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String

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String

  1. 1. !!!! """" Strings/Character Array: in C language the group of characters, digits and symbols enclosed within quotation marks are called string. - The string always declared as character array. - In other word character array are called string. - Every string is terminated with ‘0’ (NULL) character. - The null character is a byte with all bits at logic zero. - For example: char name[ ]={‘S’,’A’,’N’,’T’,’T’,’O’,’S’,’H’}; - Each character of the string occupies 1 byte of memory. - The last character is always‘0’. - It is not compulsory to write, because the compiler automatically put’0’ at the end of character array or string. - The character array stored in contiguous memory locations - For example Memory map of string 1001 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 Declaration and initialization of string: Char name [ ] =”SANTOSH”; Q. Write a program to display string Void main () { Char name [6] = {‘J’,’A’,’C’,’K’,’Y’}; Clrscr (); Printf (“Nam=%s”, name); } Output: JACKY S A N T O S H 0
  2. 2. !!!! """" Important Note: it character array no need of write & in scanf statement because as we know that string is a collection of character, which is also called character array. The character are arranged or stored in contiguous memory location, so no need of address to store the string. How to read a character - To read a character use the following function - char getch() - char getche() Difference between getch() and getche(): - In case of getch() the input data does not visible on screen. - In case of getche() the input data visible on screen. How to display a character: - To display a character use following function. - putch() void putch(data) How to read a string: - To read a string use following function - gets(): whole string is accepted How to display a string: - puts ( ): it is used to display a string. Example: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[10],i; clrscr(); printf("Enter a string"); gets(a);// to read a string
  3. 3. !!!! """" puts(a);// it is used to display a string printf("%s",a);//display the string for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) printf("%c",a[i]); getch(); } Output: Enter a string: JACKY JACKY JACKY JACKY Explanation: ill print three times because for gets (),puts(),and printf(); Standard String Functions: Function Description Strlen() Determine length of string Strcpy() copies a string from source to destination Strcmp() a) compare character of two string (function determine between small and big) b) if the two string equal it return zero otherwise it return nonzero. c) it the ASCII value of two string. d) it stop when either end of string is reached or the corresponding character are not same. Strcat() append source string to destination string. Strrev() reverse all character of a string. Strlwr() it is used to convert a string to lower case. Tolower() it is used to covert a character to lower case Strupr() it is used to convert string to upper case. Touppper() it is used to convert a character to upper case
  4. 4. !!!! """" Program: WAP to find the length of string Strlen() #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char p[50]; int len; clrscr(); printf("Enter a Text:n"); gets(p); len=strlen(p); printf("length of string=%d",len); getch(); } Program: WAP to find the length of string without using Strlen() #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char p[50]; int len=0,i; clrscr(); printf("Enter a string:n"); gets(p); for(i=0;p[i]!='0';i++) len++; printf("length of string %s=%d",p,len); getch(); }
  5. 5. !!!! """" Program: WAP to input a string then copy one string to another string using strcpy (). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50],b[50]; clrscr(); printf("Enter a string:n"); gets(a); strcpy(b,a); printf("string %s is copy %s",a,b); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then copy one string to another string without using strcpy (). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50],b[50]; int i; clrscr(); printf("Enter a string:n"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) b[i]=a[i]; b[i]='0'; printf("string %s is copy %s",a,b); getch(); }
  6. 6. !!!! """" Program: WAP to input two string then joined it using strcat() #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50],b[50]; int i; clrscr(); printf("Enter ist string:n"); gets(a); printf("Enter 2nd string:n"); gets(b); strcat(a,b); printf("%s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input two string then compare it using strcmp(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50],b[50]; clrscr(); printf("n Enter 1st string"); gets(a); printf("Enter 2nd string"); gets(b); if(strcmp(a,b)==0) printf("equal"); else
  7. 7. !!!! """" printf("not equal"); getch(); } Program: WAP to input two string then compare it without using strcmp(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50],b[50]; int i=0; clrscr(); printf("n Enter 1st string"); gets(a); printf("Enter 2nd string"); gets(b); while(a[i]!='0'&&b[i]!='0'&&a[i]==b[i]) i++; if(a[i]==b[i]) printf("equal"); else printf("not equal"); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then reverse it using strrev(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; clrscr();
  8. 8. !!!! """" printf("n Enter 1st string"); gets(a); strrev(a); printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then reverse it without using strrev(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50],b[50]; int i,k=0; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=strlen(a)-1;i>=0;i--) b[k++]=a[i]; b[k]='0'; printf("n %s",b); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then convert it into lower case using strrev(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; clrscr();
  9. 9. !!!! """" printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); strlwr(a); printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then convert it into lower case without using strlwr(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; int i; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) { if(a[i]>=65&&a[i]<=90) a[i]=a[i]+32; } printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then convert it into lower case using tolower(). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() {
  10. 10. !!!! """" char a[50]; int i; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) { if(a[i]>=65&&a[i]<=90) a[i]=tolower a[i]; } printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then convert it into lower case using strupr (). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); strupr(a); printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then convert it into lower case without using strupr (). #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h>
  11. 11. !!!! """" void main() { char a[50]; int i; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) { if(a[i]>=97&&a[i]<=122) a[i]=a[i]-32; } printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then find out occurrence of each character. #include<string.h> #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char a[50]; int i,k,j,c; clrscr(); printf("Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;i<strlen(a);i++) { c=1; for(j=i+1;j<strlen(a);j++) { if(a[i]==a[j])
  12. 12. !!!! """" { c++; for(k=j;k<strlen(a);k++) a[k]=a[k+1]; j--; } } printf("n%c is print %d times",a[i],c); } getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then find out how many words are there. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; int w=0,i=0; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;i<strlen(a);i++) { if(a[i]==32) w++; } printf("n no of words=%d",w); getch(); }
  13. 13. !!!! """" Program: WAP to input a string then find out how many digits, space, alphabets, special symbols. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; int i,p=0,d=0,s=0,sp=0; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;i<strlen(a);i++) { if(a[i]>=65&&a[i]<=90||a[i]>=97&&a[i]<=122) p++; else if(a[i]>=48&&a[i]<257) d++; else if(a[i]==32) s++; else sp++; } printf("n no of alphabets=%d",p); printf("n no of digits=%d",d); printf("n no of space=%d",s); printf("n no of special symbol=%d",sp); getch(); }
  14. 14. !!!! """" Program: WAP to input a string then find out how many vowels are there. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; int i,v=0; clrscr(); printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) { if(a[i]=='a'||a[i]=='A'|| a[i]=='e'||a[i]=='E'|| a[i]=='i'||a[i]=='I'|| a[i]=='o'||a[i]=='O'|| a[i]=='u'||a[i]=='U') v++; } printf("n Total no of vowes=%d",v); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then convert into lower case. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> void main() { char a[50]; int i; clrscr();
  15. 15. !!!! """" printf("n Enter a string"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='0';i++) { if(a[i]>=65&&a[i]<=90) a[i]=tolower a[i]; } printf("n %s",a); getch(); } Program: WAP to input a string then check string is palindrome or not. #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char a[100], b[100]; printf("Enter the string to check if it is a palindromen"); gets(a); strcpy(b,a); strrev(b); if( strcmp(a,b) == 0 ) printf("Entered string is a palindrome.n"); else printf("Entered string is not a palindrome.n"); return 0; }
  16. 16. !!!! """" Program: WAP to input a string then construct a structure. #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char string[100]; int c, k, length; printf("Enter a stringn"); gets(string); length = strlen(string); for ( c = 0 ; c < length ; c++ ) { for( k = 0 ; k <= c ; k++ ) { printf("%c", string[k]); } printf("n"); } return 0; } Program: WAP to input a string then sorting of string . #include<stdio.h> int main(){ int i,j,n; char str[20][20],temp[20]; puts("Enter the no. of string to be sorted"); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=0;i<=n;i++) gets(str[i]); for(i=0;i<=n;i++) for(j=i+1;j<=n;j++){ if(strcmp(str[i],str[j])>0){ strcpy(temp,str[i]);
  17. 17. !!!! """" strcpy(str[i],str[j]); strcpy(str[j],temp); } } printf("The sorted stringn"); for(i=0;i<=n;i++) puts(str[i]); return 0; } Program: WAP to input a string then check string is palindrome or not. #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char a[100]; int c, k, length; printf("Enter a stringn"); gets(string); length = strlen(string); for ( c = length-1; c >=0 ; c-- ) { b[k]=’0’; b[k++]=a[i]; } If(b[i]=a[i]) Printf(“String is palindrome”); } else printf("not a palindrome”); getch();
  18. 18. !!!! """" Program: WAP to input a string then input a character and check occurrence of character. #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char a[100],ch; int i,c=0; printf("Enter a stringn"); gets(string); printf("Enter a stringn"); ch=getch(); for ( i=0;i<strlen(a);i++) { If[a[i]==ch) C++; } Printf(“Total no of %c in string %d”,c); } getch(); }

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