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201203021 comphumanities 2012 lm (nlp)

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NLP and Language Challenge

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201203021 comphumanities 2012 lm (nlp)

  1. 1. Informatica Umanistica LMEditing e analisi del Documento Digitale (Natural Language Processing) stefano.lariccia@uniroma1.it 21 marzo 2012 30 maggio 2012 - Stefano Lariccia – Digilab – Open Giovanni Toffoli Knowledge Sapienza Università di Roma Link Informatica Ricerca e Sviluppo
  2. 2. Introduzione al corso• La storia della tecnologia dell’ultimo secolo ci ha abituato ad una sequenza impressionante di conquiste• L’evoluzione della tecnologia sembra essere governata da leggi e modelli – come la legge di Kurzweil dei ritorni accelerati - che sono un fenomeno uovo nell’orizzonte delle società umane• Gli ingredienti fondamentali di questo percorso sono: 1. La macchina universale o (macchina di Turing) 2. Gli algoritmi 3. Le reti ed i grafi 4. Gli automi 5. L’intelligenza diffusa 6. Il concetto di Società Aperta e di Conoscenza come Bene Comune 7. Gli Standard per la interoperabilità 8. L’ estremizzazione del concetto di «universale» 9. La virtualizzazione e le metafore ad essa correlate 10. La Progettualità evolutiva, il desiderio di anticipare il futuro (teleologia inversa)
  3. 3. NLP Lectio [1]• Internet e soprattutto l’avvento del WorldWideWeb, hanno creato un ecosistema linguistico /concettuale ai cui sviluppi attendono ormai milioni di ricercatori.• E in questo ecosistema, giornalmente alimentato dai prodotti del metabolismo culturale planetario, sfruttandone l’analisi statistica, con l’ausilio di potenti automi addestrati al symbol crunching – masticazione di simboli:• dalla comprensione dei linguaggi, all’analisi lessicale, all’estrazione di significato), si possono sviluppare branche del sapere oggi ancora ignote e difficilmente immaginabili per il vasto pubblico, ma cariche di interessi e di potenzialità sia sul piano economico - applicativo che sul piano logico-cognitivo.
  4. 4. Lectio [2]• L’avvento di queste opportunità, come suggerisce la legge dei ritorni accellerati di Kurzweil, è prevedibile in tempi molto rapidi, tempi che corrispondono alla durata di un corso di laurea quinquennale.• E le potenzialità di cui riferiamo sono di grande interesse proprio, tra gli altri, per gli umanisti che per primi hanno inaugurato e tradizionalmente coltivato l’analisi critica dei testi e dei segni come maestria artigianale fondamentale per attendere all’ interpretazione della storia umana e per tentare con mezzi sempre più sofisticati il progetto della “visione del futuro”.
  5. 5. NLP Lectio [4]NLTK Tutorial: Introduction to NaturalLanguage ProcessingSteven Bird Ewan KleinEdward Loper• Revision 1.66, 7 Apr 2005• Copyright © 2005• This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike• License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ or• send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.The single and shortest definition of civilization may be the word language...Civilization, if it meanssomething concrete, is the conscious but unprogrammed mechanism bywhich humans communicate.And through communication they live with each other, think, create, and act.—John Ralston Saul
  6. 6. NLP Lectio [5]1. The Language Challenge• Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Language is the chief manifestation of human intelligence.Through language we express basicneeds and lofty aspirations, technical know-how and flightsof fantasy. Ideas are shared over greatseparations of distance and time.
  7. 7. NLP Lectio [6]1. The Language Challenge• Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.The following samples from English illustrate the richness oflanguage:1.a. Overhead the day drives level and grey, hiding the sun by a flight of grey spears.(William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying, 1935)b. When using the toaster please ensure that the exhaust fan is turned on. (sign indormitory kitchen)c. Amiodarone weakly inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4-mediated activitieswith Ki values of 45.1-271.6 µM (Medline)d. Iraqi Head Seeks Arms (spoof headline,http://www.snopes.com/humor/nonsense/head97.htm)e. The earnest prayer of a righteous man has great power and wonderful results.(James5:16b)
  8. 8. NLP Lectio [7]1. The Language Challenge• Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.The following samples from English illustrate the richness oflanguage:1.a. Overhead the day drives level and grey, hiding the sun by a flight of grey spears.(William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying, 1935)b. When using the toaster please ensure that the exhaust fan is turned on. (sign indormitory kitchen)c. Amiodarone weakly inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4-mediated activitieswith Ki values of 45.1-271.6 µM (Medline)d. Iraqi Head Seeks Arms (spoof headline,http://www.snopes.com/humor/nonsense/head97.htm)e. The earnest prayer of a righteous man has great power and wonderful results.(James5:16b)
  9. 9. NLP Lectio [8]1. The Language Challenge• Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.The importance of language to science and the arts ismatched in significance by the culturaltreasure that is inherent in language. Each of the world’s~7,000 human languages is rich in uniquerespects, in its oral histories and creation legends, down toits grammatical constructions and itsvery words and their nuances of meaning. Threatenedremnant cultures have words to distinguishplant subspecies according to therapeutic uses which areunknown to science.
  10. 10. NLP Lectio [9]1. The Language Challenge• Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Languages evolve over time as they come into contact with eachother and they provide a unique window onto humanpre-history. Technological change gives rise to new words likeweblog and new morphemes like e- and cyber-. In many parts ofthe world, small linguistic variations from one town to the nextadd up to a completely different language in the space of a half-hour drive.For its breathtaking complexity and diversity, human language isas a colourful tapestry stretching through time and space.
  11. 11. NLP Lectio [10]1. The Language Challenge• Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Languages evolve over time as they come into contact with eachother and they provide a unique window onto humanpre-history. Technological change gives rise to new words likeweblog and new morphemes like e- and cyber-. In many parts ofthe world, small linguistic variations from one town to the nextadd up to a completely different language in the space of a half-hour drive.For its breathtaking complexity and diversity, human language isas a colourful tapestry stretching through time and space.
  12. 12. Resources and referencesResource type and name: References:Plone; A definitive Guide to PloneExe LO Editor Manual http://wikieducator.org/Online_manual/E mbedding_eXe_resources

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