Atoms, Electrons & Energy Levels Electrons are the bonds that hold the world together!
What’s in an Atom? in surrounding cloud P rotons E lectrons N eutrons Nucleus
= No. of = No. of = No. of - From the Periodic Table … http://us.bestgraph.com/gifs/singes-5.html P rotons E lectrons A to...
Electron Cloud? http://store.odulo.com/Item.asp?id=220 http://www.fg-a.com/clipart_science_2.shtml 72 6 50 5 32 4 18 3 8 2...
The periodic table is the most important tool in the chemist’s toolbox!
Periodic Table Navigation
Periodic Law:   When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their phys...
The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called  PERIODS.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Each new period (row) represents an energy level added.
The vertical columns of the periodic table are called  GROUPS, or FAMILIES. The elements in any group of the periodic tabl...
The GROUP provides information about the number of valence electrons. 1  2  13  14   15  16  17  18
This Bohr diagram illustrates energy levels and electrons for Phosphorous
Understand:  <ul><li>Bohr diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Elec...
Alkali Metals <ul><li>1 electron in outer energy shell </li></ul><ul><li>React with water to release H2 gas </li></ul><ul>...
Alkaline Earth Metals <ul><li>2 electrons in outer energy shell </li></ul>
Transition Metals <ul><li>Generally 2 electrons in outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly have more than one oxidat...
Rare Earth Metals <ul><li>2 electrons in outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Primary oxidation number is +3 </li></ul><ul...
Metalloids <ul><li>Elements with properties of both metals and nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Elements touching the stairstep...
Halogens <ul><li>7 electrons in their outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Easily combine with metals to form salts </li><...
Noble Gases <ul><li>Full outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Almost completely inactive (“inert”) </li></ul><ul><li>All a...
Atomic radius decreases   Metallic properties decrease   Atomic radius increases   Metallic properties increase  
The following periodic trends are embedded within the periodic table: Atomic size (radius), Ionic size (radius), Ionizatio...
Got it?
<ul><li>Electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively charged fundamental particle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proton </li></ul><ul...
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Apeman and Atomic Theory

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How to read the periodic table for basic information about the elements. Start the presentation by playing "Apeman" by The Kinks.

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  • Before you start... Understand the concept of orbitals. Be able to explain how orbitals are grouped into subshells and shells.
  • Apeman and Atomic Theory

    1. 1. Atoms, Electrons & Energy Levels Electrons are the bonds that hold the world together!
    2. 2. What’s in an Atom? in surrounding cloud P rotons E lectrons N eutrons Nucleus
    3. 3. = No. of = No. of = No. of - From the Periodic Table … http://us.bestgraph.com/gifs/singes-5.html P rotons E lectrons A tomic Number N eutrons C Carbon 6 12 A tomic number M ass number
    4. 4. Electron Cloud? http://store.odulo.com/Item.asp?id=220 http://www.fg-a.com/clipart_science_2.shtml 72 6 50 5 32 4 18 3 8 2 2 1 Electron Capacity Energy Level (Principal Quantum Number) H Hydrogen 1 1 He Helium 2 4
    5. 5. The periodic table is the most important tool in the chemist’s toolbox!
    6. 6. Periodic Table Navigation
    7. 7. Periodic Law: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties.
    8. 8. The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called PERIODS.
    9. 9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Each new period (row) represents an energy level added.
    10. 10. The vertical columns of the periodic table are called GROUPS, or FAMILIES. The elements in any group of the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties!
    11. 11. The GROUP provides information about the number of valence electrons. 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
    12. 12. This Bohr diagram illustrates energy levels and electrons for Phosphorous
    13. 13. Understand: <ul><li>Bohr diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Electron cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic trend </li></ul>http://www.pbs.org/hollywoodpresents/copenhagen/story/bohr.html
    14. 14. Alkali Metals <ul><li>1 electron in outer energy shell </li></ul><ul><li>React with water to release H2 gas </li></ul><ul><li>The most reactive metals </li></ul>
    15. 15. Alkaline Earth Metals <ul><li>2 electrons in outer energy shell </li></ul>
    16. 16. Transition Metals <ul><li>Generally 2 electrons in outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly have more than one oxidation number </li></ul><ul><li>Form compounds that are brightly colored </li></ul>
    17. 17. Rare Earth Metals <ul><li>2 electrons in outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Primary oxidation number is +3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lanthanide series: soft, malleable metals with high lustre and conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Actinoid series: All radioactive; most human-made </li></ul>
    18. 18. Metalloids <ul><li>Elements with properties of both metals and nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Elements touching the stairstep </li></ul>
    19. 19. Halogens <ul><li>7 electrons in their outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Easily combine with metals to form salts </li></ul><ul><li>Most reactive of all nonmetals </li></ul>
    20. 20. Noble Gases <ul><li>Full outer energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Almost completely inactive (“inert”) </li></ul><ul><li>All are colorless gases </li></ul><ul><li>Argon is the most abundant, making up almost 1% of air </li></ul>
    21. 21. Atomic radius decreases  Metallic properties decrease  Atomic radius increases  Metallic properties increase 
    22. 22. The following periodic trends are embedded within the periodic table: Atomic size (radius), Ionic size (radius), Ionization energy, Electronegativity.
    23. 23. Got it?
    24. 24. <ul><li>Electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively charged fundamental particle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively charged fundamental particle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncharged fundamental particle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, central unit in the atom that contains neutrons and protons </li></ul></ul>Vocabulary

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