Program Planning Models AEE 521 Fall 2006 Developed by: Dr. Deborah Boone Revised by: Dr. Lisa Guion
Planning ModelsBoone (1985) defines model as:“a representation of a particular situation, foruse in structuring an attack on newquestions and old questions that still needsatisfactory answers or solutions.”
Planning ModelsCaffarella (1994) “states that programplanning models consist of ideas about howprograms should be put together and whatingredients are necessary to ensuresuccessful outcomes.”
Program Planning ModelsProgram Planning models come in all shapes and sizes. Planning models can be very simplistic with steps 1-5 for example, or very complex, using highly developed flow charts or in-depth qualitative descriptions.Some models are linear, in these, the planner is expected to start at step one and follow each step in order until the process is completed. This may be helpful to newcomers, but soon loses its appeal because it does not represent the day to day working reality of most program planners.
Program Planning ModelsAn alternative to the linear approach is to conceptualize program planning as a process that consists of a set of interacting and dynamic elements or components. This non-sequential model allows program planners to address a number of the components simultaneously, to rearrange components to suit the demands of different situations. (Source: Cafferella, 2002)
Usefulness of Planning Models Resources are used more efficiently Including people, time and money Daily work is made easier Provides a guide for continuing action Fosters teamwork Provides a means for clarifying roles/responsibilities
Usefulness of Planning Models (Continued) More effective supervision and control Planner has a clear, detailed process outlined Development of better programs Models dictate proactive thinking
Why Models are not used Time Pressures Organizational Climate Lack of Knowledge About Models Belief That Models are Too Confining
Boone’s Conceptual Programming Model Consists of 3 interconnected and related subprocesses: 1) Planning, 2) Design and Implementation and 3) Evaluation and Accountability Each subprocess includes sequenced and action-driven processual tasks that should be completed
Importance of Processual Tasks Unique to Boone’s Model Approach programming from a conceptual, process oriented point of view RATHER THAN a trial and error standpoint Actions (tasks) are conceptually driven Actions (tasks) are logical and are well thought out Actions (tasks) based on theory, proven best practices, empirically tested models, etc.
SubprocessesPlanning The organization and its renewal process Linking the organization to its publicsDesign and implementation Designing the planned program Implementing the planned programEvaluation and Accountability Formative/process and summative evaluation Accountability
Boone’s Conceptual Programming Model Planning Design and Implementation Evaluation and Accountability The Organization and its Renewal Process Designing the Program Evaluation Translate expressed need(s) into analyzed needs andUnderstand and commit to the functions of the organization: construct a hierarchy. Determine, measure and assess program outcomes.MissionPhilosophyObjectives Formulate a learner objective for each analyzed need and arrange them into a parallel and connecting objectivesUnderstand and commit to the organizations structure: hierarchy. Assess program inputs.RolesRelationships Select appropriate learning experience(s) for each objective Analyze and assess the relative effectiveness of decisionsBecome knowledgeable of and skilled in the organizations management and arrange them into a parallel and connecting made and actions taken in implementing the process: change strategies hierarchy. programming process.SupervisionStaff developmentEvaluation/accountability Accountability Select an outcome for each learner objective and arrange themUnderstand and commit to a tested conceptual framework for into a parallel and connecting change strategies Report outcomes to publics, the organization, funding programming. hierarchy. sources, the governance body, and the profession. Use evaluation findings for program revisions, replanning,Understand and commit to organizational renewal. Implementing the Planned Program and organizational renewal. Linking the Organization to its Publics Develop plans of action to implement the planned program.Continuously scan the organizations external environment. Action strategies: Procure, develop and deploy human and other resources toStudy, analyze and map the organizations current and emerging publics. implement plans of action. Develop and implement strategies and techniques for marketing the planned program and its plans of action.Identify and rank target publics and stakeholder groups. plans of action to implement the planned program.Identify leaders of target publics and spokespersons of stakeholder Monitor, through formative evaluation and other means, the groups. implementation of plans of action.Interface with these leaders and spokespersons to begin dialogue about Use feedback to make changes in plans of action and the education needs of target publics. planned program.Engage these leaders and spokespersons in collaborative identification, assessment, and analysis of expressed needs of target publics. From Boone, Safrit and Jones p. 43
PlanningPlanning encompasses several processes that influence the formation of a program: Plan program that help fulfill organizational mission Understand the culture, context, and structure of the organization that the program will operate in Commit to organizational renewal (using feedback to improve organizational effectiveness and relevancy)
Design and Implementation Determining needs Identification of target audiences Development of program objectives Setting program prioritiesIncludes selection and/or development of : Program content Delivery methods Resource materials Time line for implementation & evaluation Conducting program Etc.
EvaluationIncludes planning procedures to measure program success (outcomes) and impact. Determine how to measure short, midrange and long- term change in target learners (what will indicate that they learned) - OUTCOMES Determine how to measure changes in societal, economic or environmental conditions as a result of the program – IMPACTS Determine how to measure any changes in policy that may result Report outcomes and impacts to key stakeholders
Using evaluation findings for: program revisions organization renewal accounting to the publics, the organization, funding sources, governance body advance the profession (model program)
Some Guiding Principles for My Program Planning Work Based on Boone’s Programming Model Must have commitment at all levels of the organization. Must commit to organizational renewal. Study, analyze and prioritize target publics/learners Identify formal and informal leaders who will aid in identifying and assessing specific needs of target learners Different types of needs, focus on felt and expressed needs Translating expressed needs into outcome-based objectives then develop a planned program to achieve objectives (planned change)
Discussion What are some general principles for planning your community-based program(s) that you can take from Boone’s Conceptual Programming Model?
References Boone, D. (2005). Course Materials from Program Planning in Agricultural and Extension Education offered Fall, 2005, at North Carolina State University. Boone, J. B.; Safrit, R. D.; and Jones, J. (2002). Developing Programs in Adult Education: A conceptual Programming Model. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.