encoun off quick to ensure -evaporation
-cleansing UHI-effect -Co2 binding -sosial encoun- ters -holding water travel quick and -Co2 binding
-penetratable surfaces for water -fighting UHI-effect ters -relaxation -play easy -fighting UHI-effect
to “disappare” -absorbes water from -fighting UHI- -reflection -cleansing travel -absorbes water from
runoff effect -play runoff
creates space creates space
situation one :
Møllevångstorget, the marketplace
Møllevångstorget, the marketplace. Impor-
Turning the mentality Important location in Malmø due to many
tant location in Malmø due to many layers of
around from the exist- activity.Main traffic- lane; traffik bus-
layers of activity.Main several lane;
ing pricing system of lines passes. Close by is the second most is th
several bus-lines passes. Close by
the realestate market and important bus-connecting station, after the sta
second most important bus-connecting
domination of the pri- central after the central the experience
tion, station.Meltingpot; station.
vate carpark, to a sys- of the cultural diversity of Malmø is very
Meltingpot; the experience of the cultur
tem based on the thoughts accessible here.
al diversity of Malmø is very accessable
of use and valuation of here.
land in a broader specter,
bringing in cost of loss
Møllevångens skola, childrens school
of nature-services like close to the most important park in school
Møllevångens skola, childrens Malmø.
cleaning water, food pro- A location the mostfor introducing a neigh-
close to suitable important park in Malm
duction, cleaning air and bourhood urban garden project where neigh- a
A location suitable for introducing
holding Co2, habitats and bours and the children in the school to- where
neighbourhood urban garden project
biodiversity; change can gether with the passersby can share athe schoo
neighbours and the children in daily
happen, Slowly Malmø is experience and interaction in a “garden of
together with the passersby can share a
transforming from beeing daily experience and interaction in a
a car-dominated city into “garden of delight”-environment.
beeing a city for people.
Undeveloped spaces, car- 3
3 situation3 : :behind
parking, broad streets situation3
Large parkingspace Triangelen shop-
(f.ex existing 4 laned 3 2 Large parkingspace behind Triangelen sho
pingmall. Becomes a new square and a very
streets), existing parks pingmall. Becomes aMalmø when the and a ver
important location in new square city-
and small green urban important location in Malmø when be- cit
line (fastrail underground connection the
rooms becomes a part of tween Centralstation and Øresunds bridge is
line (fastrail underground connection be
finished. Situation today pays little honour
this blue-green web. tween Centralstation and Øresunds bridge
to the church situated here.
Richer neighbourhoods de- is finished. Situation today pays little
velope and attracts people honour to the church situated here.
to the streets
1 sit.one: 2 sit.two: 3 sit.three:
Exstrusive green roofing on all The today empty space between With new significance
buildings surrounding the the school of Møllevången and this space is trans-
marketplace.Water and bike- an apartment building is trans- formed into a large
formed into an urban garden green square with a
/pedestrian paths pass the
project. An urban space for pond and waterstair
square. All the runoff is to clean the water
cleaned locally around the interaction between residents,
buildings (small private projects) children and people passing by.
Arriving with the new
and then pass through a A different place that changes cityline one enters a
caracter through the day and untraditional public
medium sized pond, with
seasons. space where water is
a fountain to keep sirculation
The water is cleaned in pools and given a new role.
in the water, surrounded by
waterstairs that shoots out be- The backside of the
trees for sunshelter in the tween the parcels,filled with dif- mall suddenly becomes
summer.The trees and fountain ferent sediments and plants that the new frontside and
makes a nice space to gather remove pollutants and nutrients the church is suddenly
around in the today quiet washed of the city surface. located in spacious
corner of the square. A long stairway crosses the aera. surroundings.
GROWING GREEN VEINS lCITYuAS aBIOTOPE
a r _ v e
transforming: IN THE GREY STREETSCAPE l+a4 u7 r9a1 @ 0 5 1 n 5
v e .