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1
Quest Design in SL
Chinese School
MinnSU Koga
Dongping Zheng, Ph.D.
SLanguages 2008
EduNation II – Seminar Space
Chinese School –
http://slurl.com/secondlife/Chinese
%20School/76.0/160.0
2
Background
 Content-based and activity-based language
learning (Brown et al., 1989; Snow, 2004;
Kasper, 2000, Ellis,2003; Nakahama,Tyler, &
Van Lier,2001)
 Embodied experiences (Gee, 2004; Young,
2004, 2005 ; Hirose, 2003)
Literal understanding vs. Understanding and
Meaning-making
“Play” that can give situation-specific
meanings to the styles of language
associated with that domain
3
Background II
 Ecological Psychology (Gibson, 1979;Young, 2004)
Affordance/effectivity
Perception-action
Goals and intentions
Attunement
 Ecological Linguistics (Van Lier, 2004)
Relationship
Context
Patterns
Emergence
Activity
4
Virtual Worlds and
How People Learn
 Second life type of environments resonate
with the situated and socio-cultural camp of
how people learn (Brown, Collins, & Duguid,
1989; Greeno, 1997;Hutchins, 1993; Lave,
1993; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Roth & Bowen,
1995; Suchman, 1987; Van Lier, 2004), :
 These environments also support objectivist
approach of learning
5
Situated Assessment Young, M. F., Kulikowich, J. M., & Barab, S. A. (1997). The
unit of analysis for situatedassessment. Instructional
Science, 25(2), 133-150.
 Kulikowich, J. M., & Young, M. F. (2001). Locating an
ecological psychology methodology for situated action.
Journal of the Learning Sciences, 10(1 & 2), 165-202.
 Zheng, D. (2006). Affordances of a 3D Virtual Environment
for English Language Learning: An Ecological Psychological
Analysis. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of
Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
http://msu.edu/~zhengdo/dissertation.htm
 Barab, S., Hay, K., & Yamagata-Lynch(2001). Constructing
networks of Action-relevant episodes: An in situ research
methodology. The Journal of Learning Sciences, 10(1&2),
63–112.
 Loh, C. S. (2007). Designing online games assessments as
“information trails”. In G. Gibson, C., Aldrich, & M. Prensky
(2007) (Eds.), Games and simulations in online leanring:
Research and development frameworks (pp.323-365).
Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
6
Current Methods
 Methods for understanding MMOGs and
learning environments?
Case study, conversation analysis,
discourse analysis bots, interview/observ,
…
What data are available to be used?
New ideas- Data visualization (Borner &
Penumarthy (2003)
Concepts- Designing for Log file
analysis
7
Visualizing Persistent trails/trajectories
can range from: (Loh, 2007)
From
 Open-ended and non-
linear (Constructivist
approach)
 Hands-on manipulation
(e.g., virtual rocket,
virtual chemical lab)
 Guided approach (with
virtual mentor or
pedagogic agent)
 Team-based game play
(collaborative learning)
To:
 Close-ended and
completely linear
(instructivist approach)
 Hands-off observations
(watching a colony of ants
or pre-recorded media)
 Free roaming (exploratory)
 Single player mode
(individualistic)
8
BG’s Trajectory
9
Get to the point
 Design
Quests: problem
based challenges
for absolute
beginners
 Learning and Development
Meaningful two-way social
interaction
Embodied Experience
Emerging goals
Resource provider
Novice to expert learners
10
A Sample Quest for Beginning Level - I
 Lesson 6B: Retrieve Emperor
Yue , Goujian’s Sword
 Zhǎo Yuèwáng GōuJiàn de jiàn
 找 越王 勾践 的 剑
At the museum (3 right clues)
At the tall building (1 good clues, one
useless clues)
Behind Beijing hotel (2 right clues, 1 false
one)
At the 静香亭 ( 1 right clue, 2 false
clues)
Scaffolding the actual process of interaction
from moment to moment
11
Scaffolding interaction through Negotiation for
Action (Zheng, Young, Wagner, & Brewer, forthcoming) :
Language is both embodied and dialogical
 Tyler: I am going to check the mall, so, 我去看看
mall.
 Kassandra: 好的 .
 Dongping: 你在哪儿呢 ? Kassandra.
 Kassandra: 我在这儿 .
 Dongping: 哦 , 在三楼 . Tyler, where are you?
 Kassandra: He is in the mall.
 Tyler: 在北京饭店 , 在我的北京饭店 .
 Tyler: What is the tower over there called?
 Wangjian: 大雁塔 .
12
BG’s Sword Quest Trajectory
13
“Learner’s identity are not ready-made ahead of
time, but renegotiated, reconstructed and
“updated” in every encounter” (van Lier, 2004)
14
 Tyler: wo3 de shou3 ti2 bao1 shi4 hei1 se4
de.
 Alex: qing3 wen4 ni3 jiao4 shen2 me ming2
zi4?
 Tyler: wo3 jiao4 Li3 Fang1.
 Alex: qing3 kan4 zhe4 shi4 ni3 de shou3 ti2
bao1 ma?
 Tyler: dui4, shi4 wo3 de. Zhen1 shi4 tai4
hao3 le. Wo3 zhong1 yu2 zhao3 dao4 le.
Expert-novice AND Symmetrical Relationship
15
“Improvisation is the fuel of autonomy in
learning” (van Lier, 2004)
16
Learners’ Organize their own Learning
 Numbers
 0 ling
 1 yi or yao
 2 er
 3 san
 4 si4 (suh)
 5 wu3
 6 liu1 also wine
 7 qi1 (ch-ee)
 8 ba1
 9 jiu3
 10 shi1
 11 shi yi
 20 er shi
 go qu4
 fu2 dao4 le - the upside down fu
 greeting during the new year's -
Gangxi facái! (wish for large sums
of money)
 bedroom wo4shi4
 bathroom = wei4sheng1jian1
 balcony = yang2tai2
 kitchen == chufang
 over there == na4li3
 shao1 deng3 == "wait a moment"
 deng3 == wait
 shao == a moment, or short time
 cha2 == to check
 yao4 shi == key
 ye == also (comes BEFORE
sentence)
17
Prolepsis: Assume the learners already
have the abilities we and they wish to
develop (van Lier, 2004)
 “The quests force to think about languages
and responses, you are almost forced to
learn it. I never would have thought about
what I was actually doing, just answer the
questions in my French class”
 “the sentence structure is so different, once
I get over with that, I think my brain has
adapted to something of different ways of
thinking something”
18
Fun yet Challenging (listen to 4/18
interview)
 Kassandra: He saw one man, 一个男人 , 他的个
子高吗 ? 挺高的 , 挺高的 . What is that? Alex, are
you good at this? 挺高的 . We just did that. I can
hear they are laughing, it scared me.
 Dongping: No, Kassandra, this is so much fun to
see you guys work together and learn things. I am
happy, not laughing at you.
 Kassandra: No, I know that you are laughing at us,
but it is just so funny. You are laughing with us,
cause we are all having fun.
19
How do Novices Get there?
 Beyond encoding-decoding, memorization
(Brooks & Donato, 1994); “difficulties” and
“problems” (Firth &Wagner, 2007)
 Repeated practice, feedback, social
interaction, picking up invariants
(e.g., Black, 2005, 2006; Lam, 2004, 2005,
2006, Zheng, 2004); Resources and
success (Firth & Wagner, 2007; Thorne,
forthcoming)
20
From Novice to Expert
(From Stumbling to Automatic)
21
Discussion and Questions
 So What makes learning so different in
Second Life Chinese School?
22
slanguages.net
SLanguages 2008
This presentation was given at
SLanguages 2008
The Conference for Language
Education in Virtual Worlds

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SLanguages2008 Chinese School

  • 1. 1 Quest Design in SL Chinese School MinnSU Koga Dongping Zheng, Ph.D. SLanguages 2008 EduNation II – Seminar Space Chinese School – http://slurl.com/secondlife/Chinese %20School/76.0/160.0
  • 2. 2 Background  Content-based and activity-based language learning (Brown et al., 1989; Snow, 2004; Kasper, 2000, Ellis,2003; Nakahama,Tyler, & Van Lier,2001)  Embodied experiences (Gee, 2004; Young, 2004, 2005 ; Hirose, 2003) Literal understanding vs. Understanding and Meaning-making “Play” that can give situation-specific meanings to the styles of language associated with that domain
  • 3. 3 Background II  Ecological Psychology (Gibson, 1979;Young, 2004) Affordance/effectivity Perception-action Goals and intentions Attunement  Ecological Linguistics (Van Lier, 2004) Relationship Context Patterns Emergence Activity
  • 4. 4 Virtual Worlds and How People Learn  Second life type of environments resonate with the situated and socio-cultural camp of how people learn (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997;Hutchins, 1993; Lave, 1993; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Roth & Bowen, 1995; Suchman, 1987; Van Lier, 2004), :  These environments also support objectivist approach of learning
  • 5. 5 Situated Assessment Young, M. F., Kulikowich, J. M., & Barab, S. A. (1997). The unit of analysis for situatedassessment. Instructional Science, 25(2), 133-150.  Kulikowich, J. M., & Young, M. F. (2001). Locating an ecological psychology methodology for situated action. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 10(1 & 2), 165-202.  Zheng, D. (2006). Affordances of a 3D Virtual Environment for English Language Learning: An Ecological Psychological Analysis. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. http://msu.edu/~zhengdo/dissertation.htm  Barab, S., Hay, K., & Yamagata-Lynch(2001). Constructing networks of Action-relevant episodes: An in situ research methodology. The Journal of Learning Sciences, 10(1&2), 63–112.  Loh, C. S. (2007). Designing online games assessments as “information trails”. In G. Gibson, C., Aldrich, & M. Prensky (2007) (Eds.), Games and simulations in online leanring: Research and development frameworks (pp.323-365). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
  • 6. 6 Current Methods  Methods for understanding MMOGs and learning environments? Case study, conversation analysis, discourse analysis bots, interview/observ, … What data are available to be used? New ideas- Data visualization (Borner & Penumarthy (2003) Concepts- Designing for Log file analysis
  • 7. 7 Visualizing Persistent trails/trajectories can range from: (Loh, 2007) From  Open-ended and non- linear (Constructivist approach)  Hands-on manipulation (e.g., virtual rocket, virtual chemical lab)  Guided approach (with virtual mentor or pedagogic agent)  Team-based game play (collaborative learning) To:  Close-ended and completely linear (instructivist approach)  Hands-off observations (watching a colony of ants or pre-recorded media)  Free roaming (exploratory)  Single player mode (individualistic)
  • 9. 9 Get to the point  Design Quests: problem based challenges for absolute beginners  Learning and Development Meaningful two-way social interaction Embodied Experience Emerging goals Resource provider Novice to expert learners
  • 10. 10 A Sample Quest for Beginning Level - I  Lesson 6B: Retrieve Emperor Yue , Goujian’s Sword  Zhǎo Yuèwáng GōuJiàn de jiàn  找 越王 勾践 的 剑 At the museum (3 right clues) At the tall building (1 good clues, one useless clues) Behind Beijing hotel (2 right clues, 1 false one) At the 静香亭 ( 1 right clue, 2 false clues) Scaffolding the actual process of interaction from moment to moment
  • 11. 11 Scaffolding interaction through Negotiation for Action (Zheng, Young, Wagner, & Brewer, forthcoming) : Language is both embodied and dialogical  Tyler: I am going to check the mall, so, 我去看看 mall.  Kassandra: 好的 .  Dongping: 你在哪儿呢 ? Kassandra.  Kassandra: 我在这儿 .  Dongping: 哦 , 在三楼 . Tyler, where are you?  Kassandra: He is in the mall.  Tyler: 在北京饭店 , 在我的北京饭店 .  Tyler: What is the tower over there called?  Wangjian: 大雁塔 .
  • 12. 12 BG’s Sword Quest Trajectory
  • 13. 13 “Learner’s identity are not ready-made ahead of time, but renegotiated, reconstructed and “updated” in every encounter” (van Lier, 2004)
  • 14. 14  Tyler: wo3 de shou3 ti2 bao1 shi4 hei1 se4 de.  Alex: qing3 wen4 ni3 jiao4 shen2 me ming2 zi4?  Tyler: wo3 jiao4 Li3 Fang1.  Alex: qing3 kan4 zhe4 shi4 ni3 de shou3 ti2 bao1 ma?  Tyler: dui4, shi4 wo3 de. Zhen1 shi4 tai4 hao3 le. Wo3 zhong1 yu2 zhao3 dao4 le. Expert-novice AND Symmetrical Relationship
  • 15. 15 “Improvisation is the fuel of autonomy in learning” (van Lier, 2004)
  • 16. 16 Learners’ Organize their own Learning  Numbers  0 ling  1 yi or yao  2 er  3 san  4 si4 (suh)  5 wu3  6 liu1 also wine  7 qi1 (ch-ee)  8 ba1  9 jiu3  10 shi1  11 shi yi  20 er shi  go qu4  fu2 dao4 le - the upside down fu  greeting during the new year's - Gangxi facái! (wish for large sums of money)  bedroom wo4shi4  bathroom = wei4sheng1jian1  balcony = yang2tai2  kitchen == chufang  over there == na4li3  shao1 deng3 == "wait a moment"  deng3 == wait  shao == a moment, or short time  cha2 == to check  yao4 shi == key  ye == also (comes BEFORE sentence)
  • 17. 17 Prolepsis: Assume the learners already have the abilities we and they wish to develop (van Lier, 2004)  “The quests force to think about languages and responses, you are almost forced to learn it. I never would have thought about what I was actually doing, just answer the questions in my French class”  “the sentence structure is so different, once I get over with that, I think my brain has adapted to something of different ways of thinking something”
  • 18. 18 Fun yet Challenging (listen to 4/18 interview)  Kassandra: He saw one man, 一个男人 , 他的个 子高吗 ? 挺高的 , 挺高的 . What is that? Alex, are you good at this? 挺高的 . We just did that. I can hear they are laughing, it scared me.  Dongping: No, Kassandra, this is so much fun to see you guys work together and learn things. I am happy, not laughing at you.  Kassandra: No, I know that you are laughing at us, but it is just so funny. You are laughing with us, cause we are all having fun.
  • 19. 19 How do Novices Get there?  Beyond encoding-decoding, memorization (Brooks & Donato, 1994); “difficulties” and “problems” (Firth &Wagner, 2007)  Repeated practice, feedback, social interaction, picking up invariants (e.g., Black, 2005, 2006; Lam, 2004, 2005, 2006, Zheng, 2004); Resources and success (Firth & Wagner, 2007; Thorne, forthcoming)
  • 20. 20 From Novice to Expert (From Stumbling to Automatic)
  • 21. 21 Discussion and Questions  So What makes learning so different in Second Life Chinese School?
  • 22. 22 slanguages.net SLanguages 2008 This presentation was given at SLanguages 2008 The Conference for Language Education in Virtual Worlds

Editor's Notes

  1. Gee (2004) argued that academic language is not really lucid or meaningful if one has no embodied experiences within which to situate its meanings in specific ways. The call for content-based foreign language learning, given its value for contextualized language learning, has put forth challenges as well as opportunities for curriculum designers to design learning environments where not only literal understanding can occur but also more importantly meaning-making is the central tenet of evaluating learning outcomes. In other words, such environments would allow people to “play” in a domain in such a way that they can give situation-specific meanings to the styles of language associated with that domain (Gee, 2004). Gee called such experience as embodied experience, without which, learners would be filled with confusion, and questions. This embodied experience reflects the ecological psychology fundamental of the interaction of agent and environment, which is a whole-body embedded in the lived-in world experience (Young, 2004a). Ecological psychology, specifically the key concepts of affordance/effectivity, perception-action, goals and intentions, were applied in this paper to explain and analyze how language learning experiences are embodied in Quest Atlantis with different perspectives of data. The dual nature of perception and action is viewed as embodiment which focuses on the demonstration of how cognition is embodied in the physical, real body (Hirose, 2003).
  2. This embodied experience reflects the ecological psychology fundamental of the interaction of agent and environment, which is a whole-body embedded in the lived-in world experience (Young, 2004a). Ecological psychology, specifically the key concepts of affordance/effectivity, perception-action, goals and intentions, were applied in this paper to explain and analyze how language learning experiences are embodied in Quest Atlantis with different perspectives of data. Ecological Linguistics (Van Lier, 2004) Language as relationship between people and the world, affordance signals an opportunity for action Context defines language, meaning emerges in a context Patterns, not rules but “patterns that connect” Emergence, not linear, accumulation, of objects, but transformation, growth and reorganization Activity, not object, but in the world; authorship, emotionally connected to action and speech, and to community A community of practice in which the learners go about the business of learning by carrying out activities of various kinds, working together, side by side, or on their own. In this ecosystem, learners are autonomous, i.e. they are allowed to define the meaning of their own acts with their social contexts.
  3. Second life type of environments resonate with the situated and socio-cultural camp of how people learn By exploration (experiential learning, e.g., reading, colony of ants) With intention and attention (problem-based, project-based) By perception and action (pick up and use the language for authentic communication and actions) By participation (interaction, collaboration, cooperation) These environments also support objectivist approach of learning Teacher guided hands-off observations Repeated drills and practice Exposed with large amount of input
  4. From a situative perspective, assessments and methodological approaches that focus solely on the individual learner are necessarily limited, and will fail to provide the rich contextual descriptions of knowing about that are so fundamental to situative conceptions of cognition. However, in spite of the intuitive and theoretical appeal of situated cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997; Hutchins, 1993; Lave, 1993; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Roth & Bowen, 1995; Suchman, 1987), there have been few attempts to develop methodologies for making sense of how learner understandings are constructed and are grounded across contextual particulars that occur over extended time frames (see Roth, 1998, for an exception).
  5. <number>
  6. Two-way interaction in order to contribute to the synergy of collaboration.
  7. 1.Students must be set up to facilitate guided action, since new departures must occur in a safe and familiar context. 2. Teachers and learners must carefully watch for opportunities to depart, expand, elaborate and improvise and during those opportunies, a handover/takeover/fading must be effected, so that the new emerges from the known, but on the initiative of the learner.
  8. It is within the inter-flow and emergence of individual and environment that meaning and intelligent action can be located (Swenson, 1999; Barab & Plucker, 2002; Barab & Roth, 2006; Clark, 2001, van Lier, 1996, 2004). The dual nature of perception and action is viewed as embodiment which focuses on the demonstration of how cognition is embodied in the physical, real body (Hirose, 2003).
  9. The dual nature of perception and action is viewed as embodiment which focuses on the demonstration of how cognition is embodied in the physical, real body (Hirose, 2003).
  10. Students in SL seem to be ready to take up challenges that outside the requirements of the curriculum. Learners are moving from peripheral participation to central participation. The environment with multiply affordances also provided more information for learners to engage in and extend their knowledge.
  11. Bet and Liz engaged in different kinds of meaning-making, they were co-writing a story. The Co-quest design created the opportunity in high level collaboration on content. Because of this purposeful co-quest design, both NES and NNES were able to mobilize their cultural experience, and in this context, they, by using English, co-wrote the story and negotiation their cultural identity.
  12. Scaffolding occurs in the variable rather tan the rule-constrained parts of the game. Where rules end, that where the games become variable.
  13. What can we learn from dancing to help with language learning