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Explore the Use of Mobile Devices to Conduct Teacher Professional Development


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Explore the Use of Mobile Devices to Conduct Teacher Professional Development

  1. 1. Shiang-Kwei Wang, Ph.D. School of Education New York Institute of Technology AECT, Jacksonville FL An Explorative Case Study on the Effectiveness of Using Mobile Device to Conduct Teacher Professional Development NYIT
  2. 2. Background of the Study <ul><li>Teachers’ infrequent use of technology in their classrooms concerns a lack of training and experience (Kumar and Kumar, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who are confident with computers tend to use technology to prepare class materials, to keep records, and to facilitate personal communication; however, they less frequently use computers to support instruction in the classroom (Hasselbring et al., 2000; Judson, 2006; Russell, Bebell, O’Dwyer, and O’Connor, 2003). </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Improvements of the technology availability in U.S. classrooms opens up options for technology integration, but also pressures teachers to catch up with technology integration skills and strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>It has added a constant burden to teachers’ already busy loads (Dede, Ketelhut, Whitehouse, Breit, and McCloskey, 2009) </li></ul>/32
  4. 4. <ul><li>Teacher quality is a highly influential factor relative to student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>PD is crucial to the successful integration of technology into classrooms for the improvement of teaching and learning (Lawless and Pellegrino, 2007) </li></ul>/32
  5. 5. Successful PD features <ul><li>Successful PD should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing active-learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasizing students’ learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connecting with the curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, and Yoon, 2001; Hiebert, Gallimore, and Stigler, 2002) </li></ul></ul>/32
  6. 6. Challenges <ul><li>Concerns of current PD mode: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requiring teachers to find time during their busy schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requiring extensive resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing one-size-fits-all workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing short contact hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>failing to address individual teachers’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Dede, Keelhut, Whitehouse, Breit, and McCloskey, 2009; Lock, 2006; Sparks and Hirsh, 2000) </li></ul>/32
  7. 7. Overcome challenges <ul><li>Online PD mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables flexible and ongoing training (Rice and Dawley, 2009; Smith, 2003), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creates an online community for ongoing peer support (Lock, 2006), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empowers teachers to take ownership of their own learning (Sprague, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides solutions to strengthen teachers’ awareness of the latest technology-integration knowledge and skills (Marra, 2004). </li></ul></ul>/32
  8. 8. Blended PD model samples <ul><li>Milwaukee Public Schools’ Professional Support Portal support and retain in-service teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers participated in ongoing mentoring activities in face-to-face and online videoconferencing sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>(Spicer and Dede,2006) </li></ul>/32
  9. 9. <ul><li>Stephens and Hartmann (2004) designed a blended PD model: two weeks summer face-to-face session plus online discussion forum </li></ul><ul><li>Improve secondary math teachers’ ability to integrate technology </li></ul>/32
  10. 10. <ul><li>Owston and colleagues (2008)’s blended PD: face-to-face summer institutes and online discussion forum </li></ul><ul><li>Many teachers did not complete the PD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics irrelevant to their teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of good online facilitators </li></ul></ul>/32
  11. 11. The Need to Adopt Mobile Device-based PD <ul><li>Seppala and Alamaki (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>pre-service teachers participate in discussion of classroom teaching strategies with in-service teachers and supervisors through mobile devices. </li></ul><ul><li>They found out that text messaging, image uploading can facilitate synchronized communication </li></ul>/32
  12. 12. <ul><li>Kukulsaka-Hulme and Pettit (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Use smartphone to support college staff’s continuing training </li></ul><ul><li>The findings suggest that participants tended to use smartphones as a personal digital assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Expected collaborative activities, such as shared project journal entries, rarely occurred </li></ul>/32
  13. 13. Needs <ul><li>(1) An “anytime, anywhere” mobile-device PD model that saves in-service teachers time devoted to attending workshops </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Quality PD-training content to allow for in-service teachers’ sustained learning </li></ul><ul><li>(3) A channel to update in-service teachers knowledge in the latest technology integration </li></ul><ul><li>(4) A community where teachers can exchange ideas for technology integration </li></ul>/32
  14. 14. Research Questions <ul><li>(1) How effectively does the mobile-device PD model improve teachers’ technology skills? </li></ul><ul><li>(2) What are the advantages and challenges of the mobile-device PD model? </li></ul><ul><li>(3) What design and implementation strategies can be generated from this case study for researchers and practitioners planning to adopt the mobile-device PD model? </li></ul>/32
  15. 15. Research Design <ul><li>Exploratory case study (Yin, 2003, 2009), a method appropriate for investigating the causal connections and the contexts related to the intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory case studies can lead to a rich descriptive and inclusive investigation yielding insights for further research. </li></ul>/32
  16. 16. Settings and Participant Teachers <ul><li>A public special education school </li></ul><ul><li>Case selection: interviewed with technology coordinator and the AP </li></ul><ul><li>ICT-skills survey (Markauskaite, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>43% of 25 teachers identified themselves as lack of technology skills, 38.4% of the teachers had good or strong confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Five teachers represented in this distribution were selected by the AP </li></ul>/32
  17. 17. Case 1 <ul><li>Sandy (45) with high technology skills and high motivation to participate in PD </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use the mobile device to facilitate teacher PD, and to deliver training video clips she designed to faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn advanced PowerPoint presentation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: She had to do regular teaching and maintain a computer lab; time constraints constituted the main challenge. </li></ul>/32
  18. 18. Case 2 <ul><li>Nancy (24) with high technology skills and high motivation to participate in PD </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn advanced PowerPoint skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to integrate PowerPoint into classroom to help her students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use Google Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: lack of resources. </li></ul>/32
  19. 19. Case 3 <ul><li>Emily (35) with moderate technology skills and high motivation to participate in PD </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to integrate digital cameras and presentation tools into her classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: lack of resource. </li></ul>/32
  20. 20. Case 4 <ul><li>Mary (52) with low technology skills and median motivation to participate in PD </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to integrate presentation tools into her classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use Google Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: lack of resource, low technology confidence </li></ul>/32
  21. 21. Case 5 <ul><li>Sarah (23) with moderate technology skills and low motivation to participate in PD </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn ways to integrate the Internet into her classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges: lack of resource, do not see the need to integrate technology into her classroom </li></ul></ul>/32
  22. 22. PD structure and content <ul><li>The researcher interviewed all teachers individually and observed their classroom teaching several times before the researcher developed the PD content. </li></ul><ul><li>PD was developed based on individual teacher’s needs and the ISTE standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Use streaming video clips to provide the following PD topics: PowerPoint basic and advanced skills, Google Earth operation skills, and image editing skills </li></ul>/32
  23. 23. <ul><li>The researcher met with the administrators and individual teachers during the summer </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted classroom observation in the beginning of fall </li></ul><ul><li>Designed the PD content in October </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers use the mobile device and central web site to participate in PD in November </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers submitted projects in late November </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher followed up with individual teachers’ use of technology in December. </li></ul>/32
  24. 24. Data collection and analysis <ul><li>The following six types of sources provide the best evidence for case studies: documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artifacts (Yin, 2003, p. 83). </li></ul>/32
  25. 25. <ul><li>The researcher analyzed classroom-observation notes, email messages, interviews, and focus-group questions, and worked with a colleague researcher to generate pattern codes and to identify themes (Miles and Huberman, 1994) . </li></ul>/32
  26. 26. Findings <ul><li>Findings are presented in five formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tesearcher’s observation of each case, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PD impact on teachers’ technology skills and attitudes toward technology integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attitude toward “mobile device”-based PD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>challenges that emerged from the media player model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design and implementation strategies for a “mobile device”-enabled PD model. </li></ul></ul>/32
  27. 27. Motivation to participate in PD /32
  28. 29. Impact of the PD on their teaching
  29. 30. Traditional PD vs. Mobile Device-based PD <ul><li>Teachers’ impressions of traditional workshops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many teachers had to spend time helping others to catch up with the training; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to find face-to-face meeting time among their busy schedules, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they forgot the training content shortly after the workshops </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Their impressions of mobile device-based PD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It enabled anytime anywhere learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The media players allowed teachers to replay step-by-step training video clips that would reinforce the learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers could carry media players to communicate ideas with colleagues, administrators, or students </li></ul></ul>/32
  31. 32. Preference <ul><li>All teachers who completed the PD unanimously preferred using media players for PD. </li></ul><ul><li>Every teacher pointed out that, if given the choice, they would still prefer using the “mobile device”-based PD model to receive training in other topics such as effective practices for teaching students with autism or teaching reading and math skills to students with autism. </li></ul>/32
  32. 33. Challenges <ul><li>A face-to-face session is needed to help teachers get familiar with the use of mobile device, get acquainted with peer teachers, and know each other’s technology strengths, and then use the media player for self-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>/32
  33. 34. Design and Implementation Strategies <ul><li>understand teachers’ needs for technology integration or help them see their needs </li></ul><ul><li>design content with which teachers can tailor the best-fitting technology and skills to the relevant subject areas, to the available resources, and to students’ characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Use push notification to notify teachers new training materials </li></ul>/32
  34. 35. <ul><li>Have one face-to-face session in the beginning of the PD </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a central web site to encourage teachers to exchange experiences on technology integration </li></ul><ul><li>Have an in-school technology specialist serving as the moderator and providing immediate support for teachers who encounter problems. </li></ul>/32
  35. 36. Questions? <ul><li>Shiang-Kwei Wang ( [email_address] ) </li></ul><ul><li>School of Education </li></ul><ul><li>New York Institute of Technology </li></ul>