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Tata Kelola Internet Global

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Kuliah Umum untuk Komunikasi Global, Universitas Indonesia

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Tata Kelola Internet Global

  1. 1. Tata Kelola InternetTata Kelola Internet GlobalGlobal Kuliah umum, Universitas IndonesiaKuliah umum, Universitas Indonesia 20 November 201520 November 2015 Shita Laksmi Anggota Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) di PBB untuk Internet Governance Forum @slaksmi, shitalaksmi.com
  2. 2. Why Matters?Why Matters? Internet sudah mengguncang identitas dan peran dari: Pemerintah Batas negara Kedaulatan negara
  3. 3. Domain Name SystemDomain Name System
  4. 4. 13 DNS root server: 10 di Amerika,1 di Swedia, 1 di Belanda dan 1 di Jepang
  5. 5. Siapa yang berperan?Siapa yang berperan? ICANN – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force Lembaga non profit yang tugas paling kelihatan adalah pengaturan domain name system dan root servers. ICANN berdiri tahun 1998 dan berada dibawah Department of Commerce, Amerika Serikat •Menentukan standard Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol* *alamat unik yang harus dimiliki oleh setiap alat untuk terhubung dengan Internet
  6. 6. Kebijakan InternasionalKebijakan Internasional • Kerangka kebijakan internasional di Tata Kelola Internet (dan juga telekomunikasi):  PBB: World Summit on Information Society (berserta turunannya, Internet Governance Forum)  PBB: International Telecommunication Union (ITU)  PBB: Sustainable Development Goals (sejak 2015)  Kesepakatan Internasional lain, seperti Trans Pacific Partnership, Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN • Multi dimensi dan penuh negosiasi
  7. 7. Titik penting WSISTitik penting WSIS Peran Amerika yang begitu sentral dan mulai “menganggu” banyak negara lainnya. WSIS adalah, A clash between two models of global governance: one based on agreements among sovereign territorial states; the other based on private contracting among transnational non state actors, but relying in some respects on the global hegemony of a single state. Milton L. Mueller, Networks and States
  8. 8. World Summit on InformationWorld Summit on Information Society (WSIS)Society (WSIS) • Diluncurkan secara “halus” di International Telecommunication Union (ITU)* – tahun 1998 *ITU: anggota adalah negara yang berdaulat • Mengemuka tahun 2000an, kemudian dibuat dua kali pertemuan: Geneva, 2003 Tunis, 2005
  9. 9. OutputsOutputs paling penting:paling penting: • Multistakeholder (pemangku kepentingan majemuk) diakui: pemerintah, kelompok bisnis, civil society organizations dan technical communities. • Tidak ada satu negara yang bisa ambil keputusan terkait kebijakan Internet • Muncul definisi Internet Governance • Civil society mengusung perlunya dialog multistakeholder melalui Internet Governance Forum
  10. 10. 10 tahun kemudian …10 tahun kemudian …
  11. 11. Isu hangatIsu hangat Snowden revelation: security, encryption dan trust Privacy dan perlindungan data pribadi Kebebasan berekspresi dan akses Net neutrality dan zero rating Transisi ICANN dengan menggunakan prinsip multistakeholder – tidak lagi dibawah Amerika WSIS+10 Review tahun ini
  12. 12. Tantangan kedepanTantangan kedepan •Open and Secure Internet •Kelanjutan multistakeholder (Pemerintah, Komunitas Teknis, Organisasi Masyarakat Sipil, Sektor Private) dalam proses kebijakan Internet •Keseimbangan antar negara
  13. 13. ReferensiReferensi • Kurbalija, Jovan: An Introduction to Internet Governance • L. Mueller, Milton M: Networks and States, The Global Politics of Internet Governance • Geneva Internet Platform: Highlight of the Internet Governance Forum 2015
  14. 14. Internet GovernanceInternet Governance • Internet Governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society in their respective roles of shared principles, norms, rules, decision making procedures and programmes that shape the evolution and use of Internet
  15. 15. Safe HarbourSafe Harbour On October 6, the European Court of Justice ruled that the 15-year-old agreement that allowed companies to ship customer data between the E.U. and the U.S. without prior customer permission violated the privacy rights of those customers. In its bombshell decision, the court cited that the U.S. does not provide sufficient protections for personal data and scrapped the agreement. The parties were given three months to come up with something new. Tick tock. Barb Darrow, Fortune: November 17, 2015
  16. 16. Safe HarbourSafe Harbour
  17. 17. Kebebasan BerekspresiKebebasan Berekspresi
  18. 18. Mari diskusi. Terimakasih!!! @slaksmi / shitalaksmi@gmail.com

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