World History Ch. 13 Section 3 Notes


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World History Ch. 13 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. The Early Middle Ages Section 3 The Feudal and Manorial Systems Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Feudal System • Quick Facts: Feudal Obligations • The Manorial System • Daily Life in the Middle Ages
  2. 2. The Early Middle Ages Section 3 The Feudal and Manorial Systems Main Idea 1. In Europe during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations. Reading Focus • What duties and obligations were central to the feudal system? • How did the manorial system govern the medieval economy? • What was daily life like for people on a manor?
  3. 3. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages The Feudal System Knights like William Marshal did not exist at the beginning of the Middle Ages but began to emerge as the period progressed. Origins of Feudalism Knights and Lords • Feudalism originated partly as result of Viking, Magyar, Muslim invasions • Kings unable to defend their lands, lands of their nobles • Nobles had to find way to defend own lands • Built castles, often on hills • Not elaborate structures; built of wood, used as place of shelter in case of attack • Nobles needed trained soldiers to defend castles • Knights most important, highly skilled soldiers • Mounted knights in heavy armor best defenders • Being a knight expensive; had to maintain weapons, armor, horses • Knights demanded payment for services
  4. 4. The Early Middle Ages Section 3 Fiefs and Vassals Knights were usually paid for their services with land • Land given to knight for service was called a fief – Anyone accepting fief was called a vassal – Person from whom he accepted fief was his lord • Historians call system of exchanging land for service the feudal system, or feudalism
  5. 5. The Early Middle Ages Section 3 Feudal Obligations Oath of Fealty • Lords, vassals in feudal system had duties to fulfill to one another • Knight’s chief duty as vassal to provide military service to his lord • Had to promise to remain loyal; promise called oath of fealty Financial Obligations • Knight had certain financial obligations to lord • Knight obligated to pay ransom for lord’s release if captured in battle • Gave money to lord on special occasions, such as knighting of son Lord’s Obligations • Lord had to treat knights fairly, not demanding too much time, money • Had to protect knight if attacked by enemies • Had to act as judge in disputes between knights
  6. 6. The Early Middle Ages Section 3
  7. 7. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages A Complicated System Lord and Vassal Fealty to King • Europe’s feudal system incredibly complex • Person could be both lord, vassal • Some knights with large fiefs gave small pieces of land to other knights, created many levels of obligations • One knight could serve many lords; no prohibition against knight accepting fiefs from more than one noble • Almost everyone in system served more than one lord • Theoretically, everyone supposed to be loyal to the king • In practice, not everyone loyal • Some powerful nobles as strong as kings they were supposed to serve, ignored duties as vassals • Feudal rules specific to time, place; could change over time; England’s rules not same as France’s rules
  8. 8. The Early Middle Ages Section 3 Summarize How did the feudal system work? Answer(s): lord gave land to knight in return for protection and loyalty
  9. 9. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages The Manorial System 2. The feudal system was a political and social system. A related system governed medieval economics. This system was called the manorial system because it was built around large estates called manors. Serfdom Free People Lords, Peasants, • Most peasants on • Manors had some and Serfs farm were serfs, tied free people who • Manors owned by wealthy lords, knights • Peasants farmed manor fields • Were given protection, plots of land to cultivate for selves to manor • Not slaves, could not be sold away from manor • But could not leave, marry without lord’s permission rented land from lord • Others included landowning peasants, skilled workers like blacksmiths, millers • Also had a priest for spiritual needs
  10. 10. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages A Typical Manor • Most of manor’s land occupied by fields for crops, pastures for animals • Middle Ages farmers learned that leaving field empty for year improved soil • In time, practice developed into three-field crop rotation system Rotation • One field planted in spring for fall harvest • Another field planted in winter for spring harvest • Third field remained unplanted for year Small Village • Each manor included fortified house for noble family, village for peasants, serfs • Goal to make manor self-sufficient • Typical manor also included church, mill, blacksmith
  11. 11. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages Analyze How did lords and peasants benefit from the manorial system? Answer(s): lords' farmlands were taken care of, produced food; peasants were provided protection from invaders
  12. 12. The Early Middle Ages Section 3 Daily Life in the Middle Ages 3. Life in a Castle • Life in Middle Ages not easy, did not have comforts we have today • Early castles built for defense not comfort • Few windows, stuffy in summer, cold in winter, dark always Space • Nobles had to share space with others, including soldiers, servants • Private rooms very rare • Main room the hall, large room for dining, entertaining Bedrooms • In early castles, noble family bedrooms separated from main area by sheets • Later castles had separate bedrooms; latrines near bedrooms • Wooden bathtub outside in warm weather, inside near fireplace in winter
  13. 13. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages Life in a Village Despite discomforts, life in a castle was preferable to life in a village. The typical village family lived in a small wooden one-room house. The roof was made of straw, the floor of dirt, and the furniture of rough wood. Open holes in the walls served as windows. Bedrooms Meals • Most families slept on beds of straw on floor • Peasant families cooked meals over open fire in middle of floor • All shared one room with each other, animals • Typical meal: brown bread, cheese, vegetables, occasionally meat • Most glad to have animals to provide extra heat in cold winters • No chimneys, house often full of smoke; fires common The family rose before dawn. Men went to work in the fields; women did chores. During harvest, the entire family worked in the field all day.
  14. 14. Section 3 The Early Middle Ages Contrast How was life in a castle different from life in a village? Answer(s): castle life more comfortable, people did not have to work in the fields; village life was very difficult, no comforts, whole family had to work continually