The Development of Boeing’s 367-80               or            .        Charging Into the Jet Age  Armed With Only a Slide...
Background: USA 1946• Wartime rationing of seats on airline flights is  rescinded• People were exposed to flying via passe...
Commercial Airliner Competition              1946-52  Convair 240/340                    Lockheed Constellation           ...
US Commercial Airplane Deliveries                              1947 - 1952160140120100                                    ...
Boeing is a bomber companythat “dabbles” in commercial transports                                                       12...
Reducing Development Risk                     New Transonic                      Jet Transport       B-47         B-52    ...
1946 Concept W.L. Kellerman Dated December 9
1949 Concept (B-47 Derived)
Configuration Evolution from 367/377-
Configuration Evolution from 473-
473-60C Wind Tunnel Model
473-60C Wind Tunnel Model
707-6 (1952)
707-7 Alternatives
367-80 “Firm Configuration”             Span                        130 ft             Length Overall              127 ft ...
Fuselage Cross-section Evolution(377)      (initial 707)
Initial 144”-wide 707 fuselage
367-80 Wing Planform       8%       b/2                19%                                                      Area      ...
Wing Airfoils BAC 310 BAC 311 BAC 312 BAC 313
367-80 Wing Trailing Edge Flaps              Inboard Flap Area         159 sq ft              Outboard Flap Area        16...
367-80 Wing Trailing Edge Flaps Takeoff Configuration         Landing Configuration                         30            ...
367-80 Wing Trailing Edge
Wing Evolution 367-80/707/720                    707-320         707-120         (367-80)720
Landing Gear
Engines – PW-JT3L  Derivative of Military J-57
In-flight view of engine
Thrust Reverser
Built from the Bottom Up
Not Moving, No Line
367-80 RolloutRenton WA May 14, 1954
OopsLanding Gear Attachment Fitting Fails During Taxi Test                   May 21, 1954
367-80 First FlightRenton WA   July 15, 1954
KC-135 Rollout     1956
First Production 707       late 1957
From Prototype to Testbed             Highlights of 367-80 Tests1954-60 KC-135 & 707 Development, field length        perf...
Destination: History        2003
The Last Landing  IAD (Dulles)   2003
National Air & Space Museum        Dulles Center
The Development of Boeing’s 367-80:Charging Into the Jet Age Armed With Only a Slide Rule and Spline                      ...
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The Development Of Boeing's 367-80 or Charging Into the Jet Age Armed With Only a Slide Rule and Spline

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The real history of the Boeing 707 prototype, including all the troubles and tribulations. Delivered by Mr. Almojuela at the Pacific Northwest AIAA Technical Symposium, Seattle WA, Nov. 7, 2009.

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The Development Of Boeing's 367-80 or Charging Into the Jet Age Armed With Only a Slide Rule and Spline

  1. 1. The Development of Boeing’s 367-80 or . Charging Into the Jet Age Armed With Only a Slide Rule and Spline Ben Almojuela Boeing Commercial Airplanes Pacific Northwest AIAA Technical Symposium Nov. 7, 2009
  2. 2. Background: USA 1946• Wartime rationing of seats on airline flights is rescinded• People were exposed to flying via passenger airplane during the war• Many military transport airplanes are declared surplus and are converted to commercial transports• Douglas emerges from the war known as the transport company; Boeing is known as the bomber company
  3. 3. Commercial Airliner Competition 1946-52 Convair 240/340 Lockheed Constellation Martin 404Douglas DC-4 Boeing Stratocruiser Martin 202
  4. 4. US Commercial Airplane Deliveries 1947 - 1952160140120100 Martin Convair8060 Douglas40 Boeing Lockheed20 0 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952
  5. 5. Boeing is a bomber companythat “dabbles” in commercial transports 12 1938 Built XB-15 Model 314 10 1938 Built B-17 Model 307 56 1947 Built B-29/B-50 KC-97 Model 377
  6. 6. Reducing Development Risk New Transonic Jet Transport B-47 B-52 Stratoliner Stratocruiser BTWTAggressively swept wing Passenger fuselage Transonic Podded engines Landing gear Knowledge The Foundation
  7. 7. 1946 Concept W.L. Kellerman Dated December 9
  8. 8. 1949 Concept (B-47 Derived)
  9. 9. Configuration Evolution from 367/377-
  10. 10. Configuration Evolution from 473-
  11. 11. 473-60C Wind Tunnel Model
  12. 12. 473-60C Wind Tunnel Model
  13. 13. 707-6 (1952)
  14. 14. 707-7 Alternatives
  15. 15. 367-80 “Firm Configuration” Span 130 ft Length Overall 127 ft 10 in Height 38 ft 3 in Fuselage Width 11 ft Main Gear Track 21 ft Max TO Weight 190,000 lb Operating Empty Wt 88,890 lb Engines PW JT3P SLST – ea 9500 lb Max Passengers (if equip) 130 Max speed 478 kt @ 35000 ft Cruise speed 435 kt Service ceiling 40,000 ft Max range (no payload) 2600 nmi
  16. 16. Fuselage Cross-section Evolution(377) (initial 707)
  17. 17. Initial 144”-wide 707 fuselage
  18. 18. 367-80 Wing Planform 8% b/2 19% Area 2400 sqft b/2 Aspect Ratio 7.0 Span 130 ft 31% Taper Ratio 0.34 b/2 Sweepback 35 deg 304.4 Mean Aero Chd 240.6 in326 Incidence +2 deg BAC 310 15.5% 51% Dihedral 7 deg b/2 Twist 0 deg BAC 311 13.0% BAC 312 10.6% MAC BAC 313 9.0% 324.2 BAC 313 112 9.0%
  19. 19. Wing Airfoils BAC 310 BAC 311 BAC 312 BAC 313
  20. 20. 367-80 Wing Trailing Edge Flaps Inboard Flap Area 159 sq ft Outboard Flap Area 161.5 sq ft Flap Area/Wing Area Ratio 0.134SplitFlap
  21. 21. 367-80 Wing Trailing Edge Flaps Takeoff Configuration Landing Configuration 30 deg 50 deg
  22. 22. 367-80 Wing Trailing Edge
  23. 23. Wing Evolution 367-80/707/720 707-320 707-120 (367-80)720
  24. 24. Landing Gear
  25. 25. Engines – PW-JT3L Derivative of Military J-57
  26. 26. In-flight view of engine
  27. 27. Thrust Reverser
  28. 28. Built from the Bottom Up
  29. 29. Not Moving, No Line
  30. 30. 367-80 RolloutRenton WA May 14, 1954
  31. 31. OopsLanding Gear Attachment Fitting Fails During Taxi Test May 21, 1954
  32. 32. 367-80 First FlightRenton WA July 15, 1954
  33. 33. KC-135 Rollout 1956
  34. 34. First Production 707 late 1957
  35. 35. From Prototype to Testbed Highlights of 367-80 Tests1954-60 KC-135 & 707 Development, field length performance1961-64 727 Development, including triple-slotted flaps and fuselage-mounted engine1965-66 Variable Stability, SST and C-5 Development1967-70 Boundary Layer Control, Automatic Landing
  36. 36. Destination: History 2003
  37. 37. The Last Landing IAD (Dulles) 2003
  38. 38. National Air & Space Museum Dulles Center
  39. 39. The Development of Boeing’s 367-80:Charging Into the Jet Age Armed With Only a Slide Rule and Spline AbstractBoeing has dominated the commercial aircraft industry for so long it is hard toremember when it wasn’t so. Yet, at the end of WWII, Douglas Aircraft wasdominant in the field, and Boeing was in a distant fifth place behind Lockheed,Martin, and Convair.When Bill Allen committed Boeing to building a prototype of a commercial jettransport in 1952, he hedged the bet by developing the 367-80 as a badlyneeded high-speed tanker for the B-47 and B-52. Success of the aircraft as apassenger transport would be “pure gravy”.Development histories of the Boeing 707 draw a picture of boldness andcourage in the face of long odds…but it can be argued that the Boeing of 1950actually had most of what it needed to take on the task. What it took was the“can-do” attitude of the Boeing employees of the time.In this presentation, Mr. Almojuela presents a brief summary of the periodleading up to the design, build, and flight of the 367-80 prototype, and some ofthe trials and tribulations of the airplane that vaulted Boeing to prominence inthe commercial aircraft field.

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