Key themes <ul><li>Theory and research </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Research Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative or quantitative? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asking research questions </li></ul>
What’s wrong with social theory? Herbert Blumer “ Let them renounce their practice of taking in each other’s washing…”
Types of social theories “ The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life…” Dialectical Materialism “ The control of humans over the labour process turns into its opposite and becomes the control of the labour process over the mass of humans..” Labour Process Theory
Deductive versus Inductive “ People born into religious countries will be more religious than those born into secular countries.” Deductive “ My participants said they don’t like ‘traditional’ bar scenes. This means, raves are about rejecting the traditional.” Inductive
Deductive versus Inductive I start with theory. I confirm a hypothesis. I tend to do quantitative research. Deductive I start with data. I infer conclusions from my data. I tend to do qualitative research. Inductive
Ontology What do you think reality actually is? That’s a good question. I guess I should know before I start doing research!
Objectivism I think the social world is something outside of us, something that exists before we even are born.
Constructionism Well I think the social world is something we create everyday. We make it through talking, writing and interacting.
Epistemology Well how did she find that out? I found people like pets in my research.
Positivism I am completely objective in my research. I suppose you also avoid “should” statements
Interpretivism Ah… Ich verstehe ! I think people are different than molecules.
Critical Realism …… … … .. …….. …… I’m pretty sure I’m observing something real here but I don’t think I could predict what will happen in the future.
Research strategy Interpretivism Natural science model Epistemological orientation Constructionism Objectivism Ontological orientation Inductive, generating theory Deductive, testing of theory Role of theory in research Qualitative Quantitative