World History Ch. 17 Section 4 Notes


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World History Ch. 17 Section 4 Notes

  1. 1. Section 4New Asian Empire Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Japan’s Warrior Society • The Tokugawa Shogunate • Medieval Korea • Map: Japan and Korea • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the Samurai Tradition on Japan Today Medieval Japan and Korea
  2. 2. Section 4New Asian Empire Reading Focus • What were the key characteristics of the feudal warrior society in Japan? • How did the Tokugawa Shogunate rule Japan, and in what ways did the culture flourish during the period? • How did the Choson dynasty shape events in medieval Korea? Main Idea During the medieval period, a feudal warrior society developed in Japan, while Korea’s rulers endured invasion and turned to isolation. Medieval Japan and Korea
  3. 3. Section 4New Asian Empire The samurai’s lands were worked by peasants, who gave the samurai money or food for payment each year. 1. By the 1100s, central government losing control of the empire Local clans fighting for power and land, no law and order Bandits roamed countryside, landowners hired armies of samurai, trained professional warriors • Use of samurai, trained professional warriors, developed into feudal warrior society in Japan • Similar to feudal system in Europe • In exchange for allegiance, military service, noble landowners gave property, payment to samurai Feudalism and Samurai Japan’s Warrior Society • Unlike in Europe, where knights were usually paid with land grants, only most powerful samurai received land • Most paid with food, usually rice • Those given land did not work, live on land Payment for Samurai
  4. 4. Section 4New Asian Empire Societal Privileges • As time passed, samurai rose in status in society, enjoyed many privileges • Crowds parted to let them pass when samurai walked down street • People dropped eyes out of respect—and fear—because samurai had right to kill anyone who showed disrespect Warrior Role • Main role of samurai, that of highly skilled warrior • Wore armor, were skilled with many weapons, often fought on horseback • Expected to be in fighting form all the time, ready to do battle should need arise
  5. 5. Section 4New Asian Empire Code of Ethics • Samurai followed strict code of ethics, known as Bushido, “the way of the warrior” • Bushido required samurai to be courageous, honorable, obedient, loyal • Word samurai means “those who serve;” each had to serve, obey his lord without hesitation, even if samurai, family suffered as result • Samurai who failed to obey, protect lord expected to commit seppuku— suicide by ritual disembowelment • Strove to live disciplined lives • Pursued activities requiring great focus, like writing poetry, arranging flowers, performing tea ceremonies Discipline • Many samurai accepted Zen Buddhism • Spread from China to Japan in 1100s • Zen stressed discipline, meditation as ways to focus mind, gain wisdom Zen Buddhism Samurai
  6. 6. Section 4New Asian Empire Role of Women Both men, women of samurai families learned to fight • Usually only men went to war • Female samurai had to follow Bushido • Were prepared to die to protect home, family honor • Samurai women honored in Japanese society – Could inherit property – Allowed to participate in business
  7. 7. Section 4New Asian Empire For most of the 1100s, Japan had no strong central government. Local nobles, the heads of powerful clans, fought for power. • Minamoto family defeated rival clan to become Japan’s most powerful clan • 1192, clan leader Minamoto Yoritomo forced emperor to name him shogun, “general,” Japan’s supreme military leader • Shogun ruled in emperor’s name Yorimoto • Emperor remained at top of society, but became mere figurehead • For nearly 700 years shoguns ruled Japan • Yoritomo allowed emperor to hold court at Heian, later known as Kyoto • Shogun formed military government at Kamakura Shogun Rule Rise of the Shoguns
  8. 8. Section 4New Asian Empire • Japanese referred to storms as kamikaze, “divine wind”; believed they showed that the gods favored Japan • Mongol invasions weakened Kamakura Shogunate • Many lords thought shogun had not rewarded them enough; loyalties broke down • 1338, Shogunate overthrown Weakened Shogunate • Kamakura Shogunate, military dynasty, ruled Japan until 1333 • 1200s, Kamakura Shogunate faced major threat—Mongols • 1274, again in 1281, large Mongol fleets attacked Japan • Each time Japanese defeated them, with help of powerful storm that wiped out enemy fleet Kamakura Shogunate New Threats
  9. 9. Section 4New Asian Empire A new shogunate took power but was too weak to gain control of Japan. With the loss of centralized rule, Japan splintered into many competing factions. • Numerous local daimyo, powerful warlords with large estates, gained control of territories, battled for power • Daimyo built large fortified castles to defend lands Daimyo • Castles often on hills, protected by walls, surrounded by water • Towns often grew up around them • Daimyo began to use peasants as foot soldiers, samurai on horseback Fortifications • 1543, Portuguese introduced firearms • Daimyo began to arm soldiers with guns • Some samurai refused to use them • Died wielding swords against superior firepower Firepower Rebellion and Order
  10. 10. Section 4New Asian Empire • 1600, Tokugawa leyasu won decisive battle • Gained complete control of all Japan • 1603, emperor made Tokugawa shogun • Event began the Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa Ieyasu • 1500s, three strong daimyo worked to take control of Japan • Oda Nobunaga, first to arm soldiers with guns, defeated opponents easily • By death in 1582, controlled half of Japan • Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Oda’s greatest general, continued efforts; by 1590, controlled most of Japan Generals Take Control Ambitious Men
  11. 11. Section 4New Asian Empire Find the Main Idea What features defined Japan’s feudal warrior society? Answer(s): Samurai gave military service in exchange for property or payment; shoguns ruled in the name of the emperor; daimyo were powerful warlords.
  12. 12. Section 4New Asian Empire Strong Central Government • Tokugawa leyasu established capital at quiet fishing village, Edo, now Tokyo • Established strong central government • Tokugawa shoguns brought about period of relative unity, peace, stability Prosperity • Stability, peace of Tokugawa rule brought prosperity to Japan • Agricultural production rose, population and cities grew • Economic activity increased • New roads linked main cities, castle towns, improving trade Tokugawa Rule • Tokugawa shoguns closely controlled daimyo, who still held local level power • To keep loyal, shoguns required daimyo to live in Edo periodically, leave families there year-round as “hostages” • Forced daimyo to maintain two residences; attempt to preclude from rebelling The Tokugawa Shogunate
  13. 13. Section 4New Asian Empire Top of Society • Under Tokugawa rule, Japan’s strict feudal system more rigid • At top of society, emperor • Only a figurehead Ruling Warrior Class • Under daimyo, samurai who served them • Emperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai made up ruling warrior class Shogun, Daimyo • Next was shogun, held real power as military ruler • Below shogun, daimyo—owed shogun loyalty Three Lower Classes • Below ruling warrior class were three classes • Peasants, artisans, merchants Rigid Feudal System
  14. 14. Section 4New Asian Empire Rules • Members of lower classes could not rise in social status • Could not serve in military or government, or hold government positions that might challenge power of warrior class Honor and Some Status • In Japan, farming considered honorable trade • Peasants enjoyed relatively high status, just below samurai • However, peasants paid most of taxes, led hard lives Peasants • Peasants made up vast majority—about 80 percent—of Japan’s population • Forbidden to do anything but farming • Supported selves by growing rice, other crops on daimyo, samurai estates Lower Classes
  15. 15. Section 4New Asian Empire • Below peasants were artisans • Artisans often lived in castle towns; made goods like armor, swords • Merchants at bottom of society • Not honored because did not produce anything • Merchants often grew wealthy • Could use wealth to improve social position • During Tokugawa period, women’s status gradually declined • Many led restricted lives • Had to obey male head of household absolutely • Even samurai class women lost many rights, freedoms Women • Role of male samurai changed • Peace put many out of work • Not allowed to engage in trade • Many ronin—masterless samurai— fell on hard times • Some became farmers, others warriors for hire, still others bandits Male Samurai Artisans and Merchants
  16. 16. Section 4New Asian Empire By 1650, Japan had shut its doors to all Europeans except the Dutch. Japan continued this policy for more than 200 years. 2. The prosperity of the Tokugawa Period went hand in hand with Japan’s increasing contact with Europeans. Initially the Japanese welcomed European traders and missionaries and the new ideas, products and technologies that they brought. • Trade with Europe boosted Japan’s economy • Christian missionaries changed Japanese society • Many Japanese became Christian; soon samurai could be heard chanting Christian prayers in battle Changes Relations with the West • Over time Tokugawa shoguns grew concerned with spread of Christianity; began to persecute Christians, kill missionaries • Also began to restrict foreign trade, travel • Banned building large ships Period of Isolation
  17. 17. Section 4New Asian Empire Japan’s growing cities became centers of culture during the feudal period. • In art, colorful woodblock prints called Ukiyo-e, “pictures of the floating world,” became popular • In literature, realistic stories became popular, as well as form of poetry called haiku • Three lines with 17 syllables; many haiku deal with themes of nature, harmony Art and Literature • In theater, Noh drama developed, 1300s • Slow-moving Noh plays told stories through use of masks, stylized dance, music • 1600s, new type of theatre with more action, plot, humor —kabuki • Women initially performed kabuki, but later banned and replaced by men Theater Feudal Culture
  18. 18. Section 4New Asian Empire Summarize What changes did Tokugawa rulers impose on Japanese society? Answer(s): They required daimyos to live in Edo periodically and make expensive processions, some family members were kept hostage in Edo, a strict social structure was maintained, and they isolated Japan from outsiders.
  19. 19. Section 4New Asian Empire Medieval Korea • 3. In 1392, powerful general, Yi Song-gye gained control of Korea • Established Choson kingdom – Choson, or Yi, dynasty became one of Korea’s longest ruling dynasties – Lasted until 1910 – Formed government based on Confucianism
  20. 20. Section 4New Asian Empire • Fighting with Japan left Korea in ruins • Early 1600s, Chinese invaded • By 1640s, Korea had become vassal state to Qing dynasty in China • As result, Choson kings increasingly isolated Korea, except for trade with China • In West, Korea became known as “Hermit Kingdom” because of isolation Hermit Kingdom • During this period, Korea prospered • Produced many cultural achievements, including creation of Korean alphabet • Late 1500s, Japan invaded twice • Koreans held off Japanese using ironclad warships with cannons; also received help from Ming China Prosperity and War Japan and China as Foes
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  22. 22. Section 4New Asian Empire Analyze How did foreign influences both help and hurt Korea? Answer(s): helped—Korea's government was formed on Confucianism, which was a foreign influence; harmed—Chinese and Japanese invaded Korea
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  26. 26. Section 4New Asian Empire Video The Impact of the Samurai Tradition on Japan Today Click above to play the video.