World History Ch. 19 Section 3 Notes


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World History Ch. 19 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Change and Crisis • Faces of History: George Washington • Struggle for Independence • Map: The Revolutionary War • Forming a New Government • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the Declaration of Independence The American Revolution
  2. 2. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Reading Focus • What were some of the causes of change and crisis in the American colonies? • How was the struggle for independence affected by Enlightenment concepts? • How did American colonists form a new government? Main Idea Enlightenment ideas led to revolution, independence, and a new government for the United States. The American Revolution
  3. 3. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution 1. By the mid-1700s dramatic new Enlightenment ideas had spread to North America, inspiring the British colonists to forge a new nation. • British colonies had expanded rapidly along east coast since early 1600s • Offered opportunities not available in Great Britain – Land plentiful, cheap – Class system absent – Good chance for advancement through intelligence, hard work Forming a New Identity • Population over 2.1 million • Colonies had been established nearly 150 years • Allowed large measure of independence, though still British subjects • Each had own government, made own laws • Began to identify less with Britain Mid-1770s Change and Crisis
  4. 4. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution New Tax • Stamp Act, 1765, required colonists to pay tax for official stamp on all newspapers, legal documents, other public papers • Colonial leaders outraged Parliament taxed them without representatives there to plead case • Called for boycott of English goods, act repealed 1766 Opposing British Policies • Britain began to assert its right to impose laws on colonies • Britain defeated France in French and Indian War, 1763 • France had to give up its North American colonies • Britain decided to make colonies pay part of war costs in taxes
  5. 5. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Townshend Acts • 1767, British imposed taxes on glass, paper, paints, tea • Boston merchants called for another boycott • British sent troops to keep order, Bostonians harassed troops Boston Tea Party • 1773, Sons of Liberty boarded ships in Boston Harbor, dumped crates of tea overboard, British closed port • Parliament passed Intolerable Acts, regulations limiting freedom of colonists Boston Massacre • 1770, British discipline snapped • British troops shot, killed five men • Most of Townshend Acts partially repealed, tax on tea remained Opposing British Policies
  6. 6. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Opposing British Policies First Continental Congress • Called in Philadelphia, 1774 • Colonists listed grievances against British – Plan to reconcile differences with British presented – Plan voted down
  7. 7. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution • Not all colonists wanted independence from Britain • 2. Thomas Paine argued in 1776 pamphlet, Common Sense, that colonies no longer needed British rule • Said colonies deserved independence • Paine’s pamphlet helped gain popular support for cause Common Sense • Sons of Liberty expected war, hid weapons in countryside and towns west of Boston • April 1775, British troops marched out of Boston to find weapons • British troops confronted colonial militiamen in Lexington • Shots rang out; the American Revolution began Shot Heard ‘round the World Revolution Begins
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  9. 9. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Compare What did the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts have in common? Answer(s): Both imposed taxes on the colonies.
  10. 10. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution 3. The American Revolution was the first war in which old ideas about government were challenged by the ideas of the Enlightenment. The Patriots created a nation based on these ideas. • Second Continental Congress, 1776 • Committee formed to write document declaring colonies’ independence Declaring Independence • Members familiar with Enlightenment concepts • Adams, Jefferson, Franklin • Jefferson wrote draft incorporating ideas from Locke, Rousseau Committee • Elegant expression of Enlightenment political philosophy • Drew ideas from English Bill of Rights, 1689 • Individual, society rights, freedoms Declaration Struggle for Independence
  11. 11. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Commanding General • Second Continental Congress assigned George Washington as army’s commanding general • Courageous, resourceful leader Early Battles • British defeated Washington in Battle of Long Island • Washington crossed Delaware, engineered surprising victory at Trenton Beginning of Revolution • Evacuated Boston, June 1775 • Began poorly for British • Americans positioned cannons overlooking city Valley Forge • British defeated Washington in New Jersey • Washington moved into Pennsylvania, spent bitter winter at Valley Forge The Revolutionary War
  12. 12. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution British government formally recognized the independence of the United States with the Treaty of Paris, in September of 1783. The British won battles in upstate New York during the summer of 1777, but in October the Americans won the Battle of Saratoga. The victory was crucial as Benjamin Franklin was in Paris seeking aid from the French. This alliance became a turning point in the war. • American forces strengthened over next two years • British tried to divide colonies in two • Captured Savannah, 1778, Charleston, 1780 • Americans made numerous attacks on British in South Carolina Strategies in the South The Revolutionary War • French and American armies surrounded British, Yorktown, September 1781 • Lord Cornwallis surrendered after siege of several weeks • American colonists won independence, October 1781 Victories in the North
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  14. 14. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution The Revolutionary War The Treaty of Paris • Set the geographic boundaries for the new United States – Gave Americans much greater territory than original 13 colonies – Americans gained all land east of Mississippi River and north of 31st parallel • End of war just the beginning • Americans faced task of building new nation
  15. 15. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Sequence What events led to the signing of the Declaration of Independence? Answer(s): Second Continental Congress declares colonies' independence from Britain; Washington assigned commander of army; American forces strengthened; French and American armies defeat British army; colonists win independence
  16. 16. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution The Articles of Confederation • Colonists had to learn to work together, form new government • First government established by Articles of Confederation, approved 1781 • National government made deliberately weak to avoid abuses of power • Government had no power to tax, could not negotiate with foreign nations • Articles produced government too weak to govern effectively • Delegates met at Constitutional Convention, 1787, to revise Articles • Instead wrote Constitution • George Washington presided over convention • James Madison negotiated main points The Constitution • Constitution created federal system of government • Certain powers reserved to federal government, others for states • Three branches of government: executive, judicial, legislative • System of checks and balances Federal System Forming a New Government
  17. 17. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Forming a New Government • Influence of Enlightenment thought on Constitution very powerful – Founding principle, government exists for the people – Reflected Locke’s and Rousseau’s idea of government by consent of people – Division of government into three branches reflected Montesquieu’s idea of separation of powers
  18. 18. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Impact of American Government • News of successful American revolution impacted other governments • Although French King Louis XVI supported Americans, France experienced own revolution, 1789 • America had shown it was possible to oppose tyranny • Soldiers’ courage, Constitution framers’ wisdom, shining examples The Bill of Rights • Opponents to Constitution said it failed to protect citizen’s rights • Wanted protection of individual’s rights added to Constitution • Congress added Bill of Rights, first 10 amendments to Constitution • Protected natural rights advocated by Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau
  19. 19. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Find the Main Idea How did the Constitution and the Bill of Rights change the government and society of the United States? Answer(s): caused anger about taxation without representation; colonial leaders supported creation of new nation; committee formed at Continental Congress; Jefferson wrote draft; adopted by the Congress
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  21. 21. Section 3Enlightenment and Revolution Video The Impact of the Declaration of Independence Click above to play the video.