B1.3 Hormones & Drugs• Revision Workbook• Written by 10XA
Statins Statins are drugs that lower blood cholesterol levels. Cholesterolis a fat that clogs up arteries and veins and if levels get to high it willcause cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease are problems inthe cardiovascular system, such as heart attack and stroke. If all over50’s took statins then 2000 people wouldn’t die prematurely. Scientists have created a new drugwhich counters the effects of cholesterol.These are called statins, and they lower theamount of cholesterol in the bloodstream.Statins also stop your liver creating too muchcholesterol. The best effects from this drug are from well you use them alongside a healthy, low fat diet. Some people think that they send out the wrong message, thatthey allow people to eat badly and get away with it and there are sideeffects such as liver damage and muscle problems.
A Question On Statins.Give the 2 best arguments for and againststatins and explain why you chose these.
Evaluate the arguments of the use of PED’s By Felix Osborn and Siji Oyenekan
The use of PED’sPED’s are secretly used throughout theworld, from sports to bodybuilders. PED’s areused by sports stars because they want to beattheir competitors and gain respect but it ruinsthe enjoyment of viewing sport and it is badsportsmanship. It can also be bad for you in theshort or long term.
The problems of drug abuse• Drug abuse does not only affect an individual but can also have larger impacts on a national scale this is because millions of people every year take medicine such as statins or smoke or drink alcohol• Drugs have all sorts of health implications and some can be very damaging to an individual for example cannabis can cause mental illness• On the other hand drugs like alcohol are more costly to the NHS and this consequently costs the tax payer more money• It affects businesses as people can turn to crime to pay for their drug addiction• In the UK there are 2,000 deaths a year linked to illegal drugs whereas 9,000 die from alcohol abuse every year and 90,000 people die from smoking every year
Question on drug abuse“drugs like nicotine and alcohol should be outlawed” Explain what problems this could cause
Double-Blind TrialsIn the development of drugs.
What is a double-blind trial? A double blind trial is a test to see how effective a drug is on humans.How does it work? A number of patients with the target disease agree to take part in the trials. They are given a placebo(that doesn’t contain the new drug) or the new drug. Patients and doctors are unaware of whos been given what until the end of the trial. The patients health is monitored carefully.What’s the placebo? The placebo does not contain the new drug however often it contains a drug currently used for treatment. Therefore the patient is not deprived of treatment.
Link the development of drugswith the Double-Blind Trial and explain the process.
Addiction and withdrawal symptomsAddiction is where the drugs change chemicalprocesses in your body, this makes you becomeaddicted to them and you can’t manage properlywithout them. Some drugs such as heroin and cocaineare very addictive.Withdrawal symptoms are when addicts try and stopusing drugs. The symptoms are often, feeling very unwell, they could also haveheadaches, sweating, shaking, and cravings for the drugthey tried to stop using.
Our QuestionDescribe and explain 3 withdrawal symptoms
Gravitropism Phototropism Gravitropism can be seen in roots and shoots. Auxin has Phototropism is the response a different effects on root and plant has towards light. shoot cells. High levels of auxin It can clearly be seen when a make shoot cells grow more but young shoot responds to light from inhibit the growth of root cells. only one side. The shoot will bend This is why roots and shoots towards the light. Auxin moves to respond differently to gravity. the side where the light is falling and to the unlit side . The cells on that side respond to and the hormone and grow until the plant is growing towards the light.AuxinThe responses of plant roots andshoots to light, gravity andmoisture are controlled by ahormone called auxin. Theresponse happens because of anuneven distribution of thishormone in the growing root orshoot. As a result the shootgrows in the right direction.
QuestionExplain the mechanism by which auxin controls aplant’s response to light, gravity and moisture.
Developing new medicines By Alfie Talbot and Dan Allen
Revision page• A new drug needs to be: Effective, Safe, Stable and easy to take into and remove from the body.• To create a new medicine it takes up to 12 years.• It can cost up to 350 million.• Lots of different possible new drugs are tested out, finding whether they are toxic and can do the job.• They are tested on: cells, tissues and whole organs. Also the drug needs to be tested on the sort of person it will be given to e.g. Pregnant woman.Process- once a basic drug has been created it is then tested on animals, ifsigns are positive the drug is then tested on humans in a small dose. Furthertested are carried on until a safe, stable and effective is created.
Question timeWhy must the process for creating a drug takeso long?
Thalidomide• Thalidomide was developed as a sleeping pill in the 1950s.• In those days crucial testing was skipped such as that on pregnant animals.• It was then found to stop morning sickness and seemed to have only positive effects on adults.• Thalidomide was found not to be safe for fetuses.• It caused terrible defects in the babies of women in the earlier stages of pregnancy.• This led to new law that drugs must be treated on pregnant animals to test their effects on fetuses.• Thalidomide was then found to treat leprosy but once again caused serious birth defects.• Its use for treatment on leprosy has now been banned.• However it is now used carefully for people with autoimmune diseases and some cancers.
Question.• Explain the reasons for the ban of Thalidomide to treat leprosy and link that to the use of a legal substance that you think should be banned, with reasons.
Types of Drugs By Altu Mardell & Freddie Linley
Illegal DrugsIllegal drugs are drugs that cannot be purchased bypeople because it has been banned by thegovernment. Some examples are:Depressant drugs are drugs that slow down brainactivity. They make you feel relaxed and you becomemore pronounced with your present attitude.Hallucinogen drugs like cannabis use chemicals thatdistort the brain and confuse it into believing what isnot reality.
Legal DrugsLegal drugs are drugs that are buyable frompharmacys and hospitals, they are used to help withmedical conditions. Some examples are:Caffeine is a drug that in drinks like coffee and Cola.It gives you energy and helps to get you goingthrough the day.Alcohol is a substance that is in alcoholic drinks. It isa depressant and can be addictive.