Final Edited Deliverable

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Final Edited Deliverable

  1. 1. sonic SONIC Research Team | USA| UK | BRA DJCAD | University of Dundee | MSc Design Ethnography
  2. 2. Table of contents You can follow the document’s flow or browse by clicking on the links below. If you wish to get back to this page at any time, click on the home button in the top right hand corner of the page. Introduction Methods and Sample Expert Interviews Desk Research Observations In-Depth Interviews Social Awkwardness Probe Insights Soundscapes Sonic interaction cycle Audible VS Visual stimuli Social aspects Non-verbal communication Awareness Awkwardness Stigmas Conclusion Development guidelines Context awareness Proactive adjustment Wearable devices Concepts Personal assistant Warnings manager 360° Bluetooth Near future Possibilities Areas of further research Appendix Participant profiles Troy B., 20, Male, US Mini M, 22, Female, US Eva B., 34, Female, US Justin S., 35, Male, US Kayla S., 41, Female, US Will M., 42, Male, US Rebecca J., 20, Female, UK Jess A., 20, Female, UK Katy P., 42, Female, UK Carlos G., 23, Male, BR Dani L., 23, Female, BR Doug J., 31, Male, BR Alberto C., 32, Male, BR Fatima B., 35, Female, BR References
  3. 3. Introduction The goal of this research project was to understand how, when, and why people manage voice and other audible commands in public and shared environments; both giving and receiving. The project looked at other affects audible commands may or may not have in such environments and any unwritten social rules that have emerged. We also wanted to discover how users and others around them react and feel while engaging with this technology and if there was any change in behaviour. Topics: 1. How do people manage making or receiving voice or other audible commands in public spaces? 2. How do others around them deal with or feel about audible commands? 3. How are people managing pre-existing soundscapes and the sounds that are brought into the environment? We studied people in three metropolitan locations in the US, the UK, and Brazil using a variety of methods including secondary research, observations, screening surveys, in-depth interviews of experts and general users, along with triggers and probes.
  4. 4. Methods & Sample Expert interviews In-depth interviews Desk research Social awkwardness probe Observations
  5. 5. Methods & Sample USA BRA UK Experts: 1 Disability Specialist & 1 Technology Accessibility Specialist Observations: 6 in public places In-depth interviews: 6 participants Social awkwardness probe: 3 locations Experts: 1 Sound Researcher Observations: 4 in public places In-depth interviews: 5 participants Social awkwardness probe: 1 location Experts: 1 Expert on Sonic Interaction and Sonification and 1 Strategic Designer Observations: 5 in public places In-depth interviews: 3 Participants Social awkwardness probe: 1 location
  6. 6. Methods & Sample | Expert interviews By talking to experts we were able to gather knowledge from those who are experienced in audible technology and sonic interactions outside of the everyday routine of most users. We were aiming for experts in terms of accessibility in technology, interaction design, and sonification. We interviewed: • A disability support specialist from an educational institution. • A technology accessibility specialist from a major technology company. • A PhD specialising in sonic interaction and sonification. • A strategic designer and columnist for a major design portal. • A PhD candidate studying sound interactions.
  7. 7. Methods & Sample | Desk research Observation To help provide background information on our research topic, learn about existing infrastructure, and discover emerging technology we have over 65 references covering: We were interested in comparing different environments with differing levels and types of ambient sounds in public places such as public transportation, outdoor events, parks, and coffee shops. • • • • • • • • Current & future technology in hearing devices, hands-free technology, headphones, and audible technology and interfaces Young people and technology Visual and hearing impaired experiences and technology Sonic interaction design Gestural interaction Designing technology for the future Wearables Soundscapes We spent time observing these environments watching how people audibly interact with their current technology, how those around them react to those interactions, and how the ambient sounds affects those interactions.
  8. 8. Methods & Sample | In-depth interviews These interviews aimed to deeply engage with participants to understand their thoughts, feelings, and expectations towards: • The use of technology and sound in general. • The use of sound to interact with technology. • The use of audible commands in private and public spaces. We also applied probes during the interview to open up our participant’s thinking and explore some themes in more detail: Sound Triggers We wanted to learn how different sounds are perceived by participants to trigger a discussion around how they might manage that particular soundscape and interact with audible technology within it. We used sounds from public transportation, movie theatres, and parks; all recorded by the researchers. Wrist Probe We aimed to understand how people might perceive and use a wrist device either as a replacement to a mobile phone or as a supplemental device.
  9. 9. Methods & Sample | Social awkwardness probe Observations and interviews indicated that people may feel awkward about using audible commands in public spaces. This method was used to observe how the public reacts to people interacting with audible technology with and without visual cues. The aim was to explore the following uses in each probe location: • Talking to the void: Giving audible commands to neither a device nor a person at a normal conversational level. • Talking with the mic hanging: Wearing earphones with a microphone on the wire, giving audible commands without touching it. • Talking to the mic: Holding the microphone next to our mouth, giving an audible command. • Talking to our wrist: Giving an audible command to a watch or bracelet.
  10. 10. Insights Our research raised a series of insights around how people use sonic interfaces and audible commands or may use them in the near future. Soundscapes Social aspects Sonic interaction cycle Non-verbal communication Audible VS Visual stimuli Awareness Awkwardness Stigmas
  11. 11. Insights | Soundscapes Sonic interaction cycle Generated sounds spread in many different directions. Sounds used in human-computer interactions might spread outside the desired area. When sharing the same environment, these noises may be an annoyance for others outside of this interaction. User gives audible command to a machine human human User Surrounding people may get annoyed by the noises generated by both humans and machines machine Machine offers audible information to the user
  12. 12. Insights | Soundscapes Audible VS Visual stimuli Sound seems to offer good interface possibilities for broad warnings that need to draw attention. Visible interfaces appear to be more advisable for concentrated and detail oriented situations. Hearing from all directions Sounds can be used to call someone’s attention to a direction that might be out of their line of sight, when in repetition they might cause stress. It can also be used in situations where your attention is needed elsewhere. Positive implications: Warns about surrounding events out of sight and helps people perceive the unexpected. Negative implications: Sounds out of the vision field might have a startling effect, annoying some people by repetition or loudness. Visible signs are used to call attention to situations that people should be aware of but may not be as urgent compared to a situation that would require an audible warning. Positive implications: Detailed visible information that reassures audible warnings and allows the person to focus on the sign. Negative implications: Exclusive frontal perception by the individual which will lessen the likelihood of perceiving unexpected stimuli. More limited visible area “Environmental sounds can direct our attention or increase our awareness.” - Hermann, 2003 “visual language occupy a limited space in comparison to sound.” - Kim, 2013 “You know when you don’t know where you’re going its nice when the – when it’s telling you where to go – sounds like it knows what it’s talking about. I trusted our SatNav voice” - Will M., 42, US “Because if it’s just on an alert – you can’t really know what the alert’s for unless you have a look back at your calendar to see what it’s for.” - Mini M., 22, US “I don’t like repetitive noises. Like if there is construction work [...] like drills going off over and over again. I hate repetitive noises.” - Dani L, 23, BR
  13. 13. Insights | Social aspects Non-verbal communication People can use devices and gestures to create a non-verbal communication method, letting other people know that they are interacting with some form of technology. An unwritten set of social rules seem to exist around the usage of sound to interact with machines, especially mobile phones. While earpieces usually manage audible communication, a mobile’s screen is used to manage eye-contact. Examples: • Hand to ear - Busy, possibly on the phone. • Holding phone with one hand and looking at it - Busy, possible texting. • Holding smartphone horizontally - Busy, possibly playing a game. People show their non-verbal language skills by creating and managing a personal ‘bubble’ around themselves. This can be done by the way they hold their devices and the way the devices are being used or shown to others. Such barriers rise and fall at the user’s will, making them feel more empowered regarding the social interactions they take part in, especially when in public or shared spaces. “holding it in your hand, looking down, texting – people know you’re texting” - Justin S., 35, US “As a technology for expression, voice works for a much wider range of people than typing, drawing or gesture because it is a natural part of human existence.” - Lee & Grice, 2006 “At work if you are focused at something and someone comes to talk to you. The earphones creates a barrier of someone coming to talk to you, they can only come by visual” - Carlos G., 23, BR
  14. 14. Insights | Social aspects Awareness When people use voice technology in public places, they can become very aware of the noise that they are bringing to the environment. They also become aware of the people around them and worry that others might think that they are ‘crazy’. Noisy environment People have said that they would only use it in already loud or busy environments where others may not necessarily notice that they are speaking to their technology. They would not do it in environments that are seen as ‘quiet’, e.g. buses or libraries, to avoid annoying other people. Another thing people become aware of is other people being able to hear what they are saying. “Unlike Google Glass, [...] a watch won't get you punched in the stomach at a bar or make everyone at a dinner party squirm in their seats.” - Biddle, 2012 “[talking to your phone] is meant to be a private thing. Why would you need to talk to your phone and let everyone know you’re trying to find the nearest blockbuster or something?” - Jess, 20, UK “As long as it’s not a super quiet environment. In the library I probably wouldn’t but yeah. But, like, sitting on the bus I might not but sitting here I would or like walking.” - Eva B., 34, US “You might not want other people to know what you're doing on your phone. And I would feel like I'm disturbing people.” - Rebecca J., 20, UK “I’m afraid people are going to think I’m crazy.” - Justin S., 35, US
  15. 15. Insights | Social aspects Awkwardness Sound may become a source of annoyance because it can easily spread out of a user’s control, possibly bothering surrounding people. Therefore, people might not be comfortable using audible commands near other people. People show concerns about how they are perceived in shared environments. They do seem to avoid drawing too much attention, bothering other people, or triggering awkward situations. It is present in both interaction ways: • Human to machine: It seems that it is not clear if someone is talking to a machine or to someone else in the environment. People may get confused by someone using voice recognition technologies such as Siri from iPhone, Google Now or Speech from Microsoft. • Machine to human: Talking devices may draw attention from surrounding people since it brings an unexpected sound to the environment. As a reaction people tend to isolate themselves when receiving calls and we believe that voice commands might follow this already existing pattern. Katy is a legally blind participant from UK. On two occasions she was asked to leave places because of the audible accessibility features on her phone that reads text messages to her. In these situations she explains that she is doing this out of necessity and not because she wants to. The situation becomes awkward when these people become embarrassed for asking her to leave and not realising she was blind. Katy also feels embarrassed to the point where she doesn't feel she can use the device again as people will stare at her. “If it’s kind of weird or awkward at times you use some manoeuvre like ‘Oh someone just texted me. I have to go call them back’ and take a breather or something like that.” - Mini M., 22, US “it would be really awkward if you were on your phone and it was speaking to you if you were just trying to avoid talking to someone. And they will know that you're not doing anything.” - Jess A., 20, UK
  16. 16. Insights | Social aspects Stigmas The use of sound to interact with technology might be associated with negative social stigmas. Bluetooth headsets: Described as "douchey" by some participants. The classic hands free Bluetooth headset device seems to have gathered a negative reputation since its introduction. • Usually covering one ear - low visual clues of what is happening. • Generates few body gestures, higher level of misunderstandings in the 'with whom is this person talking' situations. • Commonly related to showing off and those who want to appear important, therefore the "douche" connotation. Electronic voices: Speech is an extremely human capability. The “humanisation” of talking devices is a likely consequence. Some people might feel uneasy with it. “God, it just looks so… [you] like such a douche walking around with a thing in your ear like you’re so important. And I hate that society has delivered that image but it has and I have to live with the reality of how I feel about that. I do think that at this point, the whole Bluetooth thing, it shouldn’t be douchey but it is..” - Kayla S., 41, US “I think they [people with Bluetooth headsets] are kind of obnoxious.” - Mini M., 22, US “I always thought it was weird when someone’s walking toward you and sort of talking and you’re like ‘Are they talking to me? Oh no they’ve got something in their ear. They’re talking to someone else.” - Justin S., 35, US “I don’t believe Frida [GPS] that much… Frida is the woman’s name, the nickname we gave her…” - Dani L, 23, BR
  17. 17. Conclusion Development guidelines To conclude our research we want to suggest a series of development guidelines that might be desirable in future services, applications and products. We also present concepts to who how these guidelines could be applied and possible areas of future research. Concepts Near future Context awareness Personal assistant Possibilities Proactive adjustment Warnings manager Areas of further research Wearable devices 360° Bluetooth
  18. 18. Conclusion | Development guidelines Context awareness Context awareness could prevent most social awkward situations related to sound and devices. People feel they need to keep their devices under control as well as feel confident they will behave. Two desires emerged: • They want to be able to program the device to their specifications (when it gives them information, what information it gives, etc.) . • They want the device to be able to understand its own environment (if it’s loud, quiet, formal, informal, etc.). These contexts emerged from the intersection of three variables: • Place - Where it’s happening (workplace, bar, park, etc.). • Time - When it’s happening (day or night, spring or winter, close to a holiday or the birthday of a loved one). • People – Who’s sharing this environment (friends, co-workers, family, etc.). Those with higher levels of intimacy with technology might prefer microphones, cameras, and other sensors be built into devices to help them better understand these contexts. Places Time Context People
  19. 19. Conclusion | Development guidelines Proactive adjustment People would love it if their device were smart enough to listen to the external environment and adjust its own volume as well as know the context in which to give them audible or visual prompts and updates. Some adaptation examples: • In a quiet room or loud environment – switches to vibrate and adjust the volume of the earpiece. • In a place with a moderate level of normal noise – have the ringer and alerts audible at the appropriate level for that environment as well as the volume level of the earpiece. • In a movie theatre – switches to silent mode and comes back to regular mode in a couple of hours. The active control is also important. Devices need to be cleaver, but people want to be able to control the pre-programmed features as well as cancelling them if needed. • They would like to be able to say out loud commands like “stop”, “quiet”, “on”, “off”, etc. • They would also like to be able to turn it off manually using the more common visual and tactile means. Movie theatre Noisy street Car Device Device Device
  20. 20. Conclusion | Development guidelines Wearable devices Discretion Embodiment Customisation People want to manage the attention they receive. Their devices should only stand out if and when they want and as they want. It seems preferable to not call too much attention to them. Devices would allow non-verbal communication where users can express themselves to the surrounding people. Products and applications shall empower existing body language and even encourage the creation of new gestures. Wearing a device might put it into the same realm as clothes and jewellery, increasing its power of expressing ideas and status through style. Therefore, users may expect more customisation options. Reasons: • Indiscreet devices might draw negative judgements about the user from others (e.g. “douchy” Bluetooth headsets). • Loud sonic interactions may cause friction in social situations (e.g. mobile devices in restaurants). • Flashy devices might attract thieves. Reasons: • People use devices and gestures to communicate without words. • Headphones can mean ‘I want to stay by myself’ and a mobile phone by the ear is visually saying ‘I am on a call’. • Bluetooth headsets’ lack of visual and/or gestural clues about its usage may be a barrier for adoption. Reasons: • Jewellery and clothes are worn to express style, devices are probably following the same path. • People may want to use colours and sounds they prefer. • The use of protective cases gives mobile phones a less standard look.
  21. 21. Conclusion | Concepts Personal assistant Guidelines: Context awareness, Proactive adjustment 11:36 12:00 Doctor appointment 16:00 Meeting with 19:30 Dinner at the corner Doctor appointment in 24 minutes What: Core offers and functionalities Small audio feed that acts as your personal assistant throughout the day. You control what you want and need to hear. This device would be connected across multiple platforms to give you the most personal information related to your daily life. Appointments, reminders, and suggestions based on the owner’s data base as a type of audible augmented reality tool. Who: User profile Busy people that like to use technology to simplify life. Why: Motivation To get information right away, making use of the modern, rich data technology for gathering and analysis. How: Implementation The software would need calendar, GPS and other data sources. Most of them present on standard smartphones.
  22. 22. Conclusion | Concepts Warnings manager Guidelines: Context awareness, Proactive adjustment, Customisation Warning lists Star Wars Super Mario Classic instruments Madonna Windows classic Sonic, The Hedgehog Download more… Ringing modes Busy week Lectures Quiet night Download more… What: Core offers and functionalities With an increasing amount of social networks, apps and notification it is hard to manage all them at once. A cross platform app that can manage all audible warnings at the same time, use themes (lightsabers, characters voices, hits from the 80’s, etc), and of course, applying a series of solutions to avoid sonic inconveniences. Who: User profile People that want to use their phone’s sounds to express themselves but don’t want to bother other people. Why: Motivation To easily control all warnings with the same app, change ringtones, and smaller reminder sounds as well as using sound to express themselves through ringtones style. How: Implementation It might be more complicated than other apps and more specific for each platform since it needs to change settings.
  23. 23. Conclusion | Concepts 360° Bluetooth What: Core offers and functionalities Guidelines: Discretion, Embodiment Device can be noticed from all around A high quality Bluetooth headset that can cover both ears. It can be used to answer calls and listen to music. As regular headphones they can be seen from 360 degrees around the wearer therefore minimising confusion and embarrassment for the user and surrounding people when receiving calls. The headset will also have a multi-colour LED light that becomes red when receiving a call. Who: User profile People who want hands-free interactions but are already biased against Bluetooth devices. People who appreciate music and headphones. Device can be worn covering only one ear Microphone Why: Motivation It is necessary to have the option of covering both ears to fully manage social interactions through headsets. This way it is possible to use it to express ‘I am busy’ or ‘I am available’. How: Implementation Basic headphone hardware with microphone.
  24. 24. Conclusion | Near future Possibilities Sound interaction technology is gaining momentum. The stigmas around Bluetooth headsets need to be overcome to fully take advantage of this opportunity. Non-verbal communication is a likely solution. The use of sound to interact with technology is becoming more popular especially as the technology around mobile devices with Siri and others advance. There is heavy usage of wired ear bud style headphones but some participants have complained that the wires simply get in the way. It seems that there is a demand for wireless devices but the stigma around what people traditionally think of as Bluetooth headsets needs to be broken. Non-verbal communication could be the solution. People use their mobile devices and headphones as a form of non-verbal communication to isolate themselves from situations, to show they are talking on the phone, and to show they are unavailable for socialising. What sort of non-verbal cues can we develop to allow for a discreet, wireless headphone usage that won’t fall under the traditional stigmas? “The wires on the headphones are far and away the biggest problem. As a person with long hair and who deals with a lot of backpacks, bags with straps over the shoulders and stuff things get tangled and caught up all the time.” - Kayla, 41, US
  25. 25. Conclusion | Near future Areas of further research Technology adoption can change with the time. We believe more research might be needed within the following themes: • What sort of non-verbal cues can we develop to allow for discreet, wireless headphone usage that won’t fall under the traditional stigmas? • How can current applications be combined into a programmable audible feed? (calendar, GPS, traffic, etc.) • How can existing technology be incorporated to make the device aware of its environment and adjust accordingly? (dB reader, waveform matching, etc.) • What are the privacy issues users might be wary of? • What are the current style trends for users to be able to express themselves while wearing the headphones or earpiece? • What are the future social and cross cultural implications of humanising technology? I.e. what will develop as comfortable and normal as audible technology advances and becomes part of daily lives and mainstream media?
  26. 26. Appendix Participant Profiles Troy B., 20, Male, US Mini M, 22, Male, US Eva B., 34, Female, US Justin S., 35, Male, US Kayla S., 41, Female, US Will M., 42, Male, US Rebecca J., 20, Female, UK Jess A., 20, Female, UK Katy P., 42, Female, UK Carlos G., 23, Male, BR Dani L., 23, Female, BR Doug J., 31, Male, BR Alberto C., 32, Male, BR Fatima B., 35, Female, BR References
  27. 27. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Troy B. Insights Age: 20 His friends and family mainly use text messaging to communicate rather than phone calls. Site: United States Profile: General User People talking in inappropriate situations is irritating no matter if it’s to each other or to technology. He doesn’t like to disturb others when using voice technology. He likes voice technology to help him be hands-free but needs to be able to control what and when he hears it. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “I thought people were going crazy for a while because I would see someone talking to themselves and I wouldn’t see any phone. They don’t have a cell phone in their hand – what the hell are they talking to? And then they turn and ‘Look, they have a Bluetooth.’ Oh, ok.” Bio in brief Troy is a user of Android phones and loves gaming. He recently completed an associate’s degree in Digital Gaming and Media and is looking into pursuing a bachelor’s degree in Computer Science. Participant background Troy is the oldest, by 7 years, of three children. He has a strong interest in game design and computer science. He and his friend are working on an Audio Game concept for the visually impaired or anyone who desires this type of interaction. They envision it being the same experience as the high end video games but in audio interaction form. “To me, it’s just another piece of technology you see more often now days. The only thing I try to be careful with is that I’m not too loud.” “if I hear words or something like that what I’m reading and what I’m hearing start to overlap I start to get confused and jumbled up in my head.” “Like in a classroom where the teacher is talking and you have two other classmates talking behind you it’s irritating.” “You’re able to keep your eyes up and focus on where you’re going compared to trying to read a text message where you’ll almost bump into something – which I’ve almost done before.”
  28. 28. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Mini M. Insights Age: 22 She enjoys sharing videos on her iPhone with friends by letting a friend listen on one of her ear buds. She really likes headphones you can plug together for sharing. Site: United States Profile: General User Having an ear bud in one ear all the time would make her feel half way disconnected from the real world. Bluetooths are ‘obnoxious’ and weird. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “Yeah, my uncle uses one. He always has it on and it’s just like ‘Hey can you get’ and I’m like ‘Oh, yeah, sure, I can get’ and he’s like ‘Oh, I’m not talking to you’ and I’m like ‘oh, alright’ (makes a disappointed face). And we’re at a family gathering and he has his Bluetooth on and it just doesn’t make any sense.” Bio in brief Mini is a basic user of an iPhone 5. She recently upgraded from and iPhone 4 which didn’t have Siri. She is in her last year of a bachelor’s degree in Anthropology and loves to run for fitness. Participant background Mini comes from a large, close knit, family. She has lots of friends in and out of the University of Washington. Photo Credit: Wanhoff, T. Creative Commons “Oh, I put my phone up to my ear. Because our generation now we kind of use texting instead of calling. So calls only last for a minute or two and then everything else is just like holding it right here. (holds phone with two hands in front of her and looks at screen.)” “I feel like, if you put an earpiece in your ear you’re kind of like disconnected halfway through the world – like the real world I guess – just because half your attention is being diverted from what’s actually at hand. Because you could obviously like – because I was thinking a test I could be like (puts finger up to ear) ‘Oh what’s the answer for this one’ and it’s like given to you. I’d prefer not to. Plus a lot of people don’t like the discomfort of actually putting an earpiece in their ear.”
  29. 29. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Eva B. Insights Age: 34 She doesn’t talk on her phone much, prefers texts, and keeps her device silent. Site: United States Her phone is her “mini-computer” so giving that up might be difficult if a new device has a smaller screen. Too big isn’t good, neither is too small. Profile: General User Early Adopter People look weird talking on Bluetooth headsets or walking around talking with the speaker phone and those who talk loudly on phones, no matter the social cues, are annoying. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “It’s kind of weird if people look like they’re just talking to themselves. But it’s not that it’s weird having a Bluetooth – it just takes a couple of looks – like ‘What are they talking’ and then you realize they’re on the phone. I don’t have – it depends on the setting” Bio in brief Eva is a user of audible technology on her Windows phone. She mainly uses it for the voice to call feature and for GPS while in the car and on the motorcycle. She’s tried using it for texting but isn’t happy with the accuracy so texts only with her thumbs. She also enjoys the Xbox Kinect voice and motion technology. Participant background Eva is a hardware engineer for a major technology company in the Seattle area. She’s worked for several large companies in this respect for several years now in different areas of the United States. “I actually kind of like my phone to be quite at me. Like games and stuff – I always turn off the sound and I usually put it on vibrate and stuff and so it doesn’t talk to me too much. And I turned off the feedback on the typing and all that stuff.” “I think [a small ear device] could work, yeah. I think that that’s probably one of those things that if I used it I’d be so used to it I couldn’t live without it but without using it’s not like I feel like I have a need. I don’t feel like ‘Oh, man, I have to hold my phone again.’ You know, it’s not enough that I notice it even. It’s probably something that once I got it I would realize the benefit of it. It’s not something I feel is missing necessarily but I can see the benefit of it.” “I think that would be good as long as it’s set-able… I think that would be kind of cool.”
  30. 30. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Justin S. Insights Age: 35 He can text a message or look for something at the same time as having a conversation with a friend in the room but it becomes complicated if he would have to use his voice to interact with his phone. Site: United States Profile: General User Bluetooth tech started off as ‘showing off, rich, and bougie’ and is now just considered disconcerting. Having a personal device in his ear that gives him updates throughout the day that he could discreetly talk to is exciting to him and something he would love. General Tech Use Audible Tech Use Bio in brief Justin works at a university in Chicago, Illinois - US. He enjoys using audible technology mostly for entertainment as he feels the technology itself isn’t up to what it needs to be to use regularly. He does use the function on his Android for dialing and calling while he drives. He’s looking forward to the day when he can be a “robot” and connect to technology in an audible and hands freeway. Participant background He has a background in secondary education and is a science fiction fan. Quotes “When I’m with other people I really don’t use the technology unless on a road trip or something. I may use it to call,,, but then I’m quite clearly saying I’m not continuing this conversation because I’m going to call mom and tell her were an hour away.” “I always thought it was weird when someone’s walking toward you and sort of talking and you’re like ‘Are they talking to me? Oh no they’ve got something in their ear. They’re talking to someone else’.” “On the one hand… I need to give clear signals of who I’m sending messages to and talking to. On the other hand I’m looking for the evolution beyond this so that it’s all just integrated into our bodies and there are no devices or attachments at all.” “I could just push the button on my steering wheel and say ‘Search for nearest dry cleaner.’ Then it could say ‘There are three dry cleaners nearby here are their phone numbers.’ And then I could say ‘Call that one.’ That would be great. That’s sort of where I’m moving towards wanting to be at.”
  31. 31. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Kayla S. Insights Age: 41 She loves and uses voice technology whenever she can - her hands are often occupied, her job keeps her hands busy, she has “big thumbs”, she’s slow at typing on the phone, and she deals with messy things. Site: United States Profile: Heavy User Earphones, ear buds, and Bluetooth headset don’t fit her ears and often times hurt. She thinks people who wear Bluetooth devices look ‘douchy’. She Likes the voice telling her where to go but finds it annoying when Siri just cuts into a conversation without giving a warning tone. General Tech Use Audible Tech Use Bio in brief Kayla walks dogs for a living and is a heavy user of audible technology. Hands-free technology is important to her in her work and personal life. Participant background She buys new technology products regularly. She has lived in the greater Los Angeles, CA – US area for the majority of her life and currently lives in the city. Quotes “It [functionality] does trump the douchiness. But, when you combine a problem with functionality and its douchy then it’s like ‘screw it.’” “I’m constantly looking for a place to put my phone where I could use it as a speaker phone or just some place where it’s convenient where I don’t have to fumble through my purse [or] my pockets. …anything that makes it more hands free. So I would imagine a Bluetooth device, essentially, but one that you could control. One that you could interact with voice more than you already can.” “This era of communication – constant communication – has really highlighted the problem of ambient noise. Cars driving by, garbage trucks, gardeners, you know all of that. It’s insane.” “[Phones today are] designed to be touched it’s always covered with finger prints… mine always has a nice little slick of make-up on it from resting against my cheek… another thing about voice interaction is that you don’t have to touch it.”
  32. 32. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Will M. Insights Age: 42 He likes the idea of a small earphone that’s comfortable and lets in ambient sound that could give him the updates he chooses throughout the day. Site: United States Profile: General User He loves technology talking back to him, it makes for a much more fun experience. He trusts his GPS voice, it’s like someone is in the car with him helping him go where he needs to go. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “it’s more fun when the program talks back to you. …having the machinery talk back to you and understand what you’re saying is kind of thrilling at this point in our evolution as humans – as technological beings.” Bio in brief Will enjoys his iPhone 5 very much and loves the audible features. He enjoys trying it out and using it for many different things. He thinks of his phone as his “mini-computer”. Participant background Will has a long background of using Apple products. Every computer he’s owned has been an Apple. As soon as Apple came out with the iPhone and his mobile phone contract ended he purchased one. He has upgraded to the newest iPhone each time his contract ends. He’s in his early 40s and is a fan of science and science fiction. Photo Credit: Regina, C. Creative Commons “It’s weird when there are other people around especially if they’re sitting near you within ear shot. I have a really strange thing about people unintentionally dropping in on my conversation even if it’s between me and a piece of technology. I don’t want them to know what I’m talking about – I don’t care how mundane it is.” “If they can make an earphone that’s comfortable enough to be able to put in and take out…some people leave them on all the time, some people don’t. And you’d just forget about it if you had something in your ear that was so comfortable that you just didn’t even think about wearing it. …if it could perform both functions …like if it could let in as much sound as normal …it would have to have an interesting little speaker function where it could let everything in and mimic the sound of nothing in your ear and have that technological link to your stuff – that would be pretty ideal, I think.”
  33. 33. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Rebecca J. Insights Age: 20 It’s important that a piece of technology does everything. Site: United Kingdom You should not be interacting with technology when having a meal with other people - it’s rude. Profile: General User She believes that now she is used to always having the technology, she wouldn’t know what to do without it. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use Doesn’t like to talk to phone because she thinks its “really awkward” Bio in brief Rebecca is an Interaction Design Student who is interning at a Design Company in Glasgow where she is working on user testing websites and wireframing. She is a heavy user of technology and has a strong brand loyalty to Apple. Participant background Rebecca has won a number of awards for her work and dedication during University. She is originally from Glasgow but studies and lives in Dundee. She is also a supervisor at a local retail store. She is inspired by people and the way they interact with technology. “You might not want other people to know what you're doing on your phone. And I would feel like I'm disturbing people.” “I don't like repetitive noises. Like if there is construction work or something, like there is going on outside out hostel right now. It's like drills going off over and over again. I hate repetitive noises.” “I feel like I need [technology] all the time. And I think it might make me more stressed. I think that I need to know what's going on all the time.” My battery only lasts a couple of hours. And then you feel lost without your phone...
  34. 34. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Jess A. Insights Age: 20 Using your phone during a meal depends on the people you’re with and the situation you’re in. Site: United Kingdom Profile: General User Would rather wear an earpiece than technology to speak out loud. Has hands free technology in her car but doesn’t use it - you can’t hear it and it can’t hear you. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use Bio in brief “it would be really awkward if you were on your phone and it was speaking to you if you were just trying to avoid talking to someone. And they will know that you're not doing anything.” Jess is an Interaction Design Student in Scotland and has a strong loyalty to Apple products. She has hands-free GPS technology in her car but does not like to use it. “[Talking on your phone is] meant to be a private thing. So why would you need to talk to your phone and let everyone know you're trying to find the nearest blockbuster or something?” Participant background Jess is a dedicated student that has worked throughout university. She is interested in a wide range of subjects and enjoys app design, as well as usability design. She also has experience with advertising and branding. “I quite like background music.. [...] Or if you're in a restaurant or something I quite like to hear kitcheny noises.” “You totally depend on it. In a way that you really shouldn't. I really would feel sad if it was gone.”
  35. 35. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Katy P. Insights Age: 42 She has been asked to leave areas for making too much noise while trying to read a text on her phone. Site: United Kingdom Profile: Visually impaired Heavy User General Tech Use Audible Tech Use Bio in brief Katy is legally blind although she does have some useful vision. She is a heavy user of voice technology which she uses on a daily basis. Participant background Katy is an Operations Officer for Blind Independent Greenwich (B.I.G) whose mission is to empower visually impaired people in the London Borough of Greenwich to live fuller and more independent lives, benefiting from the generosity of volunteers who in turn widen their horizon. She wouldn’t use her ‘talking phone’ in public because she can feel people staring at her. Key Points from the Interview She explains to the people that she uses the device not through choice but necessity. It gets to the point that the people that have asked her to leave become embarrassed as they did not realise she was blind. She also feels embarrassed to the point where she doesn't feel she can use the device anymore as people will stare at her. She doesn't use voice to interact with technology (either in public or in private) because it's not accurate enough. She has tried using Siri on other people's phones but it has never gotten it right. This sort of technology would need to advance considerably before she would think about using it. She knows many people with visual impairments that have had their phones stolen because they look like a vulnerable target. She wouldn’t wear headphone because she would be “blind” without her senses.
  36. 36. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Carlos G. Insights Age: 23 Siri is useful for crowded spaces and for busy situations, but looks like the strongest attraction is the novel, the new possibilities. Still not a strongly useful thing. Site: Brazil Profile: General User Early Adopter Language barriers are strong even for those fluent in English, not just in a personal level, but in social spaces – interacting in English in a Portuguese speaking space. Earphones used to show availability to talk or not and an extended body language. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “Today that thing that liking to do things at my work now, at least in my work. Maybe something in my spare time, to generate a cool idea and so… But the rest is to accessorise” Bio in brief CG works as a software developer, mostly for web based programs. Participant background He lives near to a subway station in a trendy and bohemian neighbourhood, Vila Madalena. He shares a big house with other 7 people - 5 men and 2 women. One of them is French and the rest are Brazilians, but all of them have some experience living abroad. Carlos was living in London for 6 months to study English. “There is a thing I really loved is this. How it group pictures. Like this. Most pictures I took during my trip were with the iPhone. Like here it group by places I was, like Barcelona, and I did nothing to get it like this. It is based on date and where you were. It gets picture’s geo-location and organises. And you click it separates by days” “When you take the picture it saves right away. This is 2011 than you see 2010. There are some pictures I took inside the train and I know exactly where I was because it recorded but I was going from Manchester to Edinburgh I would not know where I was” “It was with a phone without nothing. Android X, one of the first ones, I know it could run ‘whatsapp’ and this is it. I could not install Facebook because it would be too heavy and this was my link to the world. I am working on a bank, banks have no internet… and this is worse”
  37. 37. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Dani L. Insights Age: 23 People can get used to annoying sounds (like traffic) if they are exposed to it for long periods of time. Site: Brazil Profile: General User To isolate oneself with earphones at work is important and being able to use it in their own devices might disguise the practice a little bit. Wrist is a good place for a time-related gadget (sync with agenda / tasks) or warn that the phone is ringing (when away or inside bag / purse). General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “I think I wanted it because it is super didactic. And with these things [the home titles on Windows 8] I fell in love with the interface. Like, you take what you use the most and put in the main screen and you don’t need to search for it again” Bio in brief Dani is a recent graduate in Design whose graduation work covered autism is school environments. Participant background Born in one of the many metropolitan cities around Sao Paulo, DL grew up next to a busy motorway and now lives with her parents in a nice neighbourhood in Sao Paulo close to a subway station. She has a Windows phone and uses its navigation system quite a lot. After organising a big design event in Sao Paulo in 2012 she is preparing for a period living in London to improve her English. “It is right in the inbox, then Facebook in the homepage. Here is messages [SMSs], whatsapp, here is the phone, here is agenda, this is nokia GPS, this is email, this is contacts, this is explorer and this is settings. Because when I want to turn the internet off I want to take it off right away” “contacts is something very cool, that you can make groups, it is so cute! Look at this. Like my friends from small town.[…] I make the groups considering the most used, because every now and then I go out with them so I want it right away” “We have one of those normal GPS but I don’t use it. But I prefer this one [in my phone] […] Either I hold it in my hand or I need to see, because I am more visual, I don’t believe Frida that much… Frida is the woman’s name [GPS voice], the nickname we gave her…”
  38. 38. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Doug J. Insights Age: 31 He lives his life through his computers and try to keep developing his skills even with all challenges. Music, drawing, computing, etc. Site: Brazil Profile: General User Physically Impaired General Tech Use Audible Tech Use Bio in brief Doug works as a data base administrator to a major technology corporation. Participant background Doug works remotely using a lot of technological support as he is quadriplegic. Around 4 years ago he fell 5 meters from a roof resulting in an injury which has changed his life. The interface based on voice commands takes longer and is more irritating than the headmouse. While headmouse he just look and click, with voice commands is like giving directions and much slower. Sound in the interface bothers his family and is even worse because he can’t change the configuration to a different less bothering sound. Quotes “I decided to be a Data Base Administrator, which is pretty much easy I can tell. So basically when I got this spinal cord injure in 2009. In 2010 right after 6 months in the hospital, you know, trying to survive, to rehab, and then right there they provided me with the chance to face me against the HeadMouse. HeadMouse is a very simple software with I believe 5 megabytes, you can download on the internet. […] Basically it recognizes your face thought the webcam and when I blink my eyes or move my mouth or even if I go to the settings and I stay frizzed in a very particular area of the screen it does the command that you decided on the settings. I chose to show a very small menu with 6, 5 options when I blink my eyes and when I move my mouth I chose to click” “the problem is that this operational system is windows 8 and HeadMouse is not working properly, even with administrator privileges, it is not working fine. So I need to use this sound software a lot in my new laptop which is “speech recognition” for windows. I like this software a little bit, you know.. because when you sound it is a, I will be honest with you. It is a piece of crap”
  39. 39. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Alberto C. Insights Age: 32 AC likes audible warnings in his personal life, but he turns on accessibility features on his MacBook to avoid them in his professional work. Site: Brazil Profile: General User Early Adopter City soundscapes (cars, honks, etc.) are not pleasant and listening to music makes it easier to isolate and cope with noise pollution. Wrist smart phone might be useful but needs to keep hands free, just like wired earphones do today. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “[iPhone] does it just like a regular GPS, but it talks as well. Besides the fact that it speaks in English, I don’t know if there is an interface in Portuguese, I think it does not. But it turns the radio volume down by itself, talks to me, and turn it up again, […] this one [iPhone] as it is connected [by USB], turns the volume up and down by itself” Bio in brief AC is sound technician and musician natural from Sao Paulo. He plays several instruments, mostly drums, and has many different projects including personal, professional and from bands to the idea of building his own studio. Participant background He has worked in a lot of studios and with some famous musicians in Rio. Since 2003 he is back in Sao Paulo working as a freelancer. He is living with his mom and sister, his father passed away a couple of years ago. “It would be nice to have one of those imported GPS with Darth Vader and Yoda voices would be cool, I would buy one of those…[…] I put my own ringtone. My ringtone is that of old phones that everyone uses because the others suck. And IPhone is picky with this, about putting different rings, and so. It is lame” “This car have several sound alerts. There is one so I don’t forget the keys inside when I leave. I like it” “…as you get used to the sound of those speakers, that system, you end up knowing the flaws, what is missing, what is too much/ I prefer to mix in my room today than any other place because I am used to the sound”
  40. 40. Appendix | Participant Profiles Name: Fatima B. Insights Age: 35 She keeps two different Android smartphones, one for work and the other exclusively personal. She likes the physical separation between the two. Site: Brazil Profile: Early Adopter Wrist wearable beyond the watch, but in the wrist. It could be longer, following the arm, instead of small close to the hand. Sounds are very emotional. Since ringtones are heard by other people they can express owners personality quite a lot as well as get old or out of fashion. General Tech Use Quotes Audible Tech Use “You can carry my life, my laptop, I carry it. It is heavy but I carry it” Bio in brief Fatima works as a Lead Interaction Designer at a major technology company. Participant background She has graduated in communication (journalism) and has worked on television productions, technology and infrastructure at an innovation department in a bank. She lives by herself in a 3 room apartment close to a subway station. At the moment she is renovating everything and giving most of her furniture away. “If you need to get something done you go and type, search for the person, in whatsapp, on Facebook, on SMS, call, send email. I am crazy, if I have you in any service and I need you, you will receive my message in all of them. Some of them will work […] first I call because I think it is what bothers the most” “Now I am playing this Ingress game and it is pretty cool. […] As this game is geolocalized that I found awesome. […] This one has some sounds, can you hear? It is like something intergalactic. [Sounds remind me of star wars light sabres]. […] you have these noises to create an ambience.[…] I think sound is an ideal complement for immersion, you know? Like in a game, for example. Like Without the sound you are not in the environment, only with visuals. If you want a sensorial immersion you must occupy the senses” “I live with it [phone] in silent when I will leave it my desk recharging and it is there connected so it won’t disturb anybody”
  41. 41. Appendix | References Amplifon. 2013. Our Range of Hearing aid products from the worlds Leading manufactures. [online] Available at: http://www.amplifon.co.uk/hearing-aids/hearing-aid-product-range/ [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Bracken, S. 2013. Wireless Headphones: The Best Type for You. Top Ten Reviews. [online] Available at: http://wireless-headphonesreview.toptenreviews.com/wireless-headphones-the-best-type-foryou.html [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Apple. 2013. iOS7: The mobile OS from a whole new perspective. [video online] Available at: http://www.apple.com/ios/ios7/?cid=wwa-us-kwafeatures&siclientid=6381&sessguid=b885c08e-d9c1-4375-b2eb%20d483489bdafe&userguid=b885c08e-d9c1-4375-b2ebd483489bdafe&permguid=b885c08e-%20d9c1-4375-b2ebd48348b9dafe [Accessed 13 June 2013]. Burrows, D., 2010. Bluetooth Technology in Hearing Aids: A Clinician’s Perspective. [online] Maryland: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available at: http://accperspectives.asha.org/content/6/1/4.full [Accessed 26 May 2013]. Audio Geeks. 2013. Wireless Headphones. [online] Available at: http://www.audiogeeks.com/wireless-dj-headphones [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Biddle, S., 2012. Sony SmartWatch Review: Maybe the Worst Thing Sony Has Ever Made. [video] Available at: http://gizmodo.com/5926728/sonysmartwatch-review-maybe-the-worst-thing-sony-has-ever-made [Accessed 14 June 2013]. Bluetooth SIG, Inc. 2013. Cool & Clever | Bluetooth Blog. [online] Available at: http://blog.bluetooth.com/tag/cool-clever/ [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Box 1824, 2011. We All Want to be Young. Vimeo [online video] Available at: https://vimeo.com/16638983 [Accessed 3 June 2013]. Discovery Channel, 2013. What is a homunculus and what does it tell scientists? [Online] Available at: http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/what-is-homunculus [Accessed 26 June 2013]. Dunne, S., 2013. MEX 2013: Will We Be Hearing More from Mobile Audio Interfaces? Core 77, [blog] 3rd April 2013. Available at: http://www.core77.com/blog/conferences/mex_2013_will_we_be_heari ng_more_from_mobile_audio_interfaces_24659.asp [Accessed 3 June 2013]. Edwards, B., 2012. The Future of Hearing Aid Technology. [online pdf] StarkeyPro. Available at: http://www.starkeypro.com/public/pdfs/articles/the_future_of_hearing_ aid_technology.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2013].
  42. 42. Appendix | References Left intentionally blank. Going Blind: Coming Out of the Dark about Vision Loss. 2010. [Film] Directed by Joseph Lovett. New York, USA: Lovett Productions Inc. Gold, B. 2011. Speech and Audio Signal Processing: Processing and Perception of Speech and Music. 2nd ed. Hoboken: Wiley. Got2bWireless. 2010. Hands-Free Bluetooth Wireless Voice Recognition Solutions at Got2bWireless. [online] Available at: http://www.got2bwireless.com/ [Acccessed 23 May 2013]. Hals, E., 2010. The Blinput Concept [video] Available at: http://blinput.com/ [Accessed 3 June 2013].
  43. 43. Appendix | References Hargrave-Wright, J. 2002. Improvements In Hands-Free Access To Computers. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. [online] Available at: www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw_02-06.doc [Accessed 24 May 2013]. Healthy Hearing, 2002. Digital Signal Processing and Hearing Aids. [online] Available at: http://www.healthyhearing.com/content/articles/Hearingaids/Types/7719-Digital-signal-processing-and [Accessed 3 June 2013]. Hermann, T., 2009. Sonification and Sonic Interaction Design for the Broadband Society. [pdf] Germany: Bielfield University. Available at: http://pub.unibielefeld.de/luur/downloadfunc=downloadFile&recordOId=2017244&file OId=2277489 [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Hermann, T., Honer, O. & Ritter, H., 2005. AcouMotion - An Interactive Sonification System for Acoustic Motion Control. [online] Available at: http:// www.rehabilitaciondelamarcha.com/luko_badm_invidentes.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2013]. Hermann, T., Honer, O. & Ritter, H., 2006. Blindminton. [online] Available at: http://sid.bek.np/works/6-blindminton [Accessed 6 June 2013]. Hidden Hearing. 2013. BTE Hearing Aids | Behind The Ear Hearing Aids | Hidden Hearing. [online] Available at: http://www.hiddenhearing.co.uk/bte-hearing-aids/ [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Hidden Hearing. 2013. ITE Hearing Aids | In The Ear Hearing Aid | Hidden Hearing. [online] Available at: http://www.hiddenhearing.co.uk/itehearing-aids/ [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Hidden Hearing. 2013. Oticon Hearing Aids. [online] Available at: http://www.hiddenhearing.co.uk/oticon-hearing-aids/ [Accessed 23 May 2013]. Hidden Hearing., 2013. Spectacle Hearing Aids | Hearing Aid Glasses. [online] Available at: http://www.hiddenhearing.co.uk/spectaclehearing-aids/#.UazhMUCpc4d [Accessed 24 May 2013] Hybra Advance Technology, Inc., 2013. Current Product Development: Hybra Advance Technology. [online] Available at: http://hybratech.com/products/ [Accessed 24 May 2013]. IntelPerceptual. 2013. A Day in the Life with Speech Recognition. [video online] Available at: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/architecture-andtechnology/perceptual-tech-5speech-future-demo.html [Accessed 12 June 2013].
  44. 44. Appendix | References IntelPerceptual. 2013. Perceptual Technologies from Intel. [video online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugDR63wUxuA [Accessed 11 June 2013] . Leibs, A., unknown. What is Video Description? [Online] Available at: http://assistivetechnology.about.com/od/ATCAT1/f/What-Is-VideoDescription.htm [Accessed 28 June 2013]. Jovem Nerd, 2011. NERDCAST 256 – CEGOS, NERDS E LOUCOS. [podcast] Available at: http://jovemnerd.ig.com.br/nerdcast/nerdcast-256-cegosnerds-e-loucos/ [Accessed 28 June 2013]. Le, T., 2010. Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves. TED Talks. [video online] Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/tan_le_a_headset_that_reads_your_brainwav es.html [Accessed 24 June 2013]. Karlin, S., 2012. A New Dimension in Storytelling: Dolby Launches New Atmos System with “Brave”. [online] Available at: http://www.fastcocreate.com/1680960/a-new-dimension-in-storytellingdolby-launches-new-atmos-system-with-brave [Accessed 3 June 2013]. Kent, B. and Smith, S., 2006. They Only See It When the Sun Shines in My Ears: Exploring Perceptions of Adolescent Hearing Aid Users. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. 11:4 Fall, pp. 461-476. Kim, C. S., 2013. Playing with sound in silence: Fellows Friday with Christine Sun Kim. Interviewed by ...Karen Eng. [online] Available at: http://blog.ted.com/2013/03/29/playing-with-sound-in-silence-fellowsfriday-with-christine-sun-kim/ [Accessed 24 June 2013]. Kopin., 2013. Headsets | Golden-i. [online] Available at: http://www.mygoldeni.com/headsets/ [Accessed 24 May 2013]. Lee, K. B. & Grice, R. A., 2006. The Design and Development of User Interfaces for Voice Application in Mobile Devices. [online] Available at: http:// www.rosehulman.edu/Users/faculty/williams/Public/PDF%20Files/43.pdf [Accessed 16 June 2013]. Mensvoort, K. V., 2011. Essay: Anthropomorphobia. [online] Available at: http://www.nextnature.net/2011/11/anthropomorphobia/ [Accessed 26 June 2013]. Monache, S. D., Polotti, P. & Rocchesso, D., 2010, A Toolkit for Explorations in Sonic Interaction Design. [online] Available at: http://rice.iuav.it/170/1/SDT_atoolkitforSID.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2013]. Norman, D. A. & Verganti, R., 2012. Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research versus Technology and Meaning Change. [pdf] jnd.org. Available at: http://jnd.org/dn.mss/Norman%20%26%20Verganti.%20Design%20Rese arch%20%26%20Innovation-18%20Mar%202012.pdf [Accessed 17 April 2013]. Norris, W., 2004. Hypersonic Sound and Other Inventions. TED Talks. [online video] Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/woody_norris_invents_amazing_things.html [Accessed 3 June 2013]. Nova, N., Miyake, K., Kwon, N. & Chiu, W., 2012. Curious Rituals Book: Gestural Interaction in the Digital Everyday. [pdf] Available at: http://curiousrituals.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/curiousritualsbook.pdf [Accessed 3 June 2013].
  45. 45. Appendix | References Wanhoff, T., 2008. Chip. [image online] Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wanhoff/3127572988/in/set72157611438136665/ [Accessed 29 July 2013]. Ward, M. 2012. Hearing-aid hackers fine-tuning their own devices. BBC News Technology. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology18690973 [Accessed 26 May 2013]. Wired, 2005. Young People with Old Ears. Wired. [blog] 13/9/2005. Available at: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2005/09/68844 [Accessed 25 May 2013].
  46. 46. Thank you SONIC Research Team DJCAD | University of Dundee | MSc Design Ethnography

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