C 13a respiratory_hap_2_p_pt-_2-2-11

559 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
559
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

C 13a respiratory_hap_2_p_pt-_2-2-11

  1. 1. Respiratory system• Human Anatomy and Physiology (HAP) II - Bio 1520• Joseph E. Muscolino 1
  2. 2. Topics• Introduction• Structures of the respiratory system• Respiratory air volumes and capacities• Neural control of breathing• Nonrespiratory air movements 2
  3. 3. Introduction• Big picture: Why do we breathe? • Intake of O2 and elimination of CO2• Why do we need O2?• Where/how is CO2 formed? 3
  4. 4. Role of oxygen and carbon dioxide... 4
  5. 5. Steps of respiration• Movement of air in and out of lungs (ventilation).• Exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs between air spaces and blood (external respiration).• Transport of O2 and CO2 in the bloodstream (circulation).• Exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and cells (internal respiration)• Use of O2 and production of CO2 (cellular respiration). 5
  6. 6. Structures of the respiratory system• Nose/mouth• Pharynx• Larynx• Trachea• Lungs/bronchial tree 6
  7. 7. Nose• Nasal cavity lined with mucous membrane which is rich in goblet cells that secrete mucus.• Olfactory receptors for the sense of smell• Air that is breathed in... • air is warmed • air is moistened • particles are trapped (cilia beats toward the pharynx... why?) 7
  8. 8. Nasal cavity 8
  9. 9. Sinuses• Air-filled spaces within bones of the skull• Reduce weight and add resonance to the voice • frontal • maxillary • sphenoid • ethmoid• Why do people have sinus problems? 9
  10. 10. Pharynx• Throat• Posterior to the nasal cavity and oral cavity• Three parts: • nasopharynx/oropharynxlaryngopharynx• Dual passageway for: • air into the larynx • food into the esophagus 10
  11. 11. Larynx• Passageway for air into the trachea.• Composed of cartilages and muscles... and houses the vocal cords (vocal folds of tissue)• Thyroid cartilage: Adam’s Apple (why named?)• Epiglottis... function? 11
  12. 12. Laryngealcartilages 12
  13. 13. Epiglottis 13
  14. 14. Vocal folds 14
  15. 15. Trachea• Windpipe• Between the larynx and the bronchi of the lungs• Anterior to the esophagus• Contains C-shaped cartilages... 15
  16. 16. Trachea 16
  17. 17. Tracheostomy 17
  18. 18. Bronchial tree• Series of passageways within the lungs • Primary bronchi (lungs) • Secondary (lobar) bronchi (lobes) • Tertiary bronchi (bronchopulmonary segments) • Intralobular bronchioles • Terminal bronchioles • Respiratory bronchioles • Alveolar ducts, sacs, alveoli 18
  19. 19. Bronchial tree figure 19
  20. 20. Bronchial “tree” 20
  21. 21. Respiratory tubes (cilia...?) 21
  22. 22. Capillary exchange 22
  23. 23. Right-sided circulation of the heart 23
  24. 24. Drug addiction: Smoking...• #1 preventable cause of death!• Cilia slowed/paralyzed/destroyed• excess mucus clogs airways (decreased air intake and increased infections)• bronchial lining thickening, decrease elasticity of airways• coughing ruptures alveolar sacs• emphysema (15x nonsmokers)• lung cancer (80% due to smoking)• heart disease/stroke• Addiction due to nicotine• Many changes are reversible if a person quits... 24
  25. 25. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)• Second-hand smoke• 4000 chemicals in cigarette smoke• Estimated 53,000 nonsmokers die each year in the US from ETS • (46,000 heart disease, 3,400 lung cancer, 2-3,000 infant deaths...)• In areas where new laws ban smoking in bars, restaurants, and workplaces, hospital admission for heart attacks have dropped 20%! 25
  26. 26. The Diaphragm 26
  27. 27. Respiratory air volumes and capacities• Tidal volume (500 ml)• Inspiratory reserve volume (3000 ml)• Expiratory reserve volume (1100 ml)• Vital capacity (4600 ml)• Residual capacity (1200 ml)• Total lung capacity (5800 ml) • note: anatomic dead space (150 ml) 27
  28. 28. Air volumes and capacities 28
  29. 29. of breathing - medulla and pons medulla and pons 29
  30. 30. Nonrespiratory air movements• Coughing• Sneezing• Hiccuping• Yawning• Laughing 30

×